Gallo-Italic languages

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Gallo-Italic
Gallo-Italian
Geographic
distribution
Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Monaco, France
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
Glottologgall1279
Gallo-Italic languages.svg
Geographic distribution of Gallo-Italic varieties.

The Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy. They are Piedmontese, Lombard, Emilian, Ligurian, and Romagnol.[3] Although most publications define Venetian as part of the Italo-Dalmatian branch, both Ethnologue and Glottolog group it into the Gallo-Italic languages.[4][5]

These languages are spoken also in the depertement of Alpes-Maritimes in France, Ticino and southern Grisons in Switzerland and the microstates of Monaco and San Marino. They are still spoken to some extent by the Italian diaspora in countries with Italian immigrant communities.

Having a Celtic substratum and a Germanic, mostly Lombardic, superstrate, Gallo-Italian descends from the Latin spoken in northern part of Italia (former Cisalpine Gaul), the group had for part of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages close linguistic link with Gaul and Reatia, west and north to the Alps. From the late Middle Ages, the group adopted various characteristics of the Italo-Dalmatian languages of the south.

As a result, the Gallo-Italic languages have characteristics both of the Gallo-Romance languages to the west and northwest (including French, Arpitan, Catalan and Occitan) and the Italo-Dalmatian languages to the north-east, central and south Italy (Venetian, Dalmatian, Tuscan, Central Italian, Neapolitan, Sicilian). For this there is some debate over the proper grouping of the Gallo-Italic languages. They are sometimes grouped with Gallo-Romance,[6][7][8][9] but other linguists group them in Italo-Dalmatian.[10][11][12][13][14]

Most Gallo-Italic languages have to varying degrees given way in everyday use to regional varieties of Standard Italian.[citation needed] The vast majority of current speakers are diglossic with Italian.

Among the regional Italian languages, they are the most endangered, since in the main cities of their area (Milan, Turin, Genoa, Bologna) they are mainly used by the elderly.

History[edit]

Geographical distribution[edit]

Within this sub-family, the language with the largest geographic spread is Lombard, spoken in the Italian region of Lombardy, in eastern Piedmont and western Trentino. Outside Italy it is widespread in Switzerland in the canton of Ticino, and some southern valleys of the canton of the Grisons.

The Emilian language is spoken in the historical-cultural region of Emilia, which forms part of Emilia-Romagna, but also in many areas of the bordering regions, including southern Lombardy, south-eastern Piedmont, around the town of Tortona, Massa and Carrara in Tuscany and Polesine in Veneto, near the Po delta.

Romagnol is spoken not only in the Romagna region, that is the second part of Emilia-Romagna, but also in the northern part of the administrative region of Marche, in central Italy.

Piedmontese refers to the languages spoken in the region of Piedmont and the north west corner of Liguria. Historically, the Piedmontese-speaking area is the plain at the foot of the Western Alps, and ends at the entrance to the valleys where Occitan and Arpitan are spoken. In recent centuries, the language has also spread into these valleys, where it is also more widely spoken than these two languages, thus the borders of Piedmontese have reached the western alps watershed that is the border with France.

The speaking area of Ligurian or Genoese resamble the territory of the Republic of Genoa, that comprised much of nowadays Liguria, and some mountain areas of bordering regions near the ligurian border, the upper valley of Roya river near Nice, in Carloforte and Calasetta in the south Sardinia, and Bonifacio in Corsica.

Isolated varieties in Sicily and in Basilicata[edit]

Varieties of Gallo-Italic languages are also found in Sicily, corresponding with the central-eastern parts of the island that received large numbers of immigrants from Northern Italy, called Lombards, during the decades following the Norman conquest of Sicily (around 1080 to 1120). Given the time that has lapsed and the influence from the Sicilian language itself, these dialects are best generically described as Gallo-Italic. The major centres where these dialects can still be heard today include Piazza Armerina, Aidone, Sperlinga, San Fratello, Nicosia, and Novara di Sicilia. Northern Italian dialects did not survive in some towns in the province of Catania that developed large Lombard communities during this period, namely Randazzo, Paternò and Bronte. However, the Northern Italian influence in the local varieties of Sicilian are marked. In the case of San Fratello, some linguists have suggested that the dialect present today has Provençal as its basis, having been a fort manned by Provençal mercenaries in the early decades of the Norman conquest (bearing in mind that it took the Normans 30 years to conquer the whole of the island).

Other dialects, attested from 13th and 14th century, are also found in Basilicata, more precisely in the province of Potenza (Tito, Picerno, Pignola and Vaglio Basilicata), Trecchina, Rivello, Nemoli and San Costantino.[15]

General classification[edit]

Phonology[edit]

The Gallo-Italic languages differ somewhat in their phonology from one language to another, but the following are the most important characteristics, as contrasted with Italian:[17]

Vowels[edit]

  • Most Gallo-Italic languages have lost all unstressed final vowels except /a/, e.g. Lombard òm "man", füm "smoke", nef "snow", fil "wire", röda "wheel" (Italian uomo, fumo, neve, filo, ruota). They remain, however, in Ligurian, with passage of -o to -u, except after n; e.g. ramu, rami, lüme, lümi "branch, branches, light, lights" (Italian ramo, rami, lume, lumi), but can, chen /kaŋ, keŋ/ "dog, dogs" (Italian cane, cani).
  • u /u/ tends to evolve as ü /y/, as in French and Occitan, as in Lombard füm (Italian fumo "smoke") and Ligurian lüme, Piedmont lüm (Italian lume "light"). In some parts, e.g. southern Piedmont, this has further developed into /i/, e.g. fis (Italian fuso), lim (Italian lume "light"). In some mountainous parts of Piedmont, however (e.g. Biellese, Ossolano), this development was blocked before final /a/, leading to masculine crü (Italian crudo "raw") but feminine cru(v)a (Italian cruda).
  • Metaphony is very common, affecting original open stressed è /ɛ/ and ò /ɔ/ when followed by /i/ or sometimes /o/ (operating before final vowels were dropped). This leads at first to diphthongs ie and uo, but in many dialects these progress further, typically to monophthongs i and ö /ø/. Unlike standard Italian diphthongization, this typically operates both in open and closed syllables, hence in Lombardy (where typically /i/ but not /o/ triggers metaphony) quest (Italian questo "this") vs. quist (Italian questi "these").
  • Stressed closed é /e/ and sometimes ó /o/, when occurring in an open syllable (followed by at most one consonant) often diphthongized to /ei/ and /ou/, as in Old French; e.g. Piedmont beive (Italian bere < *bévere "to drink"), teila (Italian tela "cloth"), meis (Italian mese "month"). In some dialects, /ei/ developed further into either /ɛ/ or /i/, e.g. tèla /tɛla/ < *teila (Italian tela "cloth"), sira (Italian sera "evening"), mis (Italian mese "month").
  • Stressed /a/ in an open syllable often fronts to ä /æ/ or è /ɛ/.

Consonants[edit]

  • Lenition affects single consonants between vowels. /d/ and /ɡ/ drop; /b/ becomes /v/ or drops; /t/ and /k/ become /d/ and /ɡ/, or drop; /p/ becomes /b/, /v/, or drops. /s/ between vowels voices to /z/. /l/ between vowels sometimes becomes /r/, and this /r/ sometimes drops. Double consonants are reduced to single consonants, but not otherwise lenited. /n/ becomes velarized to /ŋ/. These changes occur before a final vowel drops. After loss of final vowels, however, further changes sometimes affect the newly final consonants, with voiced obstruents often becoming voiceless, and final /ŋ/ sometimes dropping. Liguria, especially in former times, showed particularly severe lenition, with total loss of intervocalic /t/, /d/, /ɡ/, /b/, /v/, /l/, /r/ (probably also /p/, but not /k/) in Old Genoese, hence müa (Latin matura "early"), a éia e âe? (Italian aveva le ali? "did it have wings?"; modern a l'aveiva e ae? with restoration of various consonants due to Italian influence). In Liguria and often elsewhere, collapse of adjacent vowels due to loss of an intervocalic consonant produced new long vowels, notated with a circumflex.
  • /k/ and /ɡ/ preceding /i/, /e/ or /ɛ/ often assibilitated historically to /s/ and /z/, respectively. This typically does not occur in Lombardy, however, and parts of Liguria have intermediate /ts/ and /dz/, while Piemontese varieties typically have differential developments, with /k/ assibilating (sent /sɛŋt/ '100'), but /ɡ/ retaining palatalization (gent /dʒɛŋt/ 'people').
  • Latin /kl/ palatalized to /tʃ/ (Piemontese ciav, Romagnol ceva 'key'); similarly /ɡj/ from Latin /ɡl/ develops as /dʒ/. In Liguria, /pj/ and /bj/ from Latin /pl/ and /bl/ are affected in the same way, e.g. Ligurian cian (Italian piano "soft") and giancu (Italian bianco "white").
  • Latin /kt/ develops into /jt/, /tʃ/ or /t/, varying by locale (contrast Italian /tt/).

Lexical comparision[edit]

Numbers Lombard Istrian Emilian Piedmontese Venetian Ligurian
1 vyŋ / vœna uŋ / una oŋ / ona yna uŋ / una yŋ / yna
2 dy dui du / dʌu dʊi/dʊe due / dɔ dui / due
3 tre tri tri / trai trei / tre tri / trɛ trei / trɛ
4 kwatr kwatro kwatr kwatr kwatro kwatro
5 siŋk siŋkwe θeŋk siŋk siŋkwe siŋkwe
6 sez seje sis sez sie sei
7 sɛt siete sɛt sɛt sɛte sɛte
8 vɔt wɔto ɔt øt ɔto øtu
9 nœf nuve nov nøw nove nøve
10 dez ʒize diz dez dieze deʒe

Comparisons of the sentence, "She always closes the window before dining," between different Gallo-Italic languages[edit]

Bergamasque (Eastern Lombard) (Lé) La sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Milanese (Western Lombard) (Lee) la sara semper su la finestra primma de zena.
Piacentino (Emilian) Le la sära sëimpar sö/sü la finestra (fnestra) prima da disnä
Bolognese (Emilian) (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dsnèr.
Fanese (Romagnol dialect of Marche) Lì a chìud sèmper la fnestra prima d' c'nè.
Piedmontese (Chila) a sara sempe la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a.
Canavese (Piedmontese) (Chilà) a sera sémper la fnestra doant ëd far sèina.
Carrarese (Emilian) Lê al sèr(e)/chiode sènpre la fnestra(paravento) prima de cena.
Ligurian Lê a særa sénpre o barcón primma de çenâ.
Tabarchino (Ligurian dialect of Sardinia) Lé a sère fissu u barcun primma de çenò.
Romansh Ella clauda/serra adina la fanestra avant ch'ella tschainia. (Rhaeto-Romance)
Nones (Ela) la sera semper la fenestra inant zenar. (Rhaeto-Romance)
Solander La sèra sempro (sèmper) la fenèstra prima (danànt) da cenàr. (Rhaeto-Romance)
Friulan Jê e siere simpri il barcon prin di cenâ. (Rhaeto-Romance)
Ladin (Gherdëina) Ëila stluj for l vier dan cené. (Rhaeto-Romance)
Venetian Ła sàra/sèra senpre el balcón vanti senàr/dixnàr.
Trentinian Èla la sèra sèmper giò/zo la fenèstra prima de zenà.
Istriot (Rovignese) Gila insiera senpro el balcon preîma da senà.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Glottolog 4.2.1 - Istriot". glottolog.org.
  2. ^ "Venetian". Ethnologue.
  3. ^ Loporcaro, Michele. 2009. 'Profilo linguistico dei dialetti d'Italia. Bari: Laterza. Pg. 3.'
  4. ^ a b "Venetian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  5. ^ "Glottolog 4.1 - Venetian". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  6. ^ Ethnologue, [1]
  7. ^ Hull, Geoffrey (1982): «The linguistic unity of northern Italy and Rhaetia.» Ph.D. diss., University of Sydney West.
  8. ^ Longobardi, Giuseppe. (2014). Theory and experiment in parametric minimalism. Language description informed by theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 217-262.
  9. ^ Tamburelli, M., & Brasca, L. (2018). Revisiting the classification of Gallo-Italic: a dialectometric approach. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 33, 442-455. [2]
  10. ^ For example, Giovan Battista Pellegrini, Tullio De Mauro, Maurizio Dardano, Tullio Telmon (see Enrico Allasino et al. Le lingue del Piemonte Archived 2011-08-10 at the Wayback Machine, IRES – Istituto di Ricerche Economico Sociali del Piemonte, Torino, 2007, p. 9) and Vincenzo Orioles (see Classificazione dei dialetti parlati in Italia).
  11. ^ Walter De Gruyter, Italienisch, Korsisch, Sardisch, 1988, p. 452.
  12. ^ Michele Loporcaro, Profilo linguistico dei dialetti italiani, 2013, p. 70.
  13. ^ Martin Maiden, Mair Parry, Dialects of Italy, 1997, Introduction p. 3.
  14. ^ Anna Laura Lepschy, Giulio Lepschy, The Italian Language Today, 1998, p. 41.
  15. ^ Michele Loporcaro, "Phonological Processes", in Maiden et al., 2011, The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages: Volume 1, Structures
  16. ^ "Glottolog 4.1 - Istriot". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  17. ^ Bernard Comrie, Stephen Matthews, Maria Polinsky (eds.), The Atlas of languages : the origin and development of languages throughout the world. New York 2003, Facts On File. p. 40. Stephen A. Wurm, Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing. Paris 2001, UNESCO Publishing, p. 29. Glauco Sanga: La lingua Lombarda, in Koiné in Italia, dalle origini al 500 (Koinés in Italy, from the origin to 1500), Lubrina publisher, Bèrghem Studi di lingua e letteratura lombarda offerti a Maurizio Vitale, (Studies in Lombard language and literature) Pisa : Giardini, 1983 Brevini, Franco – Lo stile lombardo : la tradizione letteraria da Bonvesin da la Riva a Franco Loi / Franco Brevini – Pantarei, Lugan – 1984 (Lombard style: literary tradition from Bonvesin da la Riva to Franco Loi ) Mussafia Adolfo, Beitrag zur kunde der Norditalienischen Mundarten im XV. Jahrhunderte (Wien, 1873) Pellegrini, G.B. "I cinque sistemi dell'italoromanzo", in Saggi di linguistica italiana (Turin: Boringhieri, 1975), pp. 55–87. Rohlfs, Gerhard, Rätoromanisch. Die Sonderstellung des Rätoromanischen zwischen Italienisch und Französisch. Eine kulturgeschichtliche und linguistische Einführung (Munich: C.H. Beek'sche, 1975), pp. 1–20. Canzoniere Lombardo – by Pierluigi Beltrami, Bruno Ferrari, Luciano Tibiletti, Giorgio D'Ilario – Varesina Grafica Editrice, 1970.

Sources[edit]

  • Bernard Comrie, Stephen Matthews, Maria Polinsky (eds.), The Atlas of languages : the origin and development of languages throughout the world. New York 2003, Facts On File. p. 40.
  • Stephen A. Wurm, Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger of Disappearing. Paris 2001, UNESCO Publishing, p. 29.
  • Glauco Sanga: La lingua Lombarda, in Koiné in Italia, dalle origini al 500 (Koinés in Italy, from the origin to 1500), Lubrina publisher, Bèrghem
  • Studi di lingua e letteratura lombarda offerti a Maurizio Vitale, (Studies in Lombard language and literature) Pisa : Giardini, 1983
  • Brevini, Franco – Lo stile lombardo : la tradizione letteraria da Bonvesin da la Riva a Franco Loi / Franco Brevini – Pantarei, Lugan – 1984 (Lombard style: literary tradition from Bonvesin da la Riva to Franco Loi )
  • Hull, Geoffrey The Linguistic Unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia: Historical Grammar of the Padanian Language 2 vols. Sydney: Beta Crucis Editions, 2017.
  • Mussafia Adolfo, Beitrag zur kunde der Norditalienischen Mundarten im XV. Jahrhunderte (Wien, 1873)
  • Pellegrini, G.B. "I cinque sistemi dell'italoromanzo", in Saggi di linguistica italiana (Turin: Boringhieri, 1975), pp. 55–87.
  • Rohlfs, Gerhard, Rätoromanisch. Die Sonderstellung des Rätoromanischen zwischen Italienisch und Französisch. Eine kulturgeschichtliche und linguistische Einführung (Munich: C.H. Beek'sche, 1975), pp. 1–20.
  • Canzoniere Lombardo – by Pierluigi Beltrami, Bruno Ferrari, Luciano Tibiletti, Giorgio D'Ilario – Varesina Grafica Editrice, 1970.

External links[edit]