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Anti-Zionism is the opposition to Zionism, the movement that sought and ultimately succeeded in establishing a Jewish state in the region of Palestine. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, anti-Zionism evolved into opposition to the state and its policies.

Anti-Zionism spans a range of political, social, and religious views. Prior to World War II, anti-Zionism was widespread among Jews for varying reasons. Orthodox Jews opposed Zionism on religious grounds and more secular Jews felt uncomfortable with the idea that Jewish peoplehood was a national or ethnic identity. Following the war and widespread understanding of the scale of the Holocaust, Jewish support for Zionism grew, with Jewish anti-Zionist groups either disintegrating, or transforming into non or pro-Zionist organizations.

Non-Jewish anti-Zionism likewise spanned communal and religious groups, with the Arab population of Palestine largely opposed to what they considered the colonial dispossession of their homeland. Opposition to Zionism was, and continues to be, widespread in the Arab world, especially among Palestinians.

Anti-Zionist views are also expressed by some antisemites. The relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism is debated, with some academics and organizations that study antisemitism taking the view that anti-Zionism is inherently antisemitic or new antisemitism, while others reject any such linkage as unfounded and a method to stifle criticism of Israel and its policies, including in its occupation of the West Bank.

Anti-Zionism before 1948


Zionism was routinely condemned in Germany since 1870s as an element of the antisemitic canard of Jewish world domination.[1] Wilhelm Marr, for example, wrote that the First Zionist Congress in 1897 was "a foul Jewish swindle."[2] In 1930, Eugen Dühring argued that the threat posed by the world by a hypothetical Jewish state would necessitate "something like a second Roman clearing action ... where the matter would be brought to an end in an entirely different and far more comprehensive sense."[3] Pre-war Nazi ideology associated Zionism with other alleged vices of the Jews.[1]

Prior to the Second World War, many regarded Zionism as a fanciful and unrealistic movement.[4][1] Many liberals during the European Enlightenment had argued that Jews should enjoy full equality only because they pledge their singular loyalty to their nation-state and entirely assimilate to the local, national culture; they called for the "regeneration" of the Jewish people in exchange for rights. Those liberal Jews who accepted integration and assimilation principles saw Zionism as a threat to efforts to facilitate Jewish citizenship and equality within the European nation-state context.[5] Yevsektsiya, the Jewish section of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union, targeted the Zionist movement and managed to close down their offices and place Zionist literature under a ban. However, Soviet officials themselves often disapproved of their anti-Zionist zeal.[6][7]

In May 1942, before the full revelation of the Holocaust, the Biltmore Program proclaimed a fundamental departure from traditional Zionist policy of a "homeland"[8] with its demand "that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth". Opposition to official Zionism's firm, unequivocal stand caused some prominent Zionists to establish their own party, Ichud (Unification), which advocated an Arab – Jewish Federation in Palestine. Opposition to the Biltmore Program also led to the founding of the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism.[8]

The full knowledge of the Holocaust altered the views of many who critiqued Zionism before 1948, including the British journalist Isaac Deutscher, a socialist and lifelong atheist who nevertheless emphasized the importance of his Jewish heritage. Before World War II, Deutscher opposed Zionism as economically retrograde and harmful to the cause of international socialism, but in the aftermath of the Holocaust he regretted his pre-war views, arguing for Israel's establishment as a "historic necessity" to provide a refuge for the surviving Jews of Europe.

Government officials in charge of the administration of the British Mandate for Palestine were anti-Zionist.[9] The British press during the Mandate period followed suit. Editorials frequently decried the heavy burden it was to govern the land with competing national interests and claimed that Zionism's promise of a homeland for the Jewish people with civil rights for its Arab citizens was impossible to realize. Much of this sentiment was flavored with the anti-Bolshevism and antisemitism of the time.[10]

The British anti-Zionist[11] John Hope Simpson believed that the Arabs were "economically powerless against such a strong movement" and thus needed protection. Charles Anderson writes that Hope Simpson was also "wary of the gulf between Zionist rhetoric and practice, observing that 'The loftiest sentiments are ventilated in public meetings and Zionist propaganda' but that the Jewish National Fund and other organs of the movement did not uphold or embody a vision of cooperation or mutual benefit with the Arabs."[12]

The Palestinian Arab Christian-owned Falastin newspaper featuring a caricature on its 18 June 1936 edition showing Zionism as a crocodile under the protection of a British officer telling Palestinian Arabs: "don't be afraid!!! I will swallow you peacefully...".[13]

Palestinian Arabs began paying attention to the successes of Zionism in the early 20th century, such as the Balfour Declaration.[1] Anne de Jong asserts that direct resistance from inhabitants of historical Palestine "focused less on religious arguments and was instead centered on countering the experience of colonial dispossession and opposing the Zionist enforcement of ethnic division of the indigenous population."[14] Palestinian-Christian owned Falastin was founded in 1911 in the then Arab-majority city of Jaffa. The newspaper is often described as one of the most influential publications in historic Palestine, and probably the nation's fiercest and most consistent critic of the Zionist movement. It helped shape Palestinian identity and nationalism and was shut down several times by the Ottoman and British authorities, mostly due to Zionists' complaints.[15]


Orthodox Judaism, which grounds civic responsibilities and patriotic feelings in religion, was strongly opposed to Zionism because, though the two shared the same values, Zionism espoused nationalism in secular fashion, and used "Zion", "Jerusalem", "Land of Israel", "redemption" and "ingathering of exiles" as literal rather than sacred terms, endeavouring to achieve them in this world.[16] Some Orthodox Jews also opposed the creation of a Jewish state prior to the appearance of the messiah, as contradicting divine will.[17] Many Hasidic rabbis oppose the creation of a Jewish state. The leader of the Satmar Hasidic group, Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum's book, VaYoel Moshe, published in 1958, expounds one Orthodox position on Zionism, based on a literal form of midrash (biblical interpretation). Citing to Tractate Kesubos 111a[18] of the Talmud Teitelbaum states that God and the Jewish people exchanged three oaths at the time of the Jews' exile from ancient Israel, forbidding the Jewish people from massively immigrating to the Land of Israel, and from rebelling against the nations of the world.

By contrast, reform Jews rejected Judaism as a national or ethnic identity and renounced any messianic expectations of the advent of a Jewish state.[19] Reform Judaism dropped many traditional beliefs, including aliyah, the Hebrew word used to describe religious Jewish return to Israel, as incompatible with modern life within the Diaspora. Later, Zionism re-kindled the concept of aliyah in an ideological and political sense, parallel with traditional religious belief; it was used to increase the Jewish population in the Holy Land by immigration. Support for aliyah does not always equal immigration; however, most of the world's Jewish population resides within the Diaspora. Support for the modern Zionist movement is not universal, and, as a result, some religious Jews, as well as some secular Jews, do not support Zionism. Non-Zionist Jews are not necessarily anti-Zionists, although some are. Generally however, Zionism does have the support of the majority of the Jewish religious organizations, with support from segments of the Orthodox movement, and most of the Conservative, and more recently, the Reform movement.[20][21][22]

Anti-Zionism after World War II and the creation of Israel

Soviet Union

During the last years of Stalin's rule, official support for the creation of Israel in 1948 was replaced by strong anti-Zionism. According to Kennan Institute researcher Izabella Tabarovsky:

"[T]he Soviets ... [claimed] that their ideology was anti-Zionist, not anti-Semitic. ... Soviet ideologues relied for inspiration on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, on the ideas of classic religious antisemitism, and even Mein Kampf, but adopted them to the Marxist framework by substituting the idea of a global anti-Soviet Zionist conspiracy for a specifically Jewish one. Jewish power became Zionist power. The rich and conniving Jewish bankers controlling money, politicians, and the media became the rich and conniving Zionists. The Jew as the anti-Christ became the Jew as the anti-Soviet. Instead of the Jew as the devil, they presented the Zionist as a Nazi."[23]

Indeed, comparisons between Israel and Nazi Germany became a popular staple of anti-Zionist rhetoric due to the influence of Soviet propaganda in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[24]

As outlined in the third edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1969–1978), the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's position during the Cold War became: "the main posits of modern Zionism are militant chauvinism, racism, anti-Communism and anti-Sovietism, [...] overt and covert fight against freedom movements and the USSR."[25] A 1972 publication of the Soviet Information Office of Paris argued that Zionism's "racism" and "atrocities" are rooted in the Hebrew Bible.[26] In 1989, according to Julius, "Soviet anti-Zionism was credibly considered the greatest threat to Israel and Jews generally. ... This 'anti-Zionism' survived the collapse of the Soviet system."[27]

Palestinian nationalism

According to Anthony Julius, anti-Zionism, a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and Palestinian nationalism, are separate ideologies; one need not have an opinion on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to be an anti-Zionist.[28]

After Israel occupied Palestinian territory following the 1967 Six-Day War, some African-Americans supported the Palestinians and criticized Israel's actions, for example by publicly supporting Palestinian leader Yassir Arafat and calling for the destruction of the Jewish state.[29] Immediately after the war, the black power organization Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee published a newsletter criticizing Israel, and asserting that the war was an effort to regain Palestinian land and that during the 1948 war, "Zionists conquered the Arab homes and land through terror, force, and massacres."[30]

Allegations of racism

In January 2015, the Lausanne movement, published an article in its official journal made comparisons between Christian Zionism, the crusades and the Spanish Inquisition and described Zionism as "apartheid on steroids".[31][32][33] The Simon Wiesenthal Center described this last claim as "the big lie", and rebutted the "dismissal of the validity of Israel's right to exist as the Jewish State".[34]

Anti-Zionist sentiments were also manifested in organizations such as the Organization for African Unity and the Non-Aligned Movement, which passed resolutions condemning Zionism and equating it with racism and apartheid during the early 1970s. This culminated in the passing by the United Nations General Assembly of Resolution 3379 in November 1975, which declared "Zionism is a form of racism."[35]

The decision was revoked on 16 December 1991, when the General Assembly passed Resolution 4686, repealing resolution 3379, by a vote of 111 to 25, with 13 abstentions and 17 delegations absent. Thirteen out of the 19 Arab countries, including those engaged in negotiations with Israel, voted against the repeal, another six were absent. All of the ex-communist countries and most of the African countries who had supported Resolution 3379 voted to repeal it.[36]

In 1993, philosopher Cornel West wrote: "Jews will not comprehend what the symbolic predicament and literal plight of Palestinians in Israel means to blacks.... Blacks often perceive the Jewish defense of the state of Israel as a second instance of naked group interest, and, again, an abandonment of substantive moral deliberation."[37] African-American support of Palestinians is frequently due to the consideration of Palestinians as people of color – political scientist Andrew Hacker writes: "The presence of Israel in the Middle East is perceived as thwarting the rightful status of people of color. Some blacks view Israel as essentially a white and European power, supported from the outside, and occupying space that rightfully belongs to the original inhabitants of Palestine."[38]


Quds Day demonstration in Qom, Iran

Anti-Zionist Muslims consider the State of Israel as an intrusion into what many Muslims consider to be Dar al-Islam, a domain they believe to be rightfully, and permanently, ruled only by Muslims as it was historically conquered in the name of Islam.[39][40][41]

According to Anthony Julius, anti-Zionism in the Muslim world is often flavored with classically European antisemitic canards. His research indicates that Palestinian media frequently portrays Zionists as child-murderers, echoing the medieval blood libel. A 2003 Syrian-produced anti-Zionist television series, "Al-Shatat," depicts scenes of Jews baking matza with the blood of gentile children.[42]

Palestinian and other Muslim groups, as well as the government of Iran (since the 1979 Islamic Revolution), insist that the State of Israel is illegitimate and refuse to refer to it as "Israel", instead using the locution "the Zionist entity" (see Iran–Israel relations). In an interview with Time magazine in December 2006, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said "Everyone knows that the Zionist regime is a tool in the hands of the United States and British governments."[43]

Far-right politics

Anti-Zionism has a long history of being supported by various individuals and groups associated with Third Position, right-wing and fascist (or "neo-fascist") political views.[44][45][46][47] A number of militantly racist groups and their leaders are anti-Zionist, David Duke and the Ku Klux Klan for example,[48] and various other Aryan / White-supremacist groups.[49] In these instances, anti-Zionism is usually also deeply antisemitic, and often revolves around conspiracy theories discussed below.

Left-wing politics

Noam Chomsky has reported a change in the boundaries of what are considered Zionist and anti-Zionist views.[50] In 1947, in his youth, Chomsky's support for a socialist binational state, in conjunction with his opposition to any semblance of a theocratic system of governance in Israel, was at the time considered well within the mainstream of secular Zionism; by 1987, it lands him solidly in the anti-Zionist camp.[51]

Alvin H. Rosenfeld in his much discussed essay, Progressive Jewish Thought and the New Anti-Semitism,[52] wrote that a "number of Jews, through their speaking and writing, are feeding a rise in virulent antisemitism by questioning whether Israel should even exist".[53] Rosenfeld's general claims are:

  1. "At a time when the de-legitimization and, ultimately, the eradication of Israel is a goal being voiced with mounting fervor by the enemies of the Jewish state, it is more than disheartening to see Jews themselves adding to the vilification. That some do so in the name of Judaism itself makes the nature of their assault all the more grotesque."
  2. "They're helping to make [antisemitic] views about the Jewish state respectable – for example, that it's a Nazi-like state, comparable to South African apartheid; that it engages in ethnic cleansing and genocide. These charges are not true and can have the effect of delegitimizing Israel."

Some Jewish organizations oppose Zionism as an integral part of their anti-imperialism.[54][55][56][57] Today, some secular Jews, particularly socialists and Marxists, continue to oppose the State of Israel on anti-imperialist and human rights grounds. Many oppose it as a form of nationalism, which they argue to be a product of capitalist societies. One secular anti-Zionist group today is the International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, a socialist, anti-war, and anti-imperialist organization that calls for "the dismantling of Israeli apartheid return of Palestinian refugees, and the ending of the Israeli colonization of historic Palestine."[58]

An internal debate is occurring within the far left over how much cooperation with Islamism ought to be pursued. In the 2000s, leaders from the Respect Party and the Socialist Workers Party of the United Kingdom met with leaders of Hamas and Hezbollah at the Cairo Anti-war Conference.[59] The result of the 2003 conference was a call to oppose "normalization with the Zionist entity".[60]

Presbyterianism and Methodism

After publishing "Zionism unsettled", which it initially commended as "a valuable opportunity to explore the political ideology of Zionism",[61] the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) promptly withdrew the publication from sale on its website[62] following criticism that it was Anti-Zionist, one critic claimed it posits that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is fueled by a 'pathology inherent in Zionism.'[63] In February 2016, the General Assembly was lobbied by its Advisory Committee on Social Witness Policy (ACSWP) to lay aside a two state solution and support the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement.[64][65] Presbyterians for Middle East Peace described this proposal as a "one-sided, zero-sum solution".[66]

Despite its strong historic support for Restorationism, famously by Robert Murray M'Chyene and by both Horatius and Andrew Bonar, in April 2013 the Church of Scotland published "The Inheritance of Abraham: A Report on the Promised Land", which rejected the idea of a special right of Jewish people to the Holy Land through analysis of scripture and Jewish theological claims. The report further denied the "belief among some Jewish people that they have a right to the land of Israel as a compensation for the suffering of the Holocaust" and argued "it is a misuse of the Bible to use it as a topographic guide to settle contemporary conflicts over land." The report was criticised by Jewish leaders in Scotland as "biased, weak on sources, and contradictory."[67][68] Subsequently, the Church issued a statement saying that the Church had not changed its "long-held position of the rights of Israel to exist".[69] It also revised the report.[70]

Haredi Judaism

Neturei Karta call for dismantling of the state of Israel at AIPAC conference in Washington, DC, May 2005

Most Orthodox religious groups have accepted and actively support the State of Israel, even if they have not adopted the "Zionist" ideology. The World Agudath Israel party (founded in Poland) has, at times, participated in Israeli government coalitions. Most religious Zionists hold pro-Israel views from a right-wing viewpoint. The main exceptions are Hasidic groups such as Satmar Hasidim, which have about 100,000 adherents worldwide and numerous different, smaller Hasidic groups, unified in America in the Central Rabbinical Congress of the United States and Canada and Israel in the Edah HaChareidis.[71][72]

According to Jonathan Judaken, 'numerous Jewish traditions have insisted that preservation of what is most precious about Judaism and Jewishness "demands" a principled anti-Zionism or post-Zionism.' This tradition dwindled in the aftermath of the Holocaust, and the establishment of Israel but is still alive in religious groups such as Neturei Karta and among many intellectuals of Jewish background in Israel and the diaspora, such as George Steiner, Tony Judt and Baruch Kimmerling.[73]

Anti-Zionism and antisemitism

A sign held at a protest in Edinburgh, Scotland on January 10, 2009

In the early 21st century, it was also claimed that a "new antisemitism" had emerged that was rooted in anti-Zionism.[74][75][76][77] Advocates of this concept argue that much of what purports to be criticism of Israel and Zionism is demonization, and has led to an international resurgence of attacks on Jews and Jewish symbols and an increased acceptance of antisemitic beliefs in public discourse.[78] Critics of the concept have suggested that the characterization of anti-Zionism as antisemitic is inaccurate, sometimes obscures legitimate criticism of Israel's policies and actions and trivializes antisemitism.

View that the two are interlinked

Research by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) shows a positive correlation between respondents who agree with statements critical of Israel and those who agree with statements that are antisemitic.[79] Deborah E. Lipstadt has documented several cases of individuals who made remarks that were clearly against Jews, but when criticized, those individuals defended themselves by saying that they were against "Zionists."[80]

Professor Kenneth L. Marcus, former staff director at the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, identifies four main views on the relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism, at least in North America:[81](p. 845–846) Marcus also states:[82] "Unsurprisingly, recent research has shown a close correlation between anti-Israeli views and anti-Semitic views based on a survey of citizens in ten European countries."[83]

Robert S. Wistrich, head of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is the originator of Marcus's second view of anti-Zionism (that anti-Zionism and antisemitism merged post-1948) argues that much contemporary anti-Zionism, particularly forms that compare Zionism and Jews with Hitler and Nazi Germany, has become a form of antisemitism[84][unreliable source?]

Dina Porat (head of the Institute for Study of Antisemitism and Racism at Tel-Aviv University) contends that anti-Zionism is antisemitic because it is discriminatory: "... antisemitism is involved when the belief is articulated that of all the peoples on the globe (including the Palestinians), only the Jews should not have the right to self-determination in a land of their own. Or, to quote noted human rights lawyer David Matas: One form of antisemitism denies access of Jews to goods and services because they are Jewish. Another form of antisemitism denies the right of the Jewish people to exist as a people because they are Jewish. ... To the antizionist, the Jew can exist as an individual as long as Jews do not exist as a people."[85][86]

In 2010, Oxford University Press published Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England by Anthony Julius. In that book, Julius claims that "[a]nti-Semitism is implicated in contemporary anti-Zionism in much the same way as it was implicated in the anti-Bolshevism in the 1920s. It is as difficult for today's anti-Zionist to evade anti-Semitism as it was for the anti-Bolshevist of ninety years ago."[87] Julius's research indicates that Muslim anti-Zionism is plagued by a particularly violent form of antisemitic invective.[88]

ADL director Jonathan Greenblatt told Isaac Chotiner of The New Yorker, "[What] many in the anti-Zionist camp want for Palestinians or would want for other peoples, they would deny to Jewish people. Unless you don’t believe in nationalism as a concept and unless you support denying the legitimacy of any national project from France to Ukraine, if you hold the idea that Zionism is the only form of nationalism that’s wrong, that’s discriminating against Jewish people. That’s the anti-Semitism."[89] According to the ADL, "Anti-Zionism is a prejudice ... [that] may be motivated by or result in anti-Semitism, or it may create a climate in which anti-Semitism becomes more acceptable."[90] The American Jewish Committee expressed similar views: "The belief that the Jews, alone among the people of the world, do not have a right to self-determination — or that the Jewish people’s religious and historical connection to Israel is invalid—is inherently bigoted."[91]

View that the two are not interlinked

Political scientist Peter Beattie, in an analytical overview (2016) of the specialist literature which actually used polling data in several countries to test the purported link between criticism of Israel and anti-Semitism found no necessary empirical correlation, cautioning that assertions of such an innate connection were calumnious. He concludes, "Most of those critical of Israeli policies are not anti-Semites. Only a fraction of the US population harbours anti-Semitic views (Levitt 2013), and while logically this fraction would be overrepresented among critics of Israel, the present and prior research indicate that they comprise only a small part. Inaccurate charges of anti-Semitism are not merely calumny, but threaten to debase the term itself and weaken its connection to a very real, and very dangerous, form of prejudice."[92] The German sociologist Werner Bergmann’s analysis of empirical polling data for Germany concluded that whereas right-wing respondents critical of Israel tended to have views overlapping with classical antisemitism, left-wing interviewees’ criticisms of Israel did not transfer into criticism of Jews.[93]

Former director of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research Antony Lerman argues:

The anti-Zionism equals antisemitism argument drains the word antisemitism of any useful meaning. For it means that to count as an antisemite, it is sufficient to hold any view ranging from criticism of the policies of the current Israeli government to denial that Israel has the right to exist as a state, without having to subscribe to any of those things which historians have traditionally regarded as making up an antisemitic worldview: hatred of Jews per se, belief in a worldwide Jewish conspiracy, belief that Jews generated communism and control capitalism, belief that Jews are racially inferior and so on. Moreover, while theoretically allowing that criticism of Israeli governments is legitimate, in practice it virtually proscribes any such thing.[94]

Conspiracy theories

The antisemitic hoax The Protocols of the Elders of Zion came to be used among Arab anti-Zionists, although some have tried to discourage its usage.[95]: 186 [96]: 357  The Protocols itself makes no reference to Zionism, but after World War I, claims that the book is a record of the Zionist Congress became routine. The first Arabic translation of The Protocols was published in 1925, contemporaneous with a major wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine.[1] A similar conspiracy theory is belief in a powerful, well-financed "Zionist lobby" that clamps down on criticism of Israel and conceals its crimes.[97][98] Zionists are able to do this in the United Kingdom, according to Shelby Tucker and Tim Llewellyn, because they are in "control of our media"[99] and "suborned Britain's civil structures, including government, parliament, and the press."[100]

Anti-Zionism is a major component of Holocaust denial. One strain of Holocaust denial states that Zionists cooperated with the Nazis and charges Zionism with guilt for the crimes committed during the Holocaust.[101] Deniers see Israel as having somehow benefitting from what they refer to as "the big lie" that is the Holocaust.[102] Some Holocaust deniers claim that their ideology is motivated by concern for Palestinian rights.[103]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Penslar. "Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism: A Historical Approach." Penslar, et al, pp. 80-95.
  2. ^ Moshe Zimmermann, Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Antisemitism (New York: Oxford UP, 1986), 88. Qtd. in Penslar, p. 84
  3. ^ Eugen Düring, Die Judenfrage Al's Frage dee Racenschädlichkeit für Existenz. Qtd. In Penslar, 85
  4. ^ Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism, (Schocken Books, New York 1978, ISBN 0-8052-0523-3), pp385-6.
  5. ^ Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism, p. 399.
  6. ^ Colin Shindler, Israel and the European Left: Between Solidarity and Delegitimization, Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2011 ISBN 978-1-441-13852-1 pp.31-32,
  7. ^ Yitzhak Arad, The Holocaust in the Soviet Union, University of Nebraska Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-803-22270-0 p.19.
  8. ^ a b American Jewish Year Book Vol. 45 (1943–1944) "Pro-Palestine and Zionist Activities", pp. 206–214
  9. ^ Julius, p. 295
  10. ^ "Jews could not be trusted with power. The Zionists were all Bolsheviks, Bolshevik-sympathizers, or worse than Bolsheviks." Julius, p. 294
  11. ^ Naomi Wiener Cohen, The Americanization of Zionism, 1897-1948, UPNE, 2003 p.123.
  12. ^ Anderson, Charles (6 November 2017). "The British Mandate and the crisis of Palestinian landlessness, 1929–1936". Middle Eastern Studies. 54 (2): 171–215. doi:10.1080/00263206.2017.1372427.
  13. ^ "Anatomy of the 1936–39 Revolt: Images of the Body in Political Cartoons of Mandatory Palestine". 1 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  14. ^ Jong, Anne de (3 May 2017). "Zionist hegemony, the settler-colonial conquest of Palestine and the problem with conflict: a critical genealogy of the notion of binary conflict". Settler Colonial Studies. 8 (3): 364–383. doi:10.1080/2201473X.2017.1321171.
  15. ^ Rashid Khalidi (9 January 2006). The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807003152. Retrieved 25 January 2016. rashid Khalidi the iron cage.
  16. ^ S. Almog, Jehuda Reinharz, Anita Shapira (eds.), Zionism and Religion, UPNE, 1998 citing Isaac Breuer,Judenproblem, Halle 1918 p. 89
  17. ^ Shapira, Anita (2014). Israel a history. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 15. ISBN 9780297871583.
  18. ^ "Ketubot 111a". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  19. ^ Ross p. 6.
  20. ^ Rachael Gelfman, "Religious Zionists believe that the Jewish return to Israel hastens the Messiah" Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Ehud Bandel – President, the Masorti Movement, "Zionism" Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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  23. ^ Tabarovsky, Izabella. "How Soviet Propaganda ...." Tablet. 6 June 2019. 12 June 2019.
  24. ^ Julius, p. 507.
  25. ^ "Сионизм Zionism Anti-Zionism". Большая советская энциклопедия Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1969–1978) (3 ed.). Archived from the original on 2007.[permanent dead link](in Russian)
  26. ^ Julius, p. 520
  27. ^ Julius, p. 524
  28. ^ Julius, pp. 585-586.
  29. ^ Dollinger, Mark, "African American-Jewish Relations" in Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Vol 1, 2005. pp. 4–5
  30. ^ Carson, Clayborne, (1984) "Blacks and Jews in the Civil Rights Movement: the Case of SNCC", in Strangers & neighbors: relations between Blacks & Jews in the United States, (Adams, Maurianne, Ed.), 2000., p. 583
  31. ^ "'All of Me' – Engaging a world of poverty and injustice". January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  32. ^ "Leading Evangelism Movement Slams Christian Zionism". 26 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  33. ^ "When it comes to Israel, World Vision needs an eye exam". The Jerusalem Post. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  34. ^ "SWC Condemns World Vision Official for False and Damaging Remarks About Israel". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  35. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
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  37. ^ West, Cornel, Race Matters, 1993, pp. 73–74
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  40. ^ Merkley, Paul Charles (2001). Christian Attitudes Towards the State of Israel. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 0-7735-2188-7. p.122
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  42. ^ Julius, 97.
  43. ^ "People Who Mattered: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Time. 16 December 2006. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
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  45. ^ "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004, p. 272.
  46. ^ Bernardini, Gene (1977). The Origins and Development of Racial Anti-Semitism in Fascist Italy. The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 431-453
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  48. ^

    "Duke ... was quickly becoming a racist celebrity. He had become the self-styled grand wizard of not only the Ku Klux Klan, but of most racist-minded people. Through his personality he would elevate the discussion of racism and anti-Zionism from whispers in back rooms to the forefront of international news."

    Zatarain, Michael. "David Duke, Evolution of a Klansman." Google Books. p.219.
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  50. ^ Peck, James (ed.) (1987). Chomsky Reader. ISBN 0-394-75173-6. p. 7. "what was then called 'Zionist' ... are now called 'anti-Zionist' (concerns and views)".
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  85. ^ Dina Porat, Defining Anti-Semitism Archived 3 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 15 November 2008. See also Emanuele Ottolenghi
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  88. ^ Julius, p. 576
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  92. ^ Peter Beattie,'Anti-Semitism and opposition to Israeli government policies: the roles of prejudice and information,' Ethnic and Racial Studies November 2016 pp.1-19,16.
  93. ^ Werner Bergmann,’Is There a “New European Antisemitism?” Public Opinion and Comparative Empirical Research in Europe’, in Lars Rensmann, Julius H. Schoeps (eds.), Politics and Resentment: Antisemitism and Counter-Cosmopolitanism in the European Union, Brill, 2010 ISBN 978-9-004-19046-7 pp.83-115 p.110:'right-wing-oriented people are more likely to project a critical attitude towards Israel onto all Jews, and this view only reveals a significant correlation to classical anti-Semitic views here. It is interesting to note- unlike the sample as a whole and among right-wing respondents. that left-wing respondents do not show a significant correlation between criticism of Israel and the transfer of this critical view onto Jews in general, This suggests that such criticism, regardless of whether it is correct or not, is actually directed at the concrete policies of Israel and is not generalized or being used to coin form one’s own antisemitism.’
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  97. ^ New Statesman, 11 February 2002. Qtd. in Julius, p. 484
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  99. ^ Qtd. in Julius p. 490
  100. ^ Publish it Not: The Middle East cover up (Oxford, 2006), p. 75. Qtd. in Julius, p. 489.
  101. ^ Julius, p. 508.
  102. ^ See Richard Evans, Lying About Hitler (New York: 2001), p. 135. Qtd. in Julius, p. 65
  103. ^ "Some [Holocaust deniers] opportunistically propose that opposition to Zionism and a concern for Palestinian rights motivates their Holocaust denial." Julius, p. 65.


External links

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