Education in Kenya

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Education in Kenya refers to the education system in Kenya.

In 2017, Kenya’s education system was rated as the strongest on the African continent by the World Economic Forum. In the following year 2018, the World Bank also ranked Kenya as the top African country for education outcomes (1st out of 43 mainland countries).[1] Something powerful is going on in Kenya’s schools. In 2019, a 36-year-old Brother Peter Tabichi who is a science teacher from rural Kenya won a prestigious US$1 million prize (£760,000 stg.) for the world's most outstanding teacher.[2] The Human Rights Measurement Initiative[1] finds that Kenya is fulfilling 66.5% of what they could be fulfilling for the right to education based on their income level.[2]

The current education system is organized into five main levels:

1) Early Childhood Education.(ECD)

Early Childhood Education (ECD) is a foundation for later learning and development and it targets children aged 0-5 years with a focus on igniting the child’s potential for lifelong adaptability, innovation and communication skills while imparting in them the values of responsible citizenship and respect for diversity. ECD is classified into three different clusters i.e

  • Baby-class
  • Nursery school
  • Pre-unit ( as of the 8-4-4 curriculum)

2) Basic Education (KCPE[3]KCSE)

  • Lower primary: This is a 4 year period that marks the first transition into the mainstream primary education system in Kenya[4] and starts at ages 6 or 7. The grading system is called "standard", meaning the first four years the students transitions from standard one, through four.
  • Upper primary: This is also a 4 year period that helps prepare the students for the high school years. At standard 7, the students become more aware of which high schools they want to attend. During the last year of the primary school system, students are allowed to select 4 to 6 secondary schools that they would like to attend including one national school and take the KCPE, which validates their transition to high school.
  • High school: 4 years
  • Adult education (Gumbaro)

3.) Vocational Training

  • Artisan level: 1 term/semester
  • Craft level: 2 terms/semesters

4.) Professional Training

5.) University Education


Historical records, not only from the travels of Johann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann, reveal that Swahilis had access to education as far back as 1728 with a Swahili manuscript Utendi wa Tambuka (Book of Heraclius) attesting to the fact. The CMS missionaries interacted with locals in the coastal town of Mombasa and set up one of the earliest mission schools in the country at Rabai in 1846.

With the expansion of the railway from Mombasa to Uganda, the missionaries expanded their work into Kenya's interior. An attempt to set up a school and mission at Yatta in 1894 was resisted by the Kamba tribe. The missionaries then penetrated into western Kenya and set up schools and missions. The first school in western Kenya was established at Kaimosi in 1903. During the colonial era, the number of Kenyans with exposure to education steadily increased and a good number of them were privileged to proceed abroad for further education.

Among those who furthered their education abroad in the colonial era were Jomo Kenyatta, who attended Woodbrooke College and London School of Economics, Charles Njonjo, who attended Gray's Inn Law School, Peter Mbiyu Koinange, who attended Columbia University, Mwai Kibaki who attended London School of Economics, R. Mugo Gatheru who attended Roosevelt University, Tom Mboya, who attended Ruskin College, Oxford, Masinde Muliro, who attended University of Cape Town, Julius Gikonyo Kiano who attended Stanford University, and Barack Obama Sr., who attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Julius Gikonyo Kiano was the first Kenyan to obtain a PhD. The trend steadily rose over the years and by the time of independence in 1963, 840,000 African children were attending elementary school.

The earliest schools in Kenya[edit]

History form 1
  1. School at Rabai near Mombasa – established 1846
  2. The Prince of Wales now Nairobi School established 1902.
  3. Friends School Kaimosi, now Kaimosi Friends Primary School, established in 1903
  4. Maseno School, established in 1906
  5. Government Indian School or The Duke of Gloucester School, now Jamhuri High School, established 1906
  6. Tumutumu Mission School, now Tumutumu Girls’ High School established in 1908.
  7. European Girls' School, now Kenya High established 1908
  8. Kabaa Boys High School, Machakos County established 1923
  9. Waa High School, Kwale County established 1923
  10. Kenton College, established 1924 Kijabi 1935 Kileleshwa
  11. Mang'u High School, established 1925.
  12. Kapsabet High School, established 1925.
  13. Kakamega High School, Established 1925.
  14. Alliance School, now Alliance High School (Kenya) established in 1926.
  15. Nakuru High School, established in 1927.
  16. St. Mary's School Yala, established in 1927.
  17. Hill School Eldoret established in 1928
  18. Highlands High School, now Moi Girls' High School – Eldoret established in 1928.
  19. Kitale Primary, later Kitale Academy, now Kitale School established 1929
  20. Kisii School, established in 1932
  21. Mugoiri Girls High School in Muranga (formerly Gaiteiguru Intermediary School) established in 1938
  22. Kangaru schools, established in 1947
  23. European Boys' School, Duke of York, now Lenana School, established 1949
  24. Kapsisiywa was attained after two years of high school at that time distinct from secondary school with students sitting for the East African Advanced Certificate of Education (EAACE).

Kenya 7–4–2–3 System[edit]

With the collapse of the East African community in 1977, Kenya continued with the same system of education but changed the examination names from their regional identity to a national identity. The East African Certificate of Primary Education became the Certificate of Primary Education (CPE), the first time the C.P.E was marked by a computer system, the East African Certificate of Education became the Kenya Certificate of Education (KCE) and the East African Advanced Certificate of Education became the Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education (KACE).

8–4–4 Curriculum[edit]

In 1985, President Daniel arap Moi introduced the 8–4–4 system of education, which adopted 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education and 4 years of university education. With the introduction of the 8–4–4 system CPE became KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education) while KCE became the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE).

Since 1985, public education in Kenya has been based on an 8–4–4 system,[5][6] with eight years of primary education followed by four years of secondary school and four years of college or university. To date, there has been steady growth in the advancement of education in the country. the country boasts of a great number of public and private universities as well as middle-level colleges.

Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) 2-6-3-3[edit]

In 2017, Kenya for the second time in history introduced a new system of education; the Competency Based Curriculum (CBC), to replace the traditional 8–4–4 system introduced by the late President Moi in 1985. The Competency based Curriculum was designed by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD)[3] with the aim of churning out ‘engaged, empowered and ethical citizens.

Unlike the 8-4-4 system where learners would spend 8 years in primary education, 4 years in secondary School and 4 years at the university, the CBC curriculum runs on a 2-6-3-3 System of Education[7] where basic education has been organized in three levels; Early Years Education, Middle school Education, and Senior School.

Under CBC, learners will now spend 2 years in Pre-primary, 6 years in primary (Grade 1-6), 3 years in junior secondary (Grade 7,8,9) 3 years in senior secondary (grade 10,11,12) and 3 years in university.

The Competency Based Curriculum puts emphasis on seven core competences namely; communication and collaboration, critical thinking and problem-solving, creativity and imagination, citizenship, digital literacy, learning to learn and self-efficacy.

According to KICD, the traditional curriculum is teacher-centered while the CBC is learner-centered.

Learners are constantly assessed on the seven competencies based on the following areas; Meeting Expectations (ME), Approaching Expectations (AE) and Below Expectations (BE).

The first cohort of learners under the CBC curriculum are the current grade 5 pupils in the year 2022. They are expected to transition to junior high school in early 2023.The government has through the ministry of education been investing in developing the infrastructure required in public schools across the country to accommodate the junior high-schoolers.

In October 2021,President Uhuru Kenyatta directed the National Treasury to avail KSh.8 billion/= to the Education Ministry for the construction of 10,000 classrooms in secondary schools across the country by 2023. According to Education Cabinet Secretary Prof George Magoha, 700 new CBC junior classrooms had been completed within secondary schools as at February 2021.[8] Consequently CBC has been a top priority funding area in the  KSh.126.3 bilion/= supplementary budget, submitted in parliament mid February by Treasury Cabinet Secretary Ukur Yattani.[9]

According to the Kenya Institute of curriculum Development (KICD), students transitioning to Junior secondary schools will be between the ages of 12 and 14.

British Curriculum[edit]

Some private schools, however, offer a system of education similar to the British system of education with ordinary level exams, "O-levels", taken at the end of four years of secondary school and advanced levels, "A-levels", taken after two years of high school. This is effectively the same as the 7-4-2-3 system described above.

Transition rates and Overall Performance[edit]

Out of all children in Kenya, about 85% attend primary school. 75% of those who complete primary education will proceed to secondary schools and 60% of those who complete secondary school will proceed to institutions of a higher level of education, including business and vocational institutions, national polytechnics, public and private universities within the country. Over 950,000 Kenyans have furthered their education abroad with a majority of graduates primarily from India, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Russia, and Uganda.

Education quality[edit]

Education quality has recently received a lot of attention in Kenya. The Kenyan government's primary document influencing this effort, the Kenya Education Sector Support Program for 2005–2010, established the National Assessment Centre (NAC) to monitor learning achievement. In 2010, the NAC released the results of its first assessment.

In 2009, in collaboration with the NAC, Uwezo Kenya conducted an assessment of the basic literacy and numeracy skills of children ages 6–16. The Annual Learning Assessment (ALA) reached villages in 70 out of 158 districts in Kenya and assessed nearly 70,000 children in their homes. The ALA was set at a Standard 2 level, which is the level where students are supposed to achieve basic competency in reading English and Kiswahili and complete simple arithmetic problems. The chart below shows the percent of children who could not read a Standard 2 level paragraph or solve Standard 2 level subtraction problems:[10]

Level of Children Assessed Cannot Read English Paragraph Cannot Read Swahili Paragraph Cannot Do Subtraction
Standard 2 85% 79%
Standard 5 27% 23% 30%
Standard 8 4% 4% 10%

Key findings about education in Kenya, based on the results of the Uwezo 2009 assessment:[11]

  1. Literacy levels are low, and are substantially lower in certain regions. Girls tend to perform better in reading English and Kiswahili, while boys tend to perform better in math.
  2. Literacy levels are lower in public schools than private schools.
  3. Most children can solve real world, "ethno-mathematics" problems, while fewer can solve similar math problems in an abstract, pencil and paper format.
  4. 5% of children are not enrolled in school, but the problem is far worse in particular regions.
  5. About half of children are enrolled in pre-school.
  6. Many children are older than expected for their class level, including 40% of children in class 2, and 60% of children in class 7.
  7. North Eastern Province and arid districts in Rift Valley and Eastern Provinces have particularly low performance; and many older children, especially girls, are not attending school.
  8. Many families pay for extra tuition, which focuses heavily on drilling and exam preparation.
  9. Schools struggle to plan their budgets because they receive funds at unpredictable times.
  10. Children whose mothers are educated, particularly beyond primary school, tend to have much higher rates of literacy and numeracy.
  11. About 15% of students are absent on a given day, with much higher absenteeism in certain districts as a result of increased poverty level.
  12. There is a severe shortage of teachers, estimated at 4 teachers per school.
  13. The reluctance of the government to invest in educational institutions in marginalized areas thereby developing schools in cities only which result in inefficient education process in arid and semi-arid areas
  14. Embezzlement of public funds by school administrators and lack of accountability of the use of government grants and high levels of corruption in educational institutions

Due to the mentioned problems in public education, private school are soaring in popularity, even among families that can ill afford school fees.[12]

Primary education[edit]

Primary education in Kenya begins at the age of 5 to 7 after completion of a year of kindergarten commonly known as nursery school or pre-unit. The first class or year of primary school is known as Standard 1, the final year as Standard 8 and primary school children are known as pupils. The school year at both primary and secondary levels, begins in January and ends in November. Students get 3 school vacations in April, August and December.

At the end of the school year, students advance to the next grade. Since repetition was banned students still progress to the next grade even though they fail their examinations. Most primary schools are day schools with pupils living at home. Fewer schools at primary level are boarding schools compared to secondary schools. All public primary school pupils sit for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education examination at the end of the school year in Standard eight.[13] In primary school, students are taught English, Kiswahili and Indigenous language activities.[14]

Universal Primary Education (UME), an international development goal created by the World Conference on Education, has led to Kenya's target of universal primary education for all citizens. Since 2003, enrollments have increased drastically and today Kenya has much closer rates of enrollment to first world countries, such as the United States.[15] In January 2003 President Mwai Kibaki re-introduced free primary education which previously existed before the mid-80s when the government adopted cost-sharing measures that led to a minor level of school fees charged by primary schools for textbooks, PTA, and extracurricular activities. Since 2003, education in public schools became free and compulsory ( Kenya Constitution, Article 53, 2010). On learning that primary education had once again[16] become free in Kenya, Kimani Maruge, an uneducated farmer and the world's oldest person to enrol in primary school joined Kapkenduiywo primary school in Eldoret at the age of 84. He was elected head boy at the age of 86 in 2005.[17]

Secondary education[edit]

Secondary schools in Kenya fall into three categories: government-funded, Harambee and private. Government-funded schools are divided into national, provincial and district levels. Harambee schools do not receive full funding from the government and private schools are run by private organizations or individuals. After taking the primary school leaving exam and successfully passing, government-funded schools select students in order of scores.

Students with the highest scores gain admission into national schools while those with average scores are selected into provincial and district schools. Harambee schools accept students with low scores. Students who fail their examinations pursue technical and vocational education. The latter is divided into technical secondary school (lasting 4 years) and apprenticeships solutions. Since 2010, technical secondary schools student can have access to university programs.[18] A number of students also drop out of school by choice due to poor scores.

Under the current system, students attend secondary school for four years before sitting for the school-leaving exam at the end of the fourth year. The first-class or year of secondary school is known as form 1 and the final year is form 4. At the end of the fourth year, from October to November students sit for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination. In 2008, the government introduced plans to offer free Secondary education to all Kenyans.

Historic prestigious national high schools include Mang'u High School, Alliance High School (Kenya) and Starehe Boys' Centre and School. Private secondary schools in Kenya are generally high cost, offering students an alternative system of education with better or more luxurious facilities compared to public schools. They are often favoured for prestige. Most private schools in Kenya offer the British system of education which includes "O-levels" and "A-levels". Very few offer the American system of education and a good number of them offer the Kenya system. Some of the oldest private schools in Kenya include Loreto Convent Msongari, Nairobi (1921), St. Mary's School, Nairobi, Braeburn School, Consolata School, Strathmore School, Oshwal Academy, Rift Valley Academy, Aga Khan Academy, Kenton College and Brookhouse School,

KCSE grading system[edit]

Points 12.0 11.5 10.8 9.5 8.6 7.5 6.6 5.5 4.3 3.6 2.5 1.2

The average grade is based on performance in the eight subjects. Where a candidate sits for more than eight subjects, the average grade is based on the best eight subjects. University matriculation is based on the best eight and performance in particular subjects relevant to degree courses. Example below:

Subject Group Grade Points
English 1 B+ 10
Kiswahili 1 A- 11
Mathematics 1 A 12
History & Government 3 B 9
Geography 3 A- 11
Physics 2 B+ 10
Chemistry 2 B- 8
Biology 2 A- 11

The total number of points is 82.

The average grade is 82 divided by 8, which equals 10.25 (approximately 10.0 points) which is Grade B+ according to the grading system. This student qualifies to join one of the Public Universities for his good score. Training institutions and faculties and departments determine their own minimum entry requirements.

Students who manage a grade of C+ qualify to do a degree course at the university. Owing to the competition, and fewer places at the University, those with B and in a few cases B−, and above are taken for degree courses at the public universities and benefit by paying government-subsidized fees. The rest join private universities or middle-level colleges.

The number of students admitted to public universities through Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service:KUCCPS (until 2012 Kenya Universities Joint Admissions Board: JAB)[19] depends on the total number of beds available in all the public universities. Nonetheless, those who miss out but attained the minimum university entry mark of C+ or C with a relevant diploma certificate are admitted through the parallel degree programs (module II) if they can afford the full fees for the course.

This has been the subject of much discussion with people questioning the rationale and morality of locking out qualified students from public institutions yet still admitting those who come from financially able families.

Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions[edit]

These institutions operate under the state department of vocational and technical training under the helm of a principal secretary. Current PS is Kevit Desai.

They award artisan, craft and diploma and higher national diploma certificates after successful completion of relevant courses. Courses offered by these institutions include Business Education, Accounting, Secretarial Studies, Nursing, Teacher Training, Computer Studies, Journalism, Media, Design, Culinary Studies, Foreign Languages, Tourism and Engineering. In order of credibility or accreditation, national polytechnics rank first, followed by government training institutes, teacher training colleges and private institutions. Although generally termed colleges, these institutions do not award degrees. Degrees are only awarded by Universities and Technical Universities.

From July 2014, all government and private institutions offering Technical and Vocational Education and Training where put under "TVETA". Retrieved 10 October 2016..[20] this act normalized this sector as it had become tainted by unaccredited institutions offering substandard education as revealed by "The Standard". and "The Star". 2 December 2015. As of 10 October 2016 there were 540 institutions accredited by the Authority[21]

Government TVET Institutions[edit]

There are three types of government TVET institutions in Kenya. these are National Polytechnics, Technical Institutions and Vocational Education Centers (formerly Youth Polytechnics)[22] [4] Notable Institutions include:

  1. Technical University of Kenya
  2. Technical University of Mombasa
  3. Rift Valley Technical Training InstituteS

University education[edit]

There are 48 universities in Kenya, 22 of which are public and 26 private. The University of Nairobi is the oldest public university in Kenya while KAG East university is the oldest among the private universities.

Public universities and their constituent colleges[edit]

Public universities[edit]

Sno University Name Area Year Chartered Original name Year established Campus
1 University of Nairobi Nairobi 1970 Royal Technical College, Royal College Nairobi 1956 Main campus, Kikuyu campus, Chiromo campus, Lower Kabete campus, Upper Kabete campus, Parklands campus, Kenya Science campus, Mombasa campus and Kisumu campus.
2 Moi University Eldoret 1984 Moi University 1984
3 Kenyatta University Kiambu 1985 Kenyatta University College 1965 Main campus, Parklands campus, Ruiru campus, City campus, Kitui campus, Mombasa campus, Nakuru campus.
4 Egerton University Njoro 1988
5 Maseno University Maseno 1991 Maseno Govt. Training Institute, Siriba Teachers College 1955 Oginga Odinga University
6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Kiambu 1994 Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture 1981 Multimedia University College of Kenya, Meru University College of Science and Technology, Murang'a University College,[23]
7 Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Kakamega 2007 Western College of Arts and Applied Sciences 1972 CONSTITUENT COLLEGES, Kibabii University College, Turkana University Uollege, Kaimosi University College, Main campus in Kakamega and Mumias campus
8 Dedan Kimathi University of Technology Nyeri 2012 Kimathi Institute of Technology, Kimathi University College of Technology (2007) as a Constituent College of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 1972 Main Campus, Nyeri
9 Chuka University Chuka 2012 Egerton University Eastern Campus College, Chuka University College (2007) as a Constituent College of Egerton University 2004 Main Campus, Chuka
10 Technical University of Kenya Nairobi 2013 Kenya Technical Institute, Kenya Polytechnic, Kenya Polytechnic University College (2007) as a Constituent College of the University of Nairobi 1961 Main Campus, Nairobi
11 Technical University of Mombasa Mombasa 2013 (MIOME), Mombasa Technical Institute [1966], Mombasa Polytechnic [1976], The Mombasa Polytechnic University College [2007] as a Constituent College of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 1940 Main Campus, Tudor. Satellite Campuses in Kwale and Lamu County
12 Pwani University Kilifi 2013 Kilifi Institute of Agriculture, Pwani University College as a Constituent College of Kenyatta University 2007 Main Campus, Kilifi
13 Kisii University Kisii 2013 Primary Teachers’ Training College (1965), Secondary Teachers' College (1983), Egerton Campus (1994), Kisii University College (2007) as a Constituent College of Egerton University 1965 Main Campus, Kisii Town Campus
14 University of Eldoret Eldoret 2013 Chepkoilel University College as a Constituent College of Moi University Main Campus Eldoret
15 Maasai Mara University Narok 2013 Narok University College as a Constituent College of Moi University 2008 Main Campus, Narok
16 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology Kisumu 2013 Bondo Teachers Training College, Bondo University College, as a Constituent College of Maseno University (2009) Main Campus, Lake Victoria
17 Laikipia University Laikipia 2013 LSFTC (1965), AHITI (1979), Egerton University Campus (1990), Laikipia University College, as a Constituent College of Egerton University Main Campus, Nyahururu town Campus, Naivasha Campus, Nakuru Campus, Maralal Campus
18 South Eastern Kenya University Kitui 2013 Ukamba Agricultural Institute (Ukai), South Eastern University College (Seuco) 2008 SEKU Main Campus, Machakos Town Campus, Kitui Town Campus, Wote Town Campus, Mtito-Andei Campus, Nairobi City Campus.
19 Multimedia University of Kenya Nairobi 2013 Central Training School (CTS) to serve East African Posts Training School (1948), (KCCT) Kenya College of Communications Technology (1992), Multimedia University college of Kenya 2008 (MMU) Main Campus
20 University of Kabianga Kericho 2013 The Government School, Kabianga (1925), Kabianga Teachers’ Training College (1929), Kabianga Framers Training Cente (1959), Kabianga Campus of Moi University (2007), Kabianga University College 2009 (UoK) Main Campus, Kapkatet Campus, Kericho Satellite Campus, Satellite Campus
21 Karatina University Karatina 2013 Moi University Central Kenya Campus, Karatina University College 2008 Main Campus, Karatina Town Campus, Itiati Campus, Nanyuki Campus, Riverbank Campus
22 Meru University of Science and Technology Meru 2013 (MECOTECH) Meru College of Technology (1979), (MUCST) Meru University College of Science and Technology 2008 MUST Main Campus, Meru Town Campus
23 Kirinyaga University Kerugoya 2016 Kirinyaga Technical Institute, Kirinyaga University College
24 The Co-operative university of Kenya Nairobi 1968 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology 2016 CUK Main campus,Karen

Private universities[edit]

There are 3 categories of private universities: chartered universities – fully accredited universities, by the Commission for Higher Education; universities, which had been offering degrees long before the establishment of the Commission for Higher Education; and universities authorized to operate with Letters of Interim Authority (LIA).

Chartered universities[edit]

  1. Strathmore University.
  2. University of Eastern Africa, Baraton.
  3. United States International University Africa (USIU-A).
  4. Catholic University of Eastern Africa – CUEA.
  5. Daystar University.
  6. Kabarak University.
  7. Riara University.
  8. KAG East University
  9. Kenya Methodist University.(KeMU)
  10. Africa Nazarene University.
  11. St. Paul's University.
  12. Kenya Methodist University.
  13. Pan Africa Christian University.
  14. Scott Christian University.
  15. Maasai Mara University.
  16. Machakos University.
  17. Mount Kenya University.
  18. Kenya Highlands Evangelical University. Formerly Kenya Highlands Bible College – KHBC
  19. Great Lakes University of Kisumu
  20. Africa International University (formerly NEGST)
  21. KCA University
  22. Adventist University of Africa (Rongai).
  23. Pan Africa Christian University
  24. University Of Eastern Africa, Baraton

Universities with Letters of Interim Authority (LIA)[edit]

  1. Aga Khan University.
  2. Kiriri Women's University of Science and Technology.
  3. Presbyterian University of East Africa.
  4. Gretsa University.
  5. The East African University
  6. UMMA University
  7. Management University of Africa
  8. Riara University
  9. Pioneer International University
  10. RAF International University
  11. Adventist University
  12. Inoorero University
  13. GENCO University

Universities operating with Certificates of Registration[edit]

  1. The Nairobi International School of theology

Factors affecting education in Kenya[edit]

In 2003 the Kenyan government promised free primary education to its citizens. In the early 70s primary school fees were abolished but in the mid 80s cost-sharing measures between the government and its citizens led to the re-introduction of minor fee charges by primary schools. As the trend continued with schools requiring parents to pay fees such as PTA, harambee, textbooks, uniforms, caution fees, exam fees and extracurricular activity fees, most parents became overburdened and unable to raise such fees. Those who could not afford the money to pay for their children's school fees often had their children drop out of school. Many children were also forced to drop out of school when teachers would not allow them to take exams. To pressurize parents to pay fees, schools often sent children home during the final exams.

The growth of Kenya's education sector has exceeded expectations. After the first university was established in 1970, six other public universities and 23 private universities have been established. Although Kenya has its own universities, some parents prefer to send their children to universities outside the country. This is largely because Kenyan public universities are not as flexible with admission requirements as some foreign universities. Another factor that has been pointed out is that youth with disabilities are facing major obstacles to progress in higher education, and measures as affirmative action or measures tailored to the needs of particular profiles of students could play a relevant role in this.[24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Human Rights Measurement Initiative – The first global initiative to track the human rights performance of countries". Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  2. ^ "Kenya - HRMI Rights Tracker". Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  3. ^ "Kenya Certificate of Primary Education".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Ministry of kenya education".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Ferre, Celine (February 2009). "Age at First Child: Does Education Delay Fertility Timing? The Case of Kenya" (PDF). Policy Research Working Paper (4833). World Bank. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Eshiwani, G.S. (1990). "Implementing Educational Policies in Kenya" (PDF). Africa Technical Department Series Discussion Paper (85). World Bank. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Retrieved 4 June 2020. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "Treasury Allocates Sh4 Billion for CBC Classrooms". The Kenya Forum. 11 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  9. ^ January 31 2022, Monday (30 January 2022). "Supplementary budget on MPs in-tray as Parliament reconvenes". Business Daily. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Who We Are - Uwezo".
  11. ^ "Who We Are - Uwezo".
  12. ^ Shiundu, Alphonce. "Dissatisfaction with "free" public education". D + C, Development and cooperation.
  13. ^ Glewwe, Paul; Ilias, Nauman; Kremer, Michael (July 2010). "Teacher Incentives". American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2 (3): 205–227. doi:10.1257/app.2.3.205. ISSN 1945-7782.
  14. ^ "Basic Education Curriculum Framework" (PDF). Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  15. ^ Ampiah, Joseph (1 December 2008). "An Investigation of Provision of Quality Basic Education in Ghana: A Case Study of Selected Schools in the Central Region". Journal of International Cooperation in Education. 11: 106–117.
  16. ^ "Kenya - Preprimary Primary Education". Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  17. ^ Kiplang’at Jeremiah (15 August 2009). "World's oldest pupil, Stephen Maruge, dies". Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  18. ^ "Vocational Education in Kenya". UNESCO-UNEVOC. November 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Who We Are | Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service".
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "Matiang'i upgrades eight technical institutes to national polytechnics". 28 June 2020.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "It also helped refine international approaches to the education of the disabled. [Social Impact]. RECOUP. Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (2005-2009)". SIOR, Social Impact Open Repository. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.

14. List of Primary Schools in Kenya

External links[edit]

Kenyan State-institutions

Data & reports from external institution