Florentine dialect

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Florentine
Native toItaly
RegionTuscany (Florence)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologfior1235

The Florentine dialect or vernacular (dialetto fiorentino or vernacolo fiorentino) is a variety of Tuscan, a Romance language, spoken in the Italian city of Florence and its immediate surroundings.

A received pedagogical variant derived from it historically, once called la pronuncia fiorentina emendata (literally, 'the amended Florentine pronunciation').

Literature[edit]

Important writers such as Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio and, later, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini wrote in literary Tuscan/Florentine, perhaps the best-known example being Dante's Divine Comedy.[1]

Differences from Standard Italian[edit]

Florentine, and Tuscan more generally, can be distinguished from Standard Italian by differences in numerous features at all levels: phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon.

Perhaps the difference most noticed by Italians and foreigners alike is known as the gorgia toscana (literally 'Tuscan throat'),[1] a consonant-weakening rule widespread in Tuscany in which the voiceless plosive phonemes /k/, /t/, /p/ are pronounced between vowels as fricatives [h], [θ], [ɸ] respectively. The sequence /la kasa/ la casa 'the house', for example, is pronounced [la ˈhaːsa], and /buko/ buco 'hole' is realized as [ˈbuːho]. Preceded by a pause or a consonant, /k/ is produced as [k] (as in the word casa alone or in the phrase in casa). Similar alternations obtain for /t/[t],[θ] and /p/[p],[ɸ].

Strengthening to a geminate consonant occurs when the preceding word triggers syntactic doubling (raddoppiamento fonosintattico) so the initial consonant /p/ of pipa 'pipe (for smoking)' has three phonetic forms: [p] in [ˈpiːɸa] spoken as a single word or following a consonant, [ɸ] if preceded by a vowel as in [la ɸiːɸa] la pipa 'the pipe' and [pp] (also transcribed [pː]) in [tre pˈpiːɸe] tre pipe 'three pipes'.

Parallel alternations of the affricates /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are also typical of Florentine but by no means confined to it or even to Tuscan. The word gelato is pronounced with [dʒ] following a pause or a consonant, [ʒ] following a vowel and [ddʒ] if raddoppiamento applies ([dʒeˈlaːθo], [un dʒeˈlaːθo] un gelato, [ˈkwattro ʒeˈlaːθi] quattro gelati, [ˈtre ddʒeˈlaːθi] tre gelati. Similarly, the initial consonant of /ˈtʃena/ cena 'dinner' has three phonetic forms, [tʃ], [ʃ] and [ttʃ]. In both cases, the weakest variant appears between vowels ([reˈʒoːne] regione 'region', [ˈkwattro ʒeˈlaːθi] quattro gelati; [la ˈʃeːna] la cena, [ˈbaːʃo] bacio 'kiss').

Examples; (Florentine dialect, standard Italian, English):

  • Io sòn = io sono = I am
  • Te tu sei = tu sei = you are
  • Egli l'è = egli è = he/she/it is
  • Noi s'è/semo = noi siamo = we are
  • Voi vù siete = voi siete = you are
  • Essi l'enno = essi sono = they are
  • Io c'ho = io ho = I have
  • Te tu c'hai = te hai = you have
  • Egli c'ha = egli ha = he/she/it has
  • Noi ci s'ha = noi abbiamo = we have
  • Voi vù c'avete = voi avete = you have
  • Essi c'hanno = essi hanno = they have

[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "'La Lingua Toscana' – The Tuscan Dialect | TN&M". blog.tuscanynowandmore.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  2. ^ vohabolario del Vernacolo fiorentino e del dialetto Toscano di ieri e di oggi
  • Cory Crawford. "A Brief History of the Italian Language". Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  • Giacomelli, Gabriella. 1975. Dialettologia toscana. Archivio glottologico italiano 60, pp. 179-191.
  • Giannelli, Luciano. 2000. Toscana. (Profilo dei dialetti italiani, 9). Pisa: Pacini.