Balham

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Balham
Balham tube 080120.jpg
Balham High Road
Balham is located in Greater London
Balham
Balham
Balham shown within Greater London
Population 14,751 (2011 Census.Ward)[1]
OS grid reference TQ285735
• Charing Cross 4.5 mi (7.2 km) NNE
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SW12
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°26′36″N 0°09′09″W / 51.4434°N 0.1525°W / 51.4434; -0.1525Coordinates: 51°26′36″N 0°09′09″W / 51.4434°N 0.1525°W / 51.4434; -0.1525

Balham /ˈbæləm/ is a neighbourhood of south London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth.

History[edit]

A map showing the Balham ward of Wandsworth Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.

The settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Belgeham. Bal refers to 'rounded enclosure' and ham to a homestead, village or river enclosure. It was held by Geoffrey Orlateile. Its Domesday Assets were: 1½ ploughs, 8 acres (32,000 m2) of meadow. It rendered (in total): £2.[2] The Balham area has been settled since Saxon times. Balham Hill and Balham High Road follow the line of the Roman road Stane Street to Chichester – (now the A24 road). Balham is recorded in several maps in the 1600s as Ballam or Balham Hill or Balham Manor. The village was within the parish of Streatham. Large country retreats for the affluent classes were built there in the 18th century; however, most development occurred after the opening of Balham railway station on the line to Crystal Palace in 1856.

Second World War air raid[edit]

Air raid damage in Balham

On 14 October 1940 Balham tube station was badly damaged by air raids on London during World War II. People took shelter in the tube station during the raids. A bomb fell in the High Road and through the roof of the Underground station below, bursting water and gas mains and killing around 64 people.[3] This particular incident was featured in Atonement, a 2001 novel by Ian McEwan.[4][5] An image of the aftermath is of the No. 88 bus which had fallen into the bomb crater.[6][7]

Post-war[edit]

On the morning of 17 July 1974 a bomb planted by the Provisional IRA exploded near government buildings in Balham, causing substantial damage to buildings.[8] Later that day the group detonated a fatal attack on the Tower of London.[9][10]

Geography[edit]

Balham is in Wandsworth and encompasses the A24 north of Tooting Bec and the roads radiating off it. The Balham SW12 postcode includes the southern part of Clapham Park otherwise known as Clapham South and the Hyde Farm area, both east of Cavendish Road and within Lambeth (historically Clapham, except for Weir Road) as well as a small detached part of Clapham south of Nightingale Lane, and part of Battersea (the roads north of Nightingale Lane). The southern part of Balham, towards Tooting Bec, near the 1930s block of Art Deco flats called Du Cane Court and the area to the south of Wandsworth Common, comes under the SW17 postcode. The Heaver Estate lies to the south of Balham in Tooting. The Estate mainly comprises substantial houses, was built in the grounds of the old Bedford Hill House and was the work of local Victorian builder, Alfred Heaver.

Balham is situated between four south London commons: Clapham Common to the north, Wandsworth Common to the west, Tooting Graveney Common to the south, and the adjoining Tooting Bec Common to the east – the latter two historically distinct areas are referred to by both Wandsworth Council and some local people as Tooting Common.

Other nearby areas include Tooting, Streatham, Brixton, Battersea, Wandsworth Common, Clapham South or the southern part of Clapham Park.

Economy[edit]

Balham's town centre has a variety of bars, restaurants and shops including major chains. There are also local services, including independent stores, coffee houses and brasseries.[11] There are two car parks serving the vicinity, one behind the Sainsbury's (181 spaces)[12] and one in front of Waitrose.

Demography[edit]

The Polish Roman Catholic Church of Christ the King

Balham is diverse both in terms of economic and cultural demographics with an increasingly professional middle class population.[13]

The Polish population in Balham has hugely increased since 2006, though Balham has been one of the centres of the community in London since World War II. The White Eagle Club is a thriving Polish community centre, and its traditional Saturday night dance draws people from across London. Opposite the White Eagle is The Polish Roman Catholic Church of Christ the King.

The Irish, Portuguese, Somali, Pakistani and Brazilian communities are also well represented.

Landmarks[edit]

Du Cane Court is a distinctive local landmark with its Art Deco design
In 1876, the pub building (then named the "Bedford Hotel") housed the coroners inquest into the notorious unsolved murder of Charles Bravo, a resident and lawyer who was poisoned, possibly by his wife.[18] The Priory, where the alleged murder took place, is also a landmark noted for the specific architectural style.[19]
  • The Bedford Hill area of Balham was associated with street prostitution throughout the 1970s and '80s. The problem has since been eradicated.[20]
  • Du Cane Court was the largest block of flats in Europe built for private occupation rather than as social housing at the time.[21] Its 676 flats range from studios up to 4-bedroom penthouses. The block has had a number of notable residents, including comedian Tommy Trinder and actress Dame Margaret Rutherford. Scenes from Agatha Christie's Poirot were filmed in the building.[22][23]
  • Oak Lodge School is a secondary school for deaf children (aged 11 to 19) located in the Balham area. It accepts pupils from all over London.
  • Balham has its own library and leisure centre.[24][25]
  • The UK's first pedestrian diagonal X-crossing was pioneered at the intersection with Balham High Road, Balham Station Road, and Chestnut Grove in 2005. This was later adopted at Oxford Circus in 2009 which was the second X-crossing in the UK.[26][27]
  • The world’s first "intelligent" pedestrian crossings have also been trialled at Balham station (including Tooting Bec).[28][29]


Transport[edit]

National Rail
London Underground

Balham has a railway/tube interchange station, Balham tube station and Balham railway station, in London fare zone 3. The stations connect Balham to both the City of London and the West End.

Clapham South tube station is also technically in Balham, lying exactly at the meeting point of Clapham, Battersea and Balham.

Current bus routes serving the area are the 155, 249, 255, 315, 355 and N155,[30]

Notable people born in Balham[edit]

Notable people who used to work, study or live in Balham[edit]

"Balham, Gateway to the South"[edit]

For many years Balham was held up to mockery because of the comedy sketch "Balham, Gateway to the South". Written by Frank Muir and Denis Norden, with Peter Sellers as the narrator, it satirised the travelogues of the day, with their faraway exotic locations, by highlighting the supposed tourist attractions of Balham in postwar austerity Britain. The title's origin most probably alludes to a Southern Railway poster "Gateway to the Continent" dating from 1928 by T D Kerr.[38] In 1979 Micky Dolenz of the Monkees directed a short film based on the sketch with Robbie Coltrane playing multiple roles. It was released for broadcast in 1981.[39][40] The mockery ceased as Balham house prices soared.


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wandsworth Ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 October 2016. 
  2. ^ Surrey Domesday Book
  3. ^ "14th October 1940: Disaster at Balham Tube station". ww2today.com. 
  4. ^ "Atonement by Ian McEwan". the Guardian. 
  5. ^ John Mullan. "Atonement: metanarrative". the Guardian. 
  6. ^ "London Blitz: Bomb Sight interactive map created". BBC News. 
  7. ^ Halley Docherty. "Second world war in Google Street View". the Guardian. 
  8. ^ http://alphahistory.com/northernireland/ira-mainland-campaign/
  9. ^ "1974: Bomb blast at the Tower of London". BBC On This Day. 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  10. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1974/07/18/archives/tower-of-london-bomb-killsl-hurts-41-tower-of-london-bomb-kills-1.html
  11. ^ "Listings - Balham.com". Balham.com. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Store Overview, Balham". Sainsbury's. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "Balham Demographics (Wandsworth, England)". qpzm.co.uk. 
  14. ^ "About". bananacabaret.co.uk. 
  15. ^ "About Us". thebedford.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. 
  16. ^ "And the winners are". MorningAdvertiser.co.uk. 
  17. ^ "Comedians, khachapuri and chippies: it's Balham's best bits". Time Out Blog. 
  18. ^ "The Bedford Public House, Balham". mysteriousbritain.co.uk. 
  19. ^ "London's Balham: from murder mystery to haven for high-flyers". Financial Times. 
  20. ^ "Prostitution clampdown hailed a success". Your Local Guardian. 
  21. ^ "Du Cane Court » Balham High Road » London » SW17". ducanecourt.com. 
  22. ^ "Du Cane Court » Balham High Road » London » SW17". ducanecourt.com. 
  23. ^ "On Location with Poirot - The Plymouth Express". tvlocations.net. 
  24. ^ "Balham Leisure Centre". placesforpeopleleisure.org. 
  25. ^ "Better -Balham Library - Wandsworth - Better Libraries". Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  26. ^ Wandsworth Borough Council "Regeneration and Transport Overview and Scrutiny Committee" Report 2002 Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Wandsworth Borough Council "Regeneration and Transport Overview and Scrutiny Committee" Report 2005 Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ "'Intelligent' pedestrian crossings trialled in London". BBC News. 
  29. ^ Transport for London. "TfL to launch world-leading trials of intelligent pedestrian technology to make crossing the road easier and safer". tfl.gov.uk. 
  30. ^ "http://www.tfl.gov.uk/cdn/static/cms/documents/bus-route-maps/balham-010214.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2016.  External link in |title= (help)
  31. ^ Larkin, Colin (27 May 2011). "The Encyclopedia of Popular Music". Omnibus Press. Retrieved 9 June 2016 – via Google Books. 
  32. ^ "Grammy Winner Adele inspires Chesnut Grove students". Local Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Booming Balham". 12 January 2004. 
  34. ^ Help! Sarah Beeny wants to dig a 'mega basement' near us[dead link]
  35. ^ "Jack on Jack: When Dee met Whitehall". The Evening Standard. 
  36. ^ "149 High Road, Balham". The Official Gracie Fields. 
  37. ^ "Westwood opposes plan to build flats on roof of her old home". The Evening Standard. 
  38. ^ "Gateway - Southern Posters". southernposters.co.uk. 
  39. ^ "Balham: Gateway to the South (1979)". BFI. 
  40. ^ "Balham - Gateway to the South". 6 May 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 

External links[edit]