Emilian dialects

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Emilian
emigliàn, emiliân
PronunciationEmilian pronunciation: [emiʎa:ŋ]
Native toItaly
RegionPrimarily Emilia-Romagna
Ethnicity3.3 million (2008)[1]
Native speakers
Unknown, c. 1.3 million (2006 estimate) (2006)[2]
DialectsBolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Reggiano, Parmigiano, Piacentino
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3egl
Glottologemil1241[3]
Linguasphere51-AAA-oka ... -okh
Emiliano-Romagnolo area.jpg
Geographic distribution of Emilian (shown in light pink)
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Emilian (Emilian: emigliàn, emiliân, Italian: emiliano) is a group of closely related dialects of Emilian-Romagnol spoken in the historical region of Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy.

There is no standardised version of Emilian.

The default word order is subject–verb–object. There are two genders as well as a distinction between plural and singular. Emilian has a strong T–V distinction to distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity or insult. Its alphabet uses a considerable number of diacritics.

Classification[edit]

Emilian language is one of the two branches of the Emilian-Romagnol language, today an obsolete term to define the Emilian and Romagnol languages, considered as separated, one of unstandardized Gallo-Italic languages. The Emilian dialects naturally form a natural dialect continuum with the bordering Romagnol varieties, while the more distant dialects might be less mutually intelligible. Besides Emilian-Romagnol, the Gallo-Italic family includes Piedmontese, Ligurian and Lombard, all of which maintain a level of mutual intelligibility with Emilian and Romagnol, the latter further influenced by Italian.

Dialects[edit]

Linguasphere Observatory recognises the following dialects:[4]

Other definitions include the following:[citation needed]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonants in the Bolognese dialect
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless (t͡s) t͡ʃ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f θ s
voiced v ð z
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Rhotic r
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ
  • Affricates [t͡s, d͡z] are heard as alternates of fricative sounds /θ, ð/ particularly among southern dialects.
  • In the Piacentino dialect, an /r/ sound can be heard as either an alveolar trill [r], or as a uvular fricative [ʁ] sound.

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø ə o
ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Open æ a
  • Rounded front vowel sounds /y, ø, œ/ and a mid-central vowel sound /ə/ are mainly common in the Piacentino and western dialects.
  • In the Piacentino dialect, five vowel sounds being followed by /n/, are then recognized as nasalized [ĩ ẽ ã õ ũ], unless /n/ occurs between two vowel sounds.
  • Vowel length is also distinguished for the following vowels [iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː].[5][6][7]

Writing system[edit]

Emilian is written using a Latin script that has never been standardised. As a result, spelling varies widely across the dialects. The dialects were largely oral and rarely written until some the late 20th century; a number of written media in Emilian-Romagnol have been made since World War II.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ISO change request
  2. ^ La lingua italiana, i dialetti e le lingue straniere Anno 2006
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Emiliano". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "51-AAA-ok. emiliano + romagnolo". Linguasphere.
  5. ^ Foresti, Fabio (2009). Profilo linguistico dell'Emilia-Romagna. Roma: Laterza.
  6. ^ Lepri, Luigi; Vitali, Daniele (2009). Dizionario bolognese-italiano, italiano bolognese. Bologna: Pendragon.
  7. ^ Hajek, John (1997). Emilia-Romagna. The dialects of Italy: London: Routledge. p. 275.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Colombini, F. 2007. La negazione nei dialetti emiliani: microvariazione nell’area modenese. University of Padua, MA Thesis.

Further reading[edit]

  • Pietro Mainoldi, Manuale dell'odierno dialetto bolognese, Suoni e segni, Grammatica – Vocabolario, Bologna, Società tipografica Mareggiani 1950 (Rist. anast.: Sala Bolognese, A. Forni 2000)
  • Fabio Foresti, Bibliografia dialettale dell'Emilia-Romagna e della Repubblica di San Marino (BDER), Bologna, IBACN Emilia-Romagna / Compositori 1997
  • E. F. Tuttle, Nasalization in Northern Italy: Syllabic Constraints and Strength Scales as Developmental Parameters, Rivista di Linguistica, III: 23–92 (1991)
  • Luigi Lepri e Daniele Vitali, Dizionario Bolognese-Italiano Italiano-Bolognese, ed. Pendragon 2007

External links[edit]