Channel 4 programming

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Channel 4, in common with the other main British stations which were broadcast on analogue, airs a range of programming. It was established in 1982 with a specific intention of providing programming to groups of minority interests, not catered for by its competitors, which at the time were only the BBC and ITV.[1]

Channel 4 was one of the first "publisher-broadcaster" stations in the world. All of its programming is produced by other companies; it exists only to fund, broadcast and distribute its programmes – a stipulation which is included in its licence to broadcast.[2] It was also one of the first broadcasters to put its name on the introduction or end credits of programmes that it did not produce, a practice that is now widespread.


The channel has established a tradition of broadcasting the animated film of Briggs's picture book The Snowman, which in 1982 was the new channel's first major animated commission, every Christmas. The channel also commissioned early work by Nick Park and Aardman Animation. Other notable animations include:

And imported animations:


Channel 4's first dedicated breakfast show was The Channel Four Daily, launched in 1989. In September 1992 it was replaced with The Big Breakfast, then RI:SE in 2002. Since the end of RI:SE in 2003, Channel 4 has not had a dedicated programme, it currently broadcasts music video shows and repeats of sitcoms in the breakfast timeslot.


Children's programmes had been featured as part of the weekend segment Early Morning since Channel 4 began broadcasting at breakfast time in April 1989. A children's magazine-style series called Early Bird was launched,[when?] and broadcast on Saturday mornings. In September 1992, Early Bird was dropped to make way for a Saturday morning spin-off of The Big Breakfast.

Children's programming[edit]


Main article: T4 (Channel 4)

T4 is a separately identified strand carried on Channel 4 and E4 from 1998–2012. It consists of programming in the mornings seven days a week for an age range of around 16–25.

Some programmes include:


During the station's early days screenings of innovative short one-off comedy films produced by a rotating line-up of alternative comedians went under the title of The Comic Strip Presents. The Tube and Friday Night Live also launched the careers of a number of comedians and writers. Channel 4 broadcast a number of popular American imports including Roseanne, Friends, Sex and the City, South Park and Will & Grace. Other significant US acquisitions include The Simpsons, for which the station was reported to have paid £700,000 per episode for the terrestrial television rights.[citation needed]

In April 2010, Channel 4 became the first UK broadcaster to adapt the American comedy institution of roasting to British television, with A Comedy Roast.[3][4]

Other notable comedies include:

Comedy gala[edit]

In 2010, Channel 4 organised Channel 4's Comedy Gala, a comedy benefit show in aid of Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital. With over 25 comedians appearing, it billed it as "the biggest live stand up show in United Kingdom history". Filmed live on 30 March in front of 14,000 at The O2 Arena in London, it was broadcast on 5 April.[5] This has continued to 2012.

Factual and current affairs[edit]

Channel 4 has a strong reputation for history programmes and real-life documentaries. It has also courted controversy, for example by broadcasting live the first public autopsy in the UK for 170 years, carried out by Gunther von Hagens in 2002, or the 2003 one-off stunt Derren Brown Plays Russian Roulette Live.

Its critically acclaimed news service, Channel 4 News, is supplied by ITN whilst its long-standing investigative documentary, Dispatches, causes perennial media attention.

Other notable factual programmes include:


The Channel 4 News is supplied by ITN. (1982-present)


Channel 4 has broadcast a number of Jamie Oliver's documentaries, such as Jamie's Kitchen, Jamie's School Dinners and Jamie's Great Escape.

Other food related programmes include:


Observational and documentary programs carried by Channel 4 over the years include:


FourDocs is an online documentary site provided by Channel 4. It allows viewers to upload their own documentaries to the site for others to view. It focuses on documentaries of between 3 and 5 minutes. The website also includes an archive of classic documentaries, interviews with documentary filmmakers and short educational guides to documentary-making. It won a Peabody Award in 2006.[6] The site also includes a strand for documentaries of under 59 seconds, called 'Microdocs'.


Channel 4, pioneered the concept of 'after the pub' television[citation needed] with series such as Who Dares Wins, Friday Night Live and The Word broadcast in the 10–11pm slot. It is also noted for the screening of Big Brother.

Other reality-TV shows on Channel 4 include Three in a Bed / Four in a Bed, the bed and breakfast exchange show.

In October 2005, Channel 4 began broadcasting the UK version of the Deal or No Deal game show. Despite being broadcast at non-peak time slots, on some occasions this show has been the most-watched show on Channel 4.

Countdown was Channel 4's first broadcast programme.

Light entertainment[edit]


On 4 November 2003, Channel 4 screened its final episode of Brookside, a soap opera which had run for the 21 years since the channel started. Channel 4 currently runs a soap opera called Hollyoaks, which shares the same creator as Brookside, and aims at a younger audience. An imported French soap, Chateauvallon, was shown on the station for a time, dubbed into English.

American drama is a key part of Channel 4's broadcasting, initially with NYPD Blue and ER. These were followed by Without a Trace, The Sopranos, The West Wing and Six Feet Under.

Popular US teen series Dawson's Creek began airing on channel 4 in 1998, drawing large audiences to its prime time slot[citation needed] in the six years it was broadcast.

In August 2005, Channel 4 started showing the US TV show Lost after a lengthy advertising campaign that included a 60-second commercial which cost over £1 million, becoming the most expensive advertisement produced in the UK. the pilot episode was watched by over 6 million viewers, placing it second in the overall ratings for the channel for that year. However, BSkyB acquired the rights to the third and fourth seasons of Lost.

Also in 2008, after a lengthy bidding war with Channel 5, ITV2 and Living, Channel 4 acquired the rights to the updated version of 90210. In the same year, it started airing True Blood after its global success, having originally aired on FX in the United Kingdom.

In 2013, Channel 4 obtained the rights to screen The Returned, a French drama that was broadcast with English subtitling from 9 June 2013.[7] 9 June 2013, also saw Channel 4 broadcast the United Kingdom's first ever French language advertisements, which aired to celebrate the premiere of The Returned.[8] They also started to show Marvel's Agents of Shield (which moved to BBC Two from Christmas 2015), Masters of Sex, Homeland and Fargo.

Other notable dramas include:

Schools programming[edit]

Channel 4 is obliged to carry schools programming as part of its remit and licence.[2]

ITV Schools on Channel 4[edit]

Since 1957 ITV had produced schools programming, which became an obligation.[9] In 1987, five years after the station was launched, the IBA afforded ITV free carriage of these programmes during Channel 4's then-unused weekday morning hours. This arrangement allowed the ITV companies to fulfil their obligation to provide schools programming, whilst allowing ITV itself to broadcast regular programs complete with advertisements. During the times in which schools programmes were aired, Channel 4 was effectively operated by ITV, with Central Television providing most of the continuity, and play-out originating from Birmingham.[10]

Channel 4 Schools/4Learning[edit]

After the restructuring of the station in 1993, ITV's obligations to provide such programming on Channel 4's airtime passed to Channel 4 itself, and the new service became Channel 4 Schools, with the new corporation administering the service and commissioning its programmes, some still from ITV, others from independent producers.[11]

In 2000, the service was renamed 4Learning, and in April 2007, the commercial arm and rights exploitation of its programmes and support materials was sold to Espresso Education and the business renamed Channel 4 Learning. Today, the service has diversified into pre-school and adult programmes, with much of its content also available in text and video form via the Internet, or through DVD sales. Its programming runs to around 400 hours per annum. One of its well known programmes is The Hoobs.[citation needed]

In March 2008, the 4Leaning interactive new media commission was launched. The Slabplayer online media player showing TV shows for teenagers was launched on 26 May 2008.

See also: Channel 4 Learning site.

The schools programming has always had elements different to its normal presentational package. In 1993, the Channel 4 Schools idents featured famous people in one category, with light shining on them in from of an industrial looking setting supplemented by instrumental calming music. This changed in 1996 with the circles look to numerous children touching the screen, forming circles of information then picked up by other children. The last child would produce the channel 4 logo in the form of three vertical circles, with another in the middle and to the left containing the Channel 4 logo.

A present feature of presentation was a countdown sequence featuring, in 1993 a slide with the programme name, and afterwards an extended sequence matching the channel branding. In 1996, this was an extended ident with timer in top left corner, and in 1999 following the adoption of the squares look, featured a square with timer slowly make its way across the right of the screen with people learning and having fun while doing so passing across the screen. It finished with the Channel 4 logo box on the right of the screen and the name 'Channel 4 Schools' being shown. This was adapted in 2000 when the services name was changed to '4Learning'. In 2001, this was altered to various scenes from classrooms around the world and different parts of school life. The countdown now flips over from the top, right, bottom and left with each second, and ends with four coloured squares, three of which are aligned vertically to the left of the Channel 4 logo, with is contained inside the fourth box. The tag 'Learning' is located directly beneath the logo. The final countdown sequence lasted between 2004 and 2005 and featured a background video of current controversial issues, overlaid with upcoming programming information. the video features people in the style of graffiti enacting the overuse of CCTV cameras, fox hunting, computer viruses and pirate videos, relationships, pollution of the seas and violent lifestyles. Following 2005, no branded section has been used for school programmes.


Numerous genres of film-making – such as drama, comedy, documentary, adventure/action, romance and horror/thriller – are represented in the channel's schedule. From the launch of Channel 4 until 1998, film presentations on C4 would often be broadcast under the "Film on Four" banner.

[citation needed] In March 2005, Channel 4 screened the uncut Lars von Trier film The Idiots, which includes unsimulated sexual intercourse, making it the first UK terrestrial channel to do so. The channel had previously screened other films with similar material but censored and with warnings. The broadcast after midnight only raised one complaint and has been taken as an indication of how far audience values have changed since the channel began.

Since 1 November 1998, Channel 4 has had a digital subsidiary channel dedicated to the screening of films. This channel launched as a paid subscription channel under the name "FilmFour", and was relaunched in July 2006 as a free-to-air channel under the current name of "Film4". The Film4 channel carries a wide range of film productions, including acquired and Film4-produced projects. Channel 4's general entertainment channels E4 and More4 also screen feature films at certain points in the schedule as part of their content mix.


Some music programmes and strands include:

Channel 4 also operates a music and entertainment digital channel, 4Music, as part of its Box Television subsidiary.


Current sporting events on Channel 4 (most shown overnight and in early morning; only horse racing, London NFL Games and Paralympics shown in peak time):

  • That Paralympic Show – Saturday afternoon magazine show about Paralympic sports with Rick Edwards and Ade Adepitan
  • 2012 Summer Paralympics – Channel 4 took over from the BBC as broadcaster of the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, with 150 hours of television coverage.
  • Presenters: Jon Snow, Kelly Cates, Rick Edwards, Arthur Williams, Georgie Bingham, Jonathan Edwards, Darine Mulvihill, Clare Balding and Ade Adepitan
  • Reporters – Iwan Thomas, Rachel Latham, Ned Boulting, Sonja McLaughlan, Jordan Jarret-Brown, Alex Brooker, Liam Holt, Diana Man, Adam Darke, Lisa O'Sullivan and Martin Dougan
  • The Last Leg – Adam Hills, Josh Widdicombe and Alex Brooker


  • Athletics – Rob Walker, John Rawling, Katherine Merry, Danny Crates and Jeff Adams
  • Cycling – Phil Liggitt, Joanna Rowsall and Jon Norfolk
  • Football – Tony Jones
  • Judo – Neil Adams and Simon Jackson
  • Powerlifting – Simon Golding
  • Swimming – Bob Ballard, Paul Noble, Giles Long and Karen Pickering
  • Table tennis – Don Parker
  • Wheelchair basketball – Ron McIntosh and Dan Johnson
  • Wheelchair rugby – Andrew Cotter and Justin Freiburg
  • Wheelchair tennis – Chris Dennis
  • wheelchair fencing – Simon Golding
  • 2014 Winter Paralympics
  • Presenters: Jon Snow, Kelly Cates, Arthur Williams, Jonathan Edwards and Ade Adepitan
  • With: Michael McCreadie, David Murdoch, Frank Gardner, Richard Whitehead, Tim Farr, Giles Long and Nathan Stephens
  • Reporters: Keme Nzerem, Daraine Mulvihill, Rachael Latham and Iwan Thomas
  • Commentators:
  • Opening Ceremony – Krisnan Guru-Murthy and Sean Rose
  • Alpine Skiing – Nick Fellows, John Clarke and Sean Rose
  • Biathlon/Cross Country – Rob Walker and Mike Dixon
  • Ice Sledge Hockey – John Rawling and Ian Warner
  • Wheelchair Curling – Bob Kelly and Lauren Grey
  • The Last Leg – Adam Hills, Josh Widdicombe and Alex Brooker
  • 2016 Summer Paralympics – Channel 4 will cover the 2016 Rio Paralympics
  • Channel 4 Racing – (live on Saturday Afternoons and big meetings during the week) 1984–present, Grand National, Royal Ascot and The Derby from 2013
  • Presenters: Clare Balding, Nick Luck and Rishi Persad
  • With: Jim McGrath, Graham Cunningham and Mick Fitzgerald
  • Commentators: Simon Holt and Richard Hoiles
  • Reporters: Alistair Down, Emma Spencer, Alice Plunkett, Tanya Stevenson and Rishi Persad

Former members of the C4 team include John McCririck, Derek Thompson, John Francome, Mike Cattermole and Brough Scott.

  • IPC World Championships – from 2013
  • Freesports on 4 (extreme sports magazine show) on weekend mornings
  • KOTV Boxing Weekly – shown through the night; a boxing magazine show
  • Beach Volleyball
  • GT on 4
  • World Cup Skiing
  • World Cup Snowboard
  • World Superbike Highlights
  • Transworld Sport began on Channel 4 from its inception in 1987 and ran until 2009, when Sky Sports took over the four-year contract. On 21 December 2013, the programme announced a new series for Saturday mornings to begin on Channel 4 in January 2014. Series 14 began on 11 January at 7 o'clock.

Former sporting events on Channel 4

  • Football Italia with James Richardson 1992–2002. Coverage consisted of a weekly game shown live on Sunday afternoons and a Saturday morning highlights and magazine show. (Moved to Bravo & Eurosport from 2002–2007, Channel 5 from 2007–2008 and now on BT Sport)
  • Live Home Test match Cricket and Highlights of Home One-Day Internationals plus semi-finals and Final of C&G Trophy, Twenty20 Cricket (Finals Day & International Highlights) 1999–2005 (now on Sky Sports with highlights on Channel 5)
  • The Cricket Roadshow / Cricket Show 1999–2005

Channel 4 Cricket Team

  • Presenter: Mark Nicholas (1999-2005)
  • Commentators: Richie Benaud (1999-2005), Simon Hughes (1999-2005), Mark Nicholas (1999-2005), Dermot Reeve (1999-2004), Ian Smith (1999-2004), Michael Slater (2001-2005), Ian Bishop (2000-2004), Michael Atherton (2002-2005), Geoffrey Boycott (2003-2005) and Tony Greig (2005)
  • Reporters: Sybil Ruscoe (1999-2002), Adam Darke (1999-2005), Gabriel Clarke (2004-2005), Clare Connor (2003-2005), Anita Rani (2005)
  • American Football – the channel covered both the NFL from 1982 until 1998, and the World League of American Football in its inaugural 1991 season. Hosts included The Vicious Boys, former NFL player Mick Luckhurst and Gary Imlach. Channel 4 is widely considered to have pioneered the sport to the wider UK public. Channel 4 regained coverage of the NFL showing Sunday Night Football from 2010–2015 after it was dropped by Five. NFL on Channel 4 was hosted by Vernon Kay, Danny Kelly, Gary Imlagh, Danny Kelly, Nat Coombs and analysed by Mike Carlson.
  • NFL International Series Games from Wembley – with Colin Murray, Nat Coombs, Mike Carlson and Vernon Kay (2013-2015)
  • Super Bowl – with Colin Murray, Nat Coombs, Mike Carlson and Vernon Kay (1982–1998 & 2014–2015)
  • The American Football Show (2013–present) – with Vernon Kay (2013-2015)
  • American Football Hard Knocks (2013-2015)
  • Red Bull Air Race 2005–2006 (moved to Channel 5 in 2007) 2008–2009 (moved to ITV4 in 2010 but series now cancelled)
  • French Football (moved to Channel 5 and now on BT Sport)
  • Major League Baseball
  • UK Indoor Athletics (now on BBC Sport)
  • FT on 4
  • Channel 4 Tennis – 1990 & 2007
  • Sumo Wrestling – 1990, 2005
  • Tour de France – until 2001, now on ITV4[12][13]
  • World Wrestling Entertainment Heat (import) – 2000–2001 (Moved to Sky Sports but now finished)
  • World Athletics Championships – 1983 and 1987 (in conjunction with ITV Sport) and 2011 (Live coverage and Highlights). Channel 4 had planned to show the 2013 event but later sold the rights to BBC Sport
  • IAAF Indoor Athletics Championships – 2012
  • Olympic Games – 1988 (in conjunction with ITV, Channel 4 showed the overnight and morning coverage with ITV broadcasting coverage during the day)
  • *UK Athletics major events – 1997 and 1998. During the 1980s and early 1990s Channel 4 shared UK and European meetings coverage with ITV, showing the second hour (9pm to 10pm) of evening meetings – ITV had shown the first hour.
  • World Indoor Athletics – 2012
  • UK Trials – 2011–2012

Other programmes[edit]

Some programmes not mentioned above include:

Channel 4 Presents... 3-D Week[edit]

From 16 November 2009 for one week only, the channel shows programmes such as:

The glasses are classic amber/blue colour and featured a chequered theme. They were available at Sainsburys in the UK. Channel 4 also asked for viewers to create a film and then use software to make it 3D; they would then be shown online. However, the massive demand for 3D specs was not met, and Channel 4 received a number of complaints that viewers could not enjoy 3D quality as the colours were amber/blue unlike the red/blue glasses received in DVD releases of 3D movies.


Red triangle[edit]

Wank Week[edit]

Main article: Wank Week

A season of television programmes about masturbation, called Wank Week, was to be broadcast in the United Kingdom by Channel 4 in March 2007. The first show was about a Masturbate-a-thon, a public mass masturbation event, organised to raise money for the sexual health charity Marie Stopes International. Another film would have focused on compulsive male masturbators and a third was to feature the sex educator Dr Betty Dodson.

The series came under public attack from senior television figures, and was pulled amid claims of declining editorial standards and controversy over the channel's public service broadcasting credentials.[16] However, the films it was meant to showcase may yet be broadcast by the channel at a later date.

Global warming[edit]

On 8 March 2007 Channel 4 screened the highly controversial documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle. The programme states that global warming is "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times".[citation needed] The programme's accuracy has been disputed on multiple points and several commentators have criticised it for being one-sided, noting that the mainstream position on global warming is supported by the scientific academies of the major industrialised nations[17] There were 246 complaints to Ofcom as of 25 April 2007,[18] including the complaints that the programme falsified data.[19] The programme has been criticised by scientists and scientific organisations and various scientists which participated in the documentary claimed their views had been distorted.

Against Nature: An earlier controversial Channel 4 programme made by Martin Durkin which was also critical of the environmental movement and was charged by the Independent Television Commission of the UK for misrepresenting and distorting the views of interviewees by selective editing.

The Greenhouse Conspiracy: An earlier Channel 4 documentary broadcast on 12 August 1990, as part of the Equinox series, in which similar claims were made. Three of the people interviewed (Lindzen, Michaels and Spencer) were also interviewed in The Great Global Warming Swindle.

Ahmadinejad's Christmas speech[edit]

In the Christmas address of 2008, a Channel 4 tradition since 1993, Mr Ahmadinejad made a thinly veiled attack on the United States by claiming that Christ would have been against "bullying, ill-tempered and expansionist powers".

A spokeswoman for the FCO said: “President Ahmadinejad has, during his time in office, made a series of appalling anti-Semitic statements. The British media are rightly free to make their own editorial choices, but this invitation will cause offence and bemusement not just at home but among friendly countries abroad.”[20]

Crazy about One Direction[edit]

On 15 August 2013, Channel 4 aired a 45-minute documentary on One Direction and their fans dubbed as "Directioners".[21] Following the airing, fans from all over the world, tweeted in rage against the documentary arguing that this was not them.[22][23]

Notable failures[edit]

Channel 4 has for a long time struggled in the breakfast slot. In 1989 the Channel launched a breakfast television slot produced by Mentorn Films, called The Channel Four Daily. In 1992 this was replaced by The Big Breakfast, which briefly outrated the ITV breakfast broadcast, GMTV, after the closure of TV-am. The Big Breakfast was axed in March 2002. It was replaced by RI:SE, which rated poorly. With the demise of RI:SE, Channel 4 withdrew from original programming in the breakfast TV slot. Now T4 runs the early morning slots on weekdays showing repeats of popular shows such as Friends, Everybody Loves Raymond and Just Shoot Me. (This was temporarily interrupted in early 2006 with the show Morning Glory, designed to keep the audience following the early morning transmission of Big Brother's Little Breakfast).


4Talent is an editorial branch of Channel 4's commissioning wing, which co-ordinates Channel 4's various talent development schemes for film, television, radio, new media and other platforms and provides a showcasing platform for new talent.

There are bases in London, Birmingham, Glasgow and Belfast, serving editorial hubs known respectively as 4Talent National, 4Talent Central England, 4Talent Scotland and 4Talent Northern Ireland. These four sites include features, profiles and interviews in text, audio and video formats, divided into five zones: TV, Film, Radio, New Media and Extras, which covers other arts such as theatre, music and design. 4Talent also collates networking, showcasing and professional development opportunities, and runs workshops, masterclasses, seminars and showcasing events across the UK.

4Talent has an active presence on social networking site Facebook.

See also 4Talent.

4Talent Magazine[edit]

4Talent magazine is the creative industries magazine from 4Talent, which launched in 2005 (originally titled TEN4 magazine) under the editorship of Dan Jones. 4Talent Magazine is currently edited by Nick Carson. Other staff include deputy editor Catherine Bray and production editor Helen Byrne. The magazine covers rising and established figures of interest in the creative industries, a remit including film, radio, TV, comedy, music, new media and design.

Subjects are usually UK-based, with contributing editors based in Northern Ireland, Scotland, London and Birmingham, but the publication has been known to source international content from Australia, America, continental Europe and the Middle East. The magazine is frequently organised around a theme for the issue, for instance giving half of November 2007's pages over to profiling winners of the annual 4Talent Awards.

An unusual feature of the magazine's credits is the equal prominence given to the names of writers, photographers, designers and illustrators, contradicting standard industry practice of more prominent writer bylines. It is also recognisable for its 'wraparound' covers, which use the front and back as a continuous canvas – often produced by guest artists.

Although 4Talent Magazine is technically a newsstand title, a significant proportion of its readers are subscribers. It started life as a quarterly 100-page title, but has since doubled in size and is now published bi-annually.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Russ J Graham (11 September 2005). "Yes it's no". seefour by Electromusications from Transdiffusion. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  2. ^ a b "Channel 4 Broadcasting Licence" (PDF). Ofcom. 4 October 2006. pp. Appendix 2, part 10 (Page 13). 
  3. ^ Armstrong, Stephen (5 April 2010). "Channel 4 launches comedy roast shows". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  4. ^ "A Comedy Roast – Series & Episodes". Channel 4. n.d. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  5. ^ "Comedy Royalty unite for Channel 4's Comedy Gala". Channel 4. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  6. ^ 66th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2007.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ " – ITV for SCHOOLS & COLLEGES – HISTORY". Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008. 
  10. ^ History of ITV Schools on Channel 4. Retrieved at the Internet Archive on 16 February 2008
  11. ^ " – CHANNEL 4 SCHOOLS: 1993–1997 HISTORY". Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2008. 
  12. ^ Jessica Hodgson (30 July 2001). "ITV pays £5m for Tour de France". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ " Channel 4 postpones 'wank week' programming | Media | MediaGuardian". 
  17. ^ Houghton, John. "The Great Global Warming Swindle". The John Ray Initiative. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  18. ^ Adam, David (25 April 2007). "'Move to block emissions 'swindle' DVD". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 25 April 2007. 
  19. ^ Connor, Steve (8 May 2007). "C4 accused of falsifying data in documentary on climate change – Independent Online Edition > Media". The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 May 2007. 
  20. ^ Thomas, Liz. "Outrage as Channel 4 lets Iranian ruler give 'offensive' alternative Christmas message". Daily Mail Online (London). 
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^

External links[edit]