|possibly extinct; may be "a very few" L1 speakers (2007)|
Javindo, also known by the pejorative name Krontjong, was a Dutch-based creole language spoken on Java, Indonesia. The name Javindo is a portmanteau of Java and Indo, the Dutch word for a person of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent. This contact language developed from communication between Javanese-speaking mothers and Dutch-speaking fathers in Indo families. Its main speakers were Indo-Eurasian people. Its grammar was based on Javanese while the vocabulary was based on Dutch. Dutch lexicon was pronounced in a Javanese manner.
Even though most of the lexicon is derived from the Dutch language, the grammar of the language is mostly of Javanese origin including elements such as: morphology; lack of verbs; no past tense; no finite verb.
It should not be confused with Petjo, a different Dutch- and Malay-based creole also spoken by Indo-Eurasians. With the loss of the generation that lived in the Dutch East Indies era, this language has almost died out.
- Javindo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Javindo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Willems, Wim Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600–1942)., Part III by de Gruiter, V.E. (COMT, Leiden, 1994) ISBN 90-71042-44-8 P.140-143
- Willems, Wim Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600–1942)., Part III by de Gruiter, V.E. (COMT, Leiden, 1994) ISBN 90-71042-44-8 P.150
- De Gruiter, Miel (1994). "Javindo, a contact language in pre-war Semarang". In Peter Bakker & Maarten Mous (ed.). Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies in Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. pp. 151–159.
- De Gruiter, Victor Emile (1990, 1994). Het Javindo : de verboden taal. Den Haag: Moesson. Check date values in:
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