List of World Heritage Sites in Indonesia

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The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 8 World Heritage Sites in Indonesia.[1][2]

Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[3] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Indonesia, there are 4 cultural, 4 natural, and no mixed sites.[1]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra. A number of organizations have been pushing the Ministry of Culture to nominate more sites for UNESCO inclusion since 2015.

Location of sites[edit]


The table is sortable by column by clicking on the Sort both.gif at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[4]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[3]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable

Inscribed sites[edit]

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Borobudur Temple Compounds A terraced pyramid like structure with a stupa on top. Magelang Regency, Central Java
7°36′28″S 110°12′13″E / 7.60778°S 110.20361°E / -7.60778; 110.20361 (Borobudur Temple Compounds)
(i), (ii), (vi)
1991 This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO's help in the 1970s. 592[5]
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy Bali panorama.jpg Bali
8°20′0″S 115°0′0″E / 8.33333°S 115.00000°E / -8.33333; 115.00000 (Cultural Landscape of Bali Province)
(ii), (iii), (v), (vi)
19,520 (48,200) 2012 The cultural landscape of Bali consists of five rice terraces and their water temples that cover 19,500 ha. The temples are the focus of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak, that dates back to the 9th century. Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The subak reflects the philosophical concept of Tri Hita Karana, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchange between Bali and India over the past 2,000 years and has shaped the landscape of Bali. The subak system of democratic and egalitarian farming practices has enabled the Balinese to become the most prolific rice growers in the archipelago despite the challenge of supporting a dense population. 1194rev[6]
Komodo National Park Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park.jpg East Nusa Tenggara
8°33′S 119°29′E / 8.550°S 119.483°E / -8.550; 119.483 (Komodo National Park)
(vii), (x)
219,322 (541,960) 1991 These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral. 609[7]
Lorentz National Park A rocky mountain ridge. Papua
4°45′S 137°50′E / 4.750°S 137.833°E / -4.750; 137.833 (Lorentz National Park)
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,350,000 (5,800,000) 1999 Lorentz National Park (2.35 million ha) is the largest protected area in South-East Asia. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting-point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with ongoing mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation. The area also contains fossil sites which provide evidence of the evolution of life on New Guinea, a high level of endemism and the highest level of biodiversity in the region. 955[8]
Prambanan Temple Compounds Prambanan at night.jpg Central Java
7°45′8″S 110°29′30″E / 7.75222°S 110.49167°E / -7.75222; 110.49167 (Prambanan Temple Compounds)
(i), (iv)
1991 Built in the 10th century, this is the largest temple compound dedicated to Shiva in Indonesia. Rising above the centre of the last of these concentric squares are three temples decorated with reliefs illustrating the epic of the Ramayana, dedicated to the three great Hindu divinities (Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma) and three temples dedicated to the animals who serve them. 642[9]
Sangiran Early Man Site Upper part of a petrified skull including some teeth. Central Java
7°24′0″S 110°49′0″E / 7.40000°S 110.81667°E / -7.40000; 110.81667 (Sangiran Early Man Site)
(iii), (vi)
5,600 (14,000) 1996 Excavations here from 1936 to 1941 led to the discovery of the first hominid fossil at this site. Later, 50 fossils of Meganthropus palaeo and Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus were found – half of all the world's known hominid fossils. Inhabited for the past one and a half million years, Sangiran is one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution. 593[10]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra Sumatra,
2°30′S 101°30′E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra)
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 The 2.5 million hectare Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra site comprises three national parks: Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The site holds the greatest potential for long-term conservation of the distinctive and diverse biota of Sumatra, including many endangered species. The protected area is home to an estimated 10,000 plant species, including 17 endemic genera; more than 200 mammal species; and some 580 bird species of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemic. Of the mammal species, 22 are Asian, not found elsewhere in the archipelago and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orang-utan. The site also provides biogeographic evidence of the evolution of the island. The site has been listed as endangered since 2011 due to poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads. 1167[11][12]
Ujung Kulon National Park Rocky ground within a tropical forest. Banten and Lampung
6°45′S 105°20′E / 6.750°S 105.333°E / -6.750; 105.333 (Ujung Kulon National Park)
(vii), (x)
78,525 (194,040) 1991 This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat. 608[13]

Tentative list[edit]

The following 18 sites are on the Tentative List for Indonesia, meaning that the government intends to consider them for nomination in the future:[14]

Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
The Historic and Marine Landscape of the Banda Islands The island of Run was once traded for Manhattan it was a valuable source of spice. Central Maluku Regency, Maluku
40°28′0″S 129°39′0″E / 40.46667°S 129.65000°E / -40.46667; 129.65000 (Banda Island)
(iv), (vi), (x)
2015 6065[15]
Bawomataluo Site Omo Sebua means the big house. This is a traditional house from South Nias. South Nias Regency, Nias, North Sumatra
00°36′59″N 97°46′17″E / 0.61639°N 97.77139°E / 0.61639; 97.77139 (Bawomataluo)
(i), (iv), (vi)
5 ha 2009 5463[16]
Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo) West Kalimantan
0°40′0″N 112°15′0″E / 0.66667°N 112.25000°E / 0.66667; 112.25000 (Betung Kerihun National Park)
(viii), (ix), (x)
800,000 ha 1871[17]
Bunaken National Park Bunaken National Marine Park, Manado, Indonesia. Manado, North Sulawesi
1°35′0″N 124°39′0″E / 1.58333°N 124.65000°E / 1.58333; 124.65000 (Bunaken National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
280,000 ha 2005 2002[18]
Derawan Islands A quiet morning in Derawan Island, East Kalimantan. Berau Regency, East Kalimantan
2°15′0″N 118°25′0″E / 2.25000°N 118.41667°E / 2.25000; 118.41667 (Derawan Islands)
2005 2007[19]
Muara Takus Compound Site Muara Takus Compound Site. Kampar Regency, Riau
0°20′20″N 100°38′24.62″E / 0.33889°N 100.6401722°E / 0.33889; 100.6401722 (Muara Takus Compound Site)
(i), (iv), (vi)
2009 5464[20]
Muarajambi Temple Compound Muarajambi Temple Compound. Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi
1°24′0″S 103°2′0″E / 1.40000°S 103.03333°E / -1.40000; 103.03333 (Muarajambi Temple Compound)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2062 ha 2009 5464[21]
Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep. Maros Regency, South Sulawesi
4°42′49″S 119°34′17″E / 4.71361°S 119.57139°E / -4.71361; 119.57139 (Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep)
21,631 ha forest area, 43,750 ha the Karst Maros-Pangkep area 2009 5467[22]
Raja Ampat Islands Raja Ampat Islands. West Papua province
0°30′0″N 124°30′0″E / 0.50000°N 124.50000°E / 0.50000; 124.50000 (Raja Ampat Islands)
(vii), (x)
4.6 million ha 2005 2003[23]
Taka Bonerate National Park Selayar Regency, South Sulawesi
6°16′0″S 120°54′0″E / 6.26667°S 120.90000°E / -6.26667; 120.90000 (Taka Bonerate National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
530,765 ha 2005 2005[24]
Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement. Tana Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi
2°36′0″S 119°22′0″E / 2.60000°S 119.36667°E / -2.60000; 119.36667 (Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement)
(iv), (v), (vi)
3,205 km2 2009 5462[25]
Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom. Mojokerto Regency, East Java
7°30′0″S 112°18′0″E / 7.50000°S 112.30000°E / -7.50000; 112.30000 (Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom)
(i), (v)
99 km2 2009 5466[26]
Wakatobi National Park Wakatobi National Park. Buton Regency, Southeast Sulawesi
5°12′0″S 123°20′0″E / 5.20000°S 123.33333°E / -5.20000; 123.33333 (Wakatobi National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
1,390,000 ha 2005 2006[27]
Sangkulirang - Mangkahilat Karts: Prehistoric rock art area East Kalimantan Cultural:
- 2015 6009[28]
The Old Town of Jakarta (Formerly old Batavia) and 4 Outlying Islands (Onrust, Kelor, Cipir dan Bidadari) Old Town of Jakarta. Jakarta Cultural:
- 2015 6010[29]
Semarang Old Town Semarang Old Town. Central Java Cultural:
- 2015 6011[30]
Sawahlunto Old Coal Mining Town Sawahlunto. West Sumatra Cultural:
- 2015 6057[31]
Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatra Cultural:
- 2015 6059[32]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "World Heritage Properties in Indonesia". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  2. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". Geographical region and composition of each region. United Nations Statistics Division. 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  4. ^ "World Heritage List Nominations". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  5. ^ "Borobudur Temple Compounds". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  6. ^ "Cultural Landscape of Bali Province". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Komodo National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Lorentz National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  9. ^ "Prambanan Temple Compounds". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  10. ^ "Sangiran Early Man Site". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  11. ^ "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "Ujung Kulon National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  14. ^ "Tentative Lists: Indonesia". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  15. ^ "Banda Islands". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  16. ^ "Bawomataluo Site". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  17. ^ "Betung Kerihun National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "Bunaken National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Derawan Islands". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  20. ^ "Muara Takus Compound Site". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "Muarajambi Temple Compound". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  22. ^ "Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  23. ^ "Raja Ampat Islands". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  24. ^ "Taka Bonerate National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  25. ^ "Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  26. ^ "Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  27. ^ "Wakatobi National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  28. ^ "Sangkulirang - Mangkahilat Karts: Prehistoric rock art area". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  29. ^ "The Old Town of Jakarta (Formerly old Batavia) and 4 Outlying Islands (Onrust, Kelor, Cipir dan Bidadari)". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  30. ^ "Semarang Old Town". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  31. ^ "Sawahlunto Old Coal Mining Town". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  32. ^ "Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 August 2015.