List of Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate

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The president pro tempore of the United States Senate (/ˌpr ˈtɛmpər/ or /ˌpr ˈtɛmpər/),[1] also president pro tem, is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article I, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President, despite not being a senator, is the President of the Senate. It also establishes that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore to act in his absence:[2]

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

During the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the vice president nor the president pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

The president pro tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the vice president and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and ahead of the Secretary of State.[3]

Since 1890, the most senior senator in the majority party has generally been chosen to be president pro tempore,[4] and holds the office continuously until the election of another president pro tempore.[5] During most of the 62nd Congress, following William Frye's resignation on April 27, 1911, five senators—Augustus Bacon, Charles Curtis, Jacob Gallinger, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Frank Brandegee—alternated as president pro tempore. In 2001, the honorary title of president pro tempore emeritus was created, has been given to a senator of the minority party who has previously served as president pro tempore.

Since the office was created in 1789, 90 individuals, from 39 of the 50 states, have served as President pro tempore of the Senate. The number of presidents pro tempore from each state are:

No President pro tempore has come from: California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, or Wyoming.

Presidents pro tempore[edit]

  Pro-Administration (2)       Anti-Administration (2)       Democratic-Republican (15)       Federalist (10)
  Democratic (34)       National Republican (2)       Whig (2)       Republican (23)       Independent (1)

President pro tempore State Party Term of office Congress
John langdon.jpg John Langdon[a] New Hampshire Pro-Administration April 6–21, 1789 1st Congress
August 7–9, 1789
Richard Henry Lee at Nat. Portrait Gallery IMG 4471.JPG Richard Henry Lee Virginia Anti-Administration April 18 – October 8, 1792 2nd Congress
John langdon.jpg John Langdon New Hampshire Pro-Administration November 5 – December 4, 1792
March 1–3, 1793
March 4 – December 2, 1793 3rd Congress
Ralph Izard2.jpg Ralph Izard South Carolina Pro-Administration May 31 – November 9, 1794
Henrytazewell.jpg Henry Tazewell Virginia Anti-Administration February 20, 1795 – June 7, 1795
Democratic-Republican 4th Congress
December 7–8, 1795
Samuel Livermore.jpg Samuel Livermore New Hampshire Federalist May 6 – December 4, 1796
WilliamBingham.jpg William Bingham Pennsylvania Federalist February 16 – March 3, 1797
President Pro Tempore US Senate Seal.svg William Bradford Rhode Island Federalist July 6 – October 1797 5th Congress
JacobRead.jpg Jacob Read South Carolina Federalist November 22 – December 12, 1797
TheodoreSedgwick.jpg Theodore Sedgwick Massachusetts Federalist June 27 – December 5, 1798
JohnLaurance.jpg John Laurance New York Federalist December 6–27, 1798
Rossjamespa.jpg James Ross Pennsylvania Federalist March 1 – December 1, 1799
Samuel Livermore.jpg Samuel Livermore New Hampshire Federalist December 2–29, 1799 6th Congress
UriahTracy.jpg Uriah Tracy Connecticut Federalist May 14 – November 16, 1800
Johneagerhoward.jpg John E. Howard Maryland Federalist November 21–27, 1800
James Hillhouse of New Haven Connecticut.jpg James Hillhouse Connecticut Federalist February 28 – March 3, 1801
Abraham Baldwin by Naegele.jpg Abraham Baldwin Georgia Democratic-Republican December 7, 1801 – January 14, 1802 7th Congress
April 17 – December 13, 1802
StephenRBradley.jpg Stephen R. Bradley Vermont Democratic-Republican December 14, 1802 – January 18, 1803
February 25, 1803
March 2 – October 16, 1803
Senator John Brown Kentucky.jpg John Brown Kentucky Democratic-Republican October 17 – December 6, 1803 8th Congress
January 23 – February 26, 1804
President Pro Tempore US Senate Seal.svg Jesse Franklin North Carolina Democratic-Republican March 10 – November 4, 1804
JosephAnderson.jpg Joseph Anderson Tennessee Democratic-Republican January 15 – February 3, 1805
February 28 – March 2, 1805
March 2 – December 1, 1805
General Samuel Smith Rembrandt Peale.jpeg Samuel Smith Maryland Democratic-Republican December 2–15, 1805 9th Congress
March 18 – November 30, 1806
March 2 – October 25, 1807
April 16 – November 6, 1808 10th Congress
StephenRBradley.jpg Stephen R. Bradley Vermont Democratic-Republican December 28, 1808 – January 8, 1809
Milledge.jpg John Milledge Georgia Democratic-Republican January 30 – March 3, 1809
March 4, 1809 – May 21, 1809 11th Congress
AndrewGregg.jpg Andrew Gregg Pennsylvania Democratic-Republican June 26 – December 18, 1809
John Gaillard G000005.jpg John Gaillard South Carolina Democratic-Republican February 28 – March 2, 1810
April 17 – December 11, 1810
AR Pope John.jpg John Pope Kentucky Democratic-Republican February 23 – November 3, 1811
WilliamHCrawford.png William H. Crawford[b] Georgia Democratic-Republican March 24, 1812 – March 3, 1813 12th Congress
March 4, 1813 – March 23, 1813 13th Congress
JosephBradleyVarnum.jpg Joseph B. Varnum Massachusetts Democratic-Republican December 6, 1813 – February 3, 1814
John Gaillard G000005.jpg John Gaillard[c] South Carolina Democratic-Republican April 18 – November 25, 1814
November 25, 1814 – December 3, 1815
December 4, 1815 – March 3, 1817 14th Congress
March 4, 1817 15th Congress
March 6, 1817 – February 18, 1818
March 31, 1818 – January 5, 1819
BarbourT.jpg James Barbour Virginia Democratic-Republican February 15 – December 5, 1819
December 6–26, 1819 16th Congress
John Gaillard G000005.jpg John Gaillard South Carolina Democratic-Republican January 25, 1820 – December 2, 1821
December 3–27, 1821 17th Congress
February 1 – December 2, 1822
February 19 – November 30, 1823
December 1, 1823 – January 20, 1824 18th Congress
May 21, 1824 – March 3, 1825
March 9 – December 4, 1825 19th Congress
NC-Congress-NathanielMacon.jpg Nathaniel Macon North Carolina Democratic-Republican May 20 – December 3, 1826
January 2 – February 13, 1827
March 2 – December 2, 1827
General Samuel Smith Rembrandt Peale.jpeg Samuel Smith Maryland Jacksonian
(Democratic)
May 15 – December 18, 1828 20th Congress
March 13 – December 10, 1829 21st Congress
May 20 – December 31, 1830
March 1 – December 4, 1831
December 5–11, 1831 22nd Congress
Littleton Waller Tazewell2.jpg Littleton Tazewell Virginia Democratic July 9–16, 1832
HLWhite.jpg Hugh Lawson White[d] Tennessee Democratic December 3, 1832 – December 1, 1833
December 2–15, 1833 23rd Congress
GeorgePoindexter.jpg George Poindexter Mississippi National Republican June 28 – November 30, 1834
Johntyler.jpg John Tyler Virginia National Republican March 3 – December 6, 1835 24th Congress
William Rufus DeVane King 1839 portrait.jpg William R. King Alabama Democratic July 1 – December 4, 1836
January 28 – March 3, 1837
March 7 – September 3, 1837 25th Congress
October 13 – December 3, 1837
July 2 – December 18, 1838
February 25 – December 1, 1839
December 2–26, 1839 26th Congress
July – December 15, 1840
March 3, 1841
March 4, 1841 27th Congress
Samuel L. Southard SecNavy.jpg Samuel Southard[e] New Jersey Whig March 11, 1841 – May 31, 1842
Willie p magnum.jpg Willie P. Mangum[e] North Carolina Whig May 31, 1842 – December 3, 1843
December 4, 1843 – March 3, 1845 28th Congress
March 4, 1845 29th Congress
AR Sevier Ambrose.jpg Ambrose H. Sevier[f] Arkansas Democratic December 27, 1845
David Rice Atchison by Mathew Brady March 1849.jpg David R. Atchison Missouri Democratic August 8 – December 6, 1846
January 11–13, 1847
March 3 – December 5, 1847
February 2–8, 1848 30th Congress
June 1–14, 1848
June 26–29, 1848
July 29 – December 4, 1848
December 26, 1848 – January 1, 1849
March 2–4, 1849
March 5, 1849 31st Congress
March 16 – December 2, 1849
William Rufus DeVane King 1839 portrait.jpg William R. King[g] Alabama Democratic May 6–19, 1850
July 11, 1850 – March 3, 1851
March 4, 1851 – December 20, 1852 32nd Congress
David Rice Atchison by Mathew Brady March 1849.jpg David R. Atchison[g][h] Missouri Democratic December 20, 1852 – March 3, 1853
March 4 – December 4, 1854 33rd Congress
Lewis Cass, 14th United States Secretary of War.jpg Lewis Cass[h] Michigan Democratic December 4, 1854
Jesse D Bright.jpg Jesse D. Bright[h] Indiana Democratic December 5, 1854 – December 2, 1855
December 5, 1855 –June 9, 1856 34th Congress
Charles E Stuart.jpg Charles E. Stuart[h] Michigan Democratic June 9–10, 1856
Jesse D Bright.jpg Jesse D. Bright[h] Indiana Democratic June 11, 1856 – January 6, 1857
JMMason.jpg James M. Mason[h] Virginia Democratic January 6 – March 3, 1857
March 4, 1857 35th Congress
ThomasJeffersonRusk.jpg Thomas J. Rusk Texas Democratic March 14 – July 29, 1857
Hon. Benjamin Fitzpatrick, Ala - NARA - 528657.jpg Benjamin Fitzpatrick Alabama Democratic December 7–20, 1857
March 29 – May 2, 1858
June 14 – December 5, 1858
January 19, 1859
January 25 – February 9, 1859
March 9 – December 4, 1859 36th Congress
December 19, 1859 – January 15, 1860
February 20–26, 1860
Jesse D Bright.jpg Jesse D. Bright Indiana Democratic June 12–13, 1860
Hon. Benjamin Fitzpatrick, Ala - NARA - 528657.jpg Benjamin Fitzpatrick Alabama Democratic June 26 – December 2, 1860
Solomon Foot - Brady-Handy.jpg Solomon Foot Vermont Republican February 16–17, 1861
March 23 – July 3, 1861 37th Congress
July 18 – December 1, 1861
January 15, 1862
March 31 – May 21, 1862
June 19 – December 12, 1862
February 18 – March 3, 1863
March 4 – December 6, 1863 38th Congress
December 18–20, 1863
February 23, 1864
March 11–13, 1864
April 11–13, 1864
Daniel Clark 1809-1891 - Brady-Handy.jpg Daniel Clark New Hampshire Republican April 26, 1864 – January 4, 1865
February 9–19, 1865
Lafayette S. Foster - Brady-Handy.jpg Lafayette S. Foster[i] Connecticut Republican March 7, 1865 – March 2, 1867 39th Congress
Benjamin F Wade - Brady-Handy.jpg Benjamin F. Wade[i] Ohio Republican March 2–3, 1867
March 4, 1867 – March 3, 1869 40th Congress
Henry B. Anthony - Brady-Handy.jpg Henry B. Anthony Rhode Island Republican March 23–28, 1869 41st Congress
April 9 – December 5, 1869
May 28 – June 2, 1870
July 1–5, 1870
July 14 – December 4, 1870
March 10–12, 1871 42nd Congress
April 17 – May 9, 1871
May 23 – December 3, 1871
December 21, 1871 – January 7, 1872
February 23–25, 1872
June 8 – December 1, 1872
December 4–8, 1872
December 13–15, 1872
December 20, 1872 – January 5, 1873
January 24, 1873
Matthew H. Carpenter - Brady-Handy.jpg Matthew H. Carpenter Wisconsin Republican March 12–13, 1873 43rd Congress
March 26 – November 30, 1873
December 11, 1873 – December 6, 1874
December 23, 1874 – January 4, 1875
Henry B. Anthony - Brady-Handy.jpg Henry B. Anthony Rhode Island Republican January 25–31, 1875
February 15–17, 1875
TWFerry.jpg Thomas W. Ferry[j] Michigan Republican March 9–10, 1875 44th Congress
March 19 – December 20, 1875
December 20, 1875 – March 4, 1877
March 5, 1877 45th Congress
February 26 – March 3, 1878
April 17 – December 1, 1878
March 3–17, 1879
Allen G. Thurman - Brady-Handy.jpg Allen G. Thurman Ohio Democratic April 15 – November 30, 1879 46th Congress
April 7–14, 1880
May 6 – December 5, 1880
Thomas F. Bayard, Brady-Handy photo portrait, circa 1870-1880.jpg Thomas F. Bayard, Sr.[k] Delaware Democratic October 10–13, 1881 47th Congress
DDavis.jpg David Davis[k] Illinois Independent October 13, 1881 – March 3, 1883
George F. Edmunds - Brady-Handy.jpg George F. Edmunds[k] Vermont Republican March 3 – December 2, 1883
December 3, 1883 – January 14, 1884 48th Congress
January 14, 1884 – March 3, 1885
John-Sherman-2.jpg John Sherman[l] Ohio Republican December 7, 1885 – February 26, 1887 49th Congress
John James Ingalls - Brady-Handy.jpg John James Ingalls[l] Kansas Republican February 26 – December 4, 1887
December 5, 1887 – March 3, 1889 50th Congress
March 7–17, 1889 51st Congress
April 2 – December 1, 1889
December 5–10, 1889
February 28 – March 18, 1890
April 3, 1890 – March 2, 1891
Charles F. Manderson - Brady-Handy.jpg Charles F. Manderson Nebraska Republican March 2 – December 6, 1891
December 7, 1891 – March 3, 1893 52nd Congress
March 4–22, 1893 53rd Congress
Isham-harris-by-brady.jpg Isham G. Harris Tennessee Democratic March 22, 1893 – January 7, 1895
Matt Whitaker Ransom - Brady-Handy.jpg Matt W. Ransom North Carolina Democratic January 7–10, 1895
Isham-harris-by-brady.jpg Isham G. Harris Tennessee Democratic January 10 – March 3, 1895
William P. Frye - Brady-Handy.jpg William P. Frye[m][n] Maine Republican February 7, 1896 – March 3, 1897 54th Congress
March 4, 1897 – December 3, 1899 55th Congress
December 4, 1899 – March 3, 1901 56th Congress
March 7, 1901 – March 4, 1903 57th Congress
March 5, 1903 – March 3, 1905 58th Congress
March 4, 1905 – March 3, 1907 59th Congress
December 5, 1907 – March 3, 1909 60th Congress
March 4, 1909 – April 3, 1911 61st Congress
April 4–27, 1911 62nd Congress
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic August 14, 1911
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg Charles Curtis Kansas Republican December 4–12, 1911
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic January 15–17, 1912
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger New Hampshire Republican February 12–14, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic March 11–12, 1912
Frank Bosworth Brandegee.jpg Frank B. Brandegee Connecticut Republican March 25–26, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic April 8, 1912
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger New Hampshire Republican April 26–27, 1912;
May 7, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic May 10, 1912
Cabotlodgenationalportrait.jpg Henry Cabot Lodge Massachusetts Republican May 25, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic May 30 – June 3, 1912;
June 13 – July 5, 1912
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger New Hampshire Republican July 6–31, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon Georgia Democratic August 1–10, 1912
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger New Hampshire Republican August 12–26, 1912
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon[o] Georgia Democratic August 27 – December 15, 1912
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger[o] New Hampshire Republican December 16, 1912, and
January 4, 1913
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon[o] Georgia Democratic January 5–18, 1913
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger[o] New Hampshire Republican January 19 – February 1, 1913
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg Augustus O. Bacon[o] Georgia Democratic February 2–15, 1913
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg Jacob H. Gallinger[o] New Hampshire Republican February 16 – March 3, 1913
AR Clarke John.jpg James Paul Clarke Arkansas Democratic March 13, 1913 – March 3, 1915 63rd Congress
December 6, 1915 – October 1, 1916 64th Congress
Willardsaulsburyjr.jpg Willard Saulsbury, Jr. Delaware Democratic December 14, 1916 – March 4, 1917
March 5, 1917 – March 3, 1919 65th Congress
Albert Baird Cummins circa 1917.jpg Albert B. Cummins[p] Iowa Republican May 19, 1919 – March 3, 1921 66th Congress
March 7, 1921 – December 2, 1923 67th Congress
December 3, 1923 – March 3, 1925 68th Congress
March 4–6, 1925 69th Congress
George Higgins Moses in 1918.jpg George H. Moses New Hampshire Republican March 6, 1925 – March 4, 1927
December 15, 1927 – March 3, 1929 70th Congress
March 4, 1929 – December 6, 1931 71st Congress
December 7, 1931 – March 3, 1933 72nd Congress
Key Pittman in 1915.jpg Key Pittman Nevada Democratic March 9, 1933 – January 2, 1935 73rd Congress
January 7, 1935 – January 4, 1937 74th Congress
January 5, 1937 – January 2, 1939 75th Congress
January 3, 1939 – November 10, 1940 76th Congress
WilliamHKing.jpg William H. King Utah Democratic November 19, 1940 – January 3, 1941
PatHarrison1918.jpg Pat Harrison Mississippi Democratic January 6 – June 22, 1941 77th Congress
CGlass.jpg Carter Glass Virginia Democratic July 10, 1941 – January 5, 1943
January 14, 1943 – January 2, 1945 78th Congress
McKellarKenneth.jpg Kenneth McKellar[q] Tennessee Democratic January 6, 1945 – January 2, 1947 79th Congress
Arthur H. Vandenberg.jpg Arthur H. Vandenberg[q] Michigan Republican January 4, 1947 – January 2, 1949 80th Congress
McKellarKenneth.jpg Kenneth McKellar[q] Tennessee Democratic January 3, 1949 – January 2, 1951 81st Congress
January 3, 1951 – January 2, 1953 82nd Congress
StylesBridges(R-NH).jpg Styles Bridges New Hampshire Republican January 3, 1953 – January 4, 1955 83rd Congress
Walter George.PNG Walter F. George Georgia Democratic January 5, 1955 – January 2, 1957 84th Congress
Carl Hayden.jpg Carl Hayden[r] Arizona Democratic January 3, 1957 – January 6, 1959 85th Congress
January 7, 1959 – January 2, 1961 86th Congress
January 3, 1961 – January 8, 1963 87th Congress
January 9, 1963 – January 3, 1965 88th Congress
January 4, 1965 – January 9, 1967 89th Congress
January 10, 1967 – January 2, 1969 90th Congress
Richard RussellJr.jpg Richard Russell, Jr. Georgia Democratic January 3, 1969 – January 20, 1971 91st Congress
January 21, 1971 92nd Congress
Allen Joseph Ellender cph.3b21059.jpg Allen J. Ellender Louisiana Democratic January 22, 1971 – July 27, 1972
James O Eastland.jpg James Eastland[s][t] Mississippi Democratic July 28, 1972 – January 2, 1973
January 3, 1973 – January 13, 1975 93rd Congress
January 14, 1975 – January 3, 1977 94th Congress
January 4, 1977 – December 27, 1978 95th Congress
WarrenGMagnuson.jpg Warren Magnuson Washington Democratic January 15, 1979 – December 4, 1980 96th Congress
Milton Young.jpg Milton Young North Dakota Republican December 5, 1980
WarrenGMagnuson.jpg Warren Magnuson Washington Democratic December 6, 1980 – January 4, 1981
Strom Thurmond.jpg Strom Thurmond South Carolina Republican January 5, 1981 – January 2, 1983 97th Congress
January 3, 1983 – January 2, 1985 98th Congress
January 3, 1985 – January 5, 1987 99th Congress
Stennis3rd.jpg John C. Stennis Mississippi Democratic January 6, 1987 – January 3, 1989 100th Congress
Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg Robert Byrd West Virginia Democratic January 3, 1989 – January 2, 1991 101st Congress
January 3, 1991 – January 4, 1993 102nd Congress
January 5, 1993 – January 3, 1995 103rd Congress
Strom Thurmond.jpg Strom Thurmond South Carolina Republican January 4, 1995 – January 6, 1997 104th Congress
January 7, 1997 – January 6, 1999 105th Congress
January 7, 1999 – January 3, 2001 106th Congress
Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg Robert Byrd West Virginia Democratic January 3–20, 2001 107th Congress
Strom Thurmond.jpg Strom Thurmond South Carolina Republican January 20 – June 6, 2001
Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg Robert Byrd West Virginia Democratic June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Ted Stevens.jpg Ted Stevens Alaska Republican January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2005 108th Congress
January 3, 2005 – January 4, 2007 109th Congress
Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg Robert Byrd West Virginia Democratic January 4, 2007 – January 3, 2009 110th Congress
January 3, 2009 – June 28, 2010 111th Congress
Daniel Inouye, official Senate photo portrait, 2008.jpg Daniel Inouye Hawaii Democratic June 28, 2010 – January 5, 2011
January 5, 2011 – December 17, 2012 112th Congress
Leahy2009.jpg Patrick Leahy Vermont Democratic December 17, 2012 – January 3, 2013
January 3, 2013 – January 6, 2015 113th Congress
Orrin Hatch, Official Photograph.jpg Orrin Hatch Utah Republican January 6, 2015 – January 3, 2017 114th Congress
January 3, 2017 – Incumbent 115th Congress

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 6–21, 1789, prior to the inauguration of John Adams.
  2. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 20, 1812–March 4, 1813, following the death of George Clinton.
  3. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, November 23, 1814–March 4, 1817, following the death of Elbridge Gerry.
  4. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, December 28, 1832–March 4, 1833, following the resignation of John C. Calhoun.
  5. ^ a b Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 4, 1841–March 4, 1845, after John Tyler succeeded to the presidency.
  6. ^ Ambrose H. Sevier was not elected as president pro tempore in an official manner, but permitted to occupy the chair for the day.
  7. ^ a b Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, July 9, 1850–March 4, 1853, after Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 18, 1853–March 4, 1857, following the death of William R. King.
  9. ^ a b Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 15, 1865–March 4, 1869, after Andrew Johnson succeeded to presidency.
  10. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, November 22, 1875–March 4, 1877, following the death of Henry Wilson.
  11. ^ a b c Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, September 19, 1881–March 4, 1885, after Chester A. Arthur succeeded to presidency.
  12. ^ a b Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, November 25, 1885–March 4, 1889, following the death of Thomas A. Hendricks.
  13. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, November 21, 1899–March 4, 1901, following the death of Garret Hobart.
  14. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, September 14, 1901–March 4, 1905, after Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to presidency.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, October 30, 1912–March 4, 1913, following the death of James S. Sherman.
  16. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, August 2, 1923–March 4, 1925, after Calvin Coolidge succeeded to presidency.
  17. ^ a b c Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, April 12, 1945–January 20, 1949, after Harry S. Truman succeeded to presidency.
  18. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, November 22, 1963–January 20, 1965, after Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded to presidency.
  19. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, October 10, 1973–December 6, 1973, following the resignation of Spiro Agnew.
  20. ^ Served during a vacancy in the vice presidency, August 9, 1974–December 19, 1974, after Gerald Ford succeeded to presidency.

Presidents pro tempore emeritus[edit]

In 2001 the Senate created the office of President pro tempore emeritus.[4]

President pro tempore emeritus State Party Term of office Congress
Strom Thurmond South Carolina Republican June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003 107th Congress
Robert Byrd West Virginia Democratic January 4, 2003 – January 3, 2007 108th Congress
109th Congress
Ted Stevens Alaska Republican January 4, 2007 – January 3, 2009 110th Congress
Patrick Leahy Vermont Democratic January 6, 2015 – present 114th Congress
115th Congress

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pro tempore Legal Definition". Lawyers.com. 
  2. ^ Kathy Gill. "US Senate Organization". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  3. ^ Mount, Steve. "Constitutional Topic: Presidential Line of Succession". USConstitution.net. Steve Mount. Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Davis, Christopher M. (December 20, 2012). The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office (Report). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  5. ^ Sachs, Richard C. (January 22, 2003). "The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 9, 2008. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Senate document "President Pro Tempore".