Counties of Kenya
|Counties of Kenya|
Kaunti za Kenya (Swahili)
|Location||Republic of Kenya|
|Populations||143,920 (Lamu) – 4,397,073 (Nairobi)|
|Areas||294.7 km2 (113.8 sq mi) (Mombasa) – 71,597.8 km2 (27,644.1 sq mi) (Turkana)|
The Counties of Kenya (Swahili: Kaunti za Kenya) are geographical units envisioned by the 2010 Constitution of Kenya as the new units of devolved government that replaced the previous provincial system The establishment and executive powers of the counties is provided in Chapter Eleven of the Constitution on devolved government, the Constitution's Fourth Schedule and any other legislation passed by the Senate of Kenya concerning counties. The counties are also single-member constituencies for the election of members of parliament to the Senate of Kenya and special women members (called "Women Representatives") to the National Assembly of Kenya.
As of 2022, there are 47 counties whose size and boundaries are based on the 47 legally recognized regions established by the 2010 Constitution. Following the re-organization of Kenya's national administration, counties were integrated into a new national administration with the national government posting county commissioners to counties to serve as a collaborative link with county governments.
County governments were established in 47 counties (largely based on the 1992 districts of Kenya), after the general elections in March 2013. The counties' names are set out in the First Schedule of the Constitution of Kenya.
List of counties
Under the new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 counties for administrative purposes. They are grouped below according to the former province of which they were part, with their areas and populations as of the 2009 and the 2019 census:
|1||Mombasa (County)||Coast||212.5||939,370||1,208,333||Mombasa (City)|
|20||Kirinyaga||Central||1,205.4||528,054||610,411||Kerugoya / Kutus|
|24||West Pokot||Rift Valley||8,418.2||512,690||621,241||Kapenguria|
|27||Uasin Gishu||Rift Valley||2,955.3||894,179||1,163,186||Eldoret|
|32||Nakuru||Rift Valley||7,509.5||1,603,325||2,162,202||Nakuru (City)|
|43||Homa Bay||Nyanza||3,154.7||963,794||1,131,950||Homa Bay|
|47||Nairobi (County)||Nairobi (Province)||694.9||3,138,369||4,397,073||Nairobi (City)|
County governments are responsible for county legislation (outlined in article 185 of the Constitution of Kenya), executive functions (outlined in article 183), functions outlined in the fourth schedule of the constitution of Kenya, functions transferred from the national government through article 187 of the constitution of Kenya, functions agreed upon with other counties under article 189(2) of the constitution of Kenya, and establishment and staffing of a public service (under article 235 of the Constitution of Kenya). The functions of governments assigned to counties by the fourth schedule of the Constitution of Kenya are:
- Crop and animal husbandry
- Livestock sale yards
- County abattoirs (slaughterhouses)
- Plant and animal disease control
County health services
- County health facilities and pharmacies
- Ambulance services
- Promotion of primary health care
- Licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the public
- Veterinary services (excluding regulation of the profession)
- Cemeteries, funeral parlors and crematoria
- Refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal.
- Food distribution and Free services for pregnant mothers
Pollution, nuisances and advertising control
- Control of air pollution, noise pollution, other public nuisances and outdoor advertising
Cultural activities, public entertainment and public amenities
- Betting, casinos and other forms of gambling
- Liquor licensing
- Video shows and hiring
- Sports and cultural activities and facilities
- County parks, beaches and recreation facilities
- Ice skating
- Sport fishing
- Horse racing
- County roads
- Street lighting
- Traffic and parking
- Public road transport
- Ferries and harbors, excluding the regulation of international and national shipping and matters related thereto
- SGR- Madaraka Express (modern railway experience)
Trade development and regulation
- Trade licenses, excluding regulation of professions
- Fair trading practices
- Local tourism
- Cooperative societies
County planning and development
- Land surveying, planning and mapping of resources
- Boundaries and fencing
- Electricity and gas reticulation and energy regulation
Education and childcare
- Pre-primary education, village polytechnics, homecraft center's and childcare facilities
- Adult education and national exam registration for the same.
- Implementation of specific national government policies on natural resources and environmental conservation
- Soil and water conservation
County public works and services
- Stormwater management systems in built-up areas
- Water and sanitation services
Fire fighting services and disaster management
Counties are mandated by the 2010 constitution of Kenya to enact legislation and laws that ensures management and controls of fire fighting.
Control of drugs and pornography
- Ensuring and coordinating the participation of communities and locations in governance at the local level
- Assisting communities and locations to develop the administrative capacity for the effective exercise of the functions and powers and participation in governance at the local level
County executive committee
The county governor and the deputy county governor are the chief executive and deputy chief executive of the county, respectively. The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall not conduct a separate election for the deputy governor but shall declare the running mate of the person who is elected county governor to have been elected as the deputy governor. Each county will be run by an executive committee, consisting of:
- A governor, elected directly by the people
- A deputy, elected as running mate of the successful candidate for governorship
- A number of committee members not exceeding a third (or ten where a county assembly has more than 30 members) of the members of the respective county assembly
- A county secretary, nominated by the governor and approved by the county assembly, who will double up as head of the county public service, and secretary to the county executive committee
As a specialty in the democratic system Kenyan law requires governors to have a recognised university degree (it is not necessary for the President of the United States, for example, to hold a degree).
The counties will each have an assembly whose members are elected from single member constituencies known as wards. There may also be a number of nominated members as is necessary to ensure that neither male nor female members constitute more than two-thirds of the assembly. There will also be six nominated members to represent marginalised groups (persons with disabilities, and the youth) and a county assembly speaker who will be an ex officio member of the assembly.
- Article 6, Devolution and access to Services, The 2010 Constitution of Kenya
- Article 98, (1) (a), Membership of the Senate, the 2010 Constitution of Kenya
- Article 97, (1) (b) Membership of the National Assembly, The 2010 Constitution of Kenya
- Kenyan County Commissioners Re-Organised Under New Structure, http://allafrica.com/stories/201307230067.html
- "List and Format Used to Number Kenya's 47 Counties". Soko Directory. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Kenya National Bureau of Statistics; and the final report of the IEBC as ratified in the National Assembly Constituencies and County Assembly Wards Order, 2012.
- "Home". knbs.or.ke.
- June 04 2021, Friday (4 June 2021). "Senate approves Nakuru bid for city status". Business Daily. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- Gachuhi, Kennedy. "Nakuru town's long journey to city status". The Standard. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- "Role and Functions of County Governments in Kenya". AfroCave. 6 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "2. County Governments". Kenya Law Reform Commission. 29 August 2012.
- "179. County executive committees". Kenya Law Reform Commission. 29 August 2012.
- "Role of Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission". AfroCave. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "180. Election of county governor and deputy county governor". Kenya Law Reform Commission. 29 August 2012.
- "Role and Functions of the County Secretary in Kenya". AfroCave. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
- Appointment of county secretary, Section 44, County Government Act 2012
- "SHITANDA, WANJIRU OUT OVER DEGREES". The Standard. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Functions and Role of the County Assembly in Kenya". AfroCave. 14 August 2018. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "Role of Members of the County Assembly in Kenya". AfroCave. 12 April 2019. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- Article 177, (1) Membership of a County Assembly, The 2010 Constitution of Kenya.
- Article 177 (c), The 2010 Constitution of Kenya