List of World Heritage Sites in Indonesia

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Location of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Indonesia. Blue dots indicate the three national parks in Sumatra, comprising the site Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Cultural heritage consists of monuments (such as architectural works, monumental sculptures, or inscriptions), groups of buildings, and sites (including archaeological sites). Natural features (consisting of physical and biological formations), geological and physiographical formations (including habitats of threatened species of animals and plants), and natural sites which are important from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty, are defined as natural heritage.[2]

The Republic of Indonesia ratified the convention on 6 June 1989, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.[3] As of 2021, there are nine World Heritage Sites in Indonesia, five of which are cultural and four are natural. This makes Indonesia possess the highest number of sites in Southeast Asia.[4] The first four sites to be inscribed to the list were the Borobudur Temple Compounds, the Prambanan Temple Compounds, Ujung Kulon National Park, and Komodo National Park in 1991. The most recent addition to the list was the Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto in 2019. In 2011, the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra was inscribed to the list of World Heritage in Danger, due to threats posed by poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads through the site.[5] In addition, Indonesia has 19 sites on the tentative list.[3]

World Heritage Sites[edit]

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[6]

 In danger
World Heritage Sites
Site Image Location UNESCO data Year listed Description
Borobudur Temple Compounds A view from the temple down, several stupas Magelang Regency, Central Java 592; Cultural:
(i), (ii), (vi)
1991 This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO's help in the 1970s.[7]
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy Panoramic image of a mountainous greenery Bali 1194rev; Cultural:
(iii), (v), (vi)
2012 The cultural landscape of Bali consists of five rice terraces and their water temples that cover 19,500 ha. The temples are the focus of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak, that dates back to the 9th century. Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The subak reflects the philosophical concept of Tri Hita Karana, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchange between Bali and India over the past 2,000 years and has shaped the landscape of Bali. The subak system of democratic and egalitarian farming practices has enabled the Balinese to become the most prolific rice growers in the archipelago despite the challenge of supporting a dense population.[8]
Komodo National Park A komodo dragon at the seashore. West Manggarai Regency, East Nusa Tenggara 609; Natural:
(vii), (x)
1991 These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral.[9]
Lorentz National Park A rocky mountain ridge. Papua 955; Natural:
(viii), (ix), (x)
1999 Lorentz National Park (2.35 million ha) is the largest protected area in South-East Asia. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting-point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with ongoing mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation. The area also contains fossil sites which provide evidence of the evolution of life on New Guinea, a high level of endemism and the highest level of biodiversity in the region.[10]
Prambanan Temple Compounds Several medium-high compounds forming a complex. Central Java and Special Region of Yogyakarta 642; Cultural:
(i), (iv)
1991 Built in the 10th century, this is the largest temple compound dedicated to Shiva in Indonesia. Rising above the centre of the last of these concentric squares are three temples decorated with reliefs illustrating the epic of the Ramayana, dedicated to the three great Hindu divinities (Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma) and three temples dedicated to the animals who serve them.[11]
Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto A coal mine, with transportation being a cart. West Sumatra 6057; Cultural:
2019 Built for the extraction, processing and transport of high-quality coal in an inaccessible region of Sumatra, this industrial site was developed by the Netherlands’ colonial government from the late 19th to the beginning of the 20th century with a workforce recruited from the local population and supplemented by convict labour from Dutch-controlled areas. It comprises the mining site and company town, coal storage facilities at the port of Emmahaven and the railway network linking the mines to the coastal facilities. The Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage was built as an integrated system that enabled the efficient deep-bore extraction, processing, transport and shipment of coal.[12]
Sangiran Early Man Site Upper part of a petrified skull including some teeth. Sragen Regency, Central Java 593; Cultural:
(iii), (vi)
1996 Excavations here from 1936 to 1941 led to the discovery of the first hominid fossil at this site. Later, 50 fossils of Meganthropus palaeo and Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus were found – half of all the world's known hominid fossils. Inhabited for the past one and a half million years, Sangiran is one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution.[13]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra View of a hill. Aceh, Jambi, and Lampung 1167; Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
2004 The 2.5 million hectare Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra site comprises three national parks: Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The site holds the greatest potential for long-term conservation of the distinctive and diverse biota of Sumatra, including many endangered species. The protected area is home to an estimated 10,000 plant species, including 17 endemic genera; more than 200 mammal species; and some 580 bird species of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemic. Of the mammal species, 22 are Asian, not found elsewhere in the archipelago and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orangutan. The site also provides biogeographic evidence of the evolution of the island. The site has been listed as endangered since 2011 due to poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads.[14][15]
Ujung Kulon National Park A lonely rainforest, with a small string of river at the center. Banten and Lampung 608; Natural:
(vii), (x)
1991 This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat.[16]

Tentative list[edit]

The following 19 sites are on the Tentative List for Indonesia, meaning that the government intends to consider them for nomination in the future:[17]

Site Image Location UNESCO data Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Bawomataluo Site Photograph of a traditional wooden house with a high triangular roof. South Nias Regency, Nias, North Sumatra
00°36′59″N 97°46′17″E / 0.61639°N 97.77139°E / 0.61639; 97.77139 (Bawomataluo)
5463; Cultural:
(i), (iv), (vi)
5 ha 2009 Located in the Teluk Dalam province of the South Nias Regency, it is believed to have originated back to the 18th century. Large stone slabs stand in front of the houses and an open space in the center of the village is used for traditional ceremonies and rituals. [18]
Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo)
Photograph of an orangutan amid a forest.
West Kalimantan
0°40′0″N 112°15′0″E / 0.66667°N 112.25000°E / 0.66667; 112.25000 (Betung Kerihun National Park)
1871; Natural:
(viii), (ix), (x)
800,000 ha 2004 Betung Kerihun National Park (BKNP) is located at the headwaters of the Kapuas River in the far interior of Kalimantan Barat (;Western Kalimantan) Province. The site covers an area of 800,000 Ha and borders the 200,000 Ha Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (LEWS) in Sarawak, Malaysia. Together the two protected areas form one of the first trans-border parks in Southeast Asia. [19]
Bunaken National Park A coral reef, with several fishes lounging about. Manado, North Sulawesi
1°35′0″N 124°39′0″E / 1.58333°N 124.65000°E / 1.58333; 124.65000 (Bunaken National Park)
2002; Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
280,000 ha 2005 This part of North Sulawesi was undergone multiple geologic stages. It is considered to be a "young" continent of 5–24 million years of age which has undergone explosive volcanism more recently (1.5 to 5 million years ago) which resulted in the volcanic tuff that characterizes the existing topography. Manado Tua is an inactive volcano formed in a classical cone shape with a 27–45-ft slope. The island rises over 600 m above sea level, the highest elevation in the park. Bunaken Island has volcanic origins with a significant amount of uplifted fossil coral. At the west and central part of Bunaken Island (71 m high) there is a flat plateau about 5Om above mean sea level (msl). Nain Island is also a dome-shaped island, 139 m in height and with a slope of 20–40 inches. Mantehage Island is relatively flat and seems to be sinking into the sea. The island has extensive mangrove forest flats, partially separated by saltwater channels. Siladen is a low-lying coral sand island with no significant topography. Arakan-Wawontulap and Molas-Wori on the mainland of North Sulawesi are relatively flat areas at the base of volcanic hills. [20]
Derawan Islands A quiet early morning at a beach, with several boats wandering. Berau Regency, East Kalimantan
2°15′0″N 118°25′0″E / 2.25000°N 118.41667°E / 2.25000; 118.41667 (Derawan Islands)
2007; Natural:
2005 Stretching over 100 miles along the coast of East Kalimantan, the Derawan island chain is one of the most biologically rich areas in all of Indonesia. Here, water from the Berau River mixing with the Sulawesi Sea created a unique seascape characterized by a broad river delta leading to a scattered groupings of patch reefs, fringing reefs, and atolls. [21]
The Historic and Marine Landscape of the Banda Islands A maritime shore, with a hill bordering. Central Maluku Regency, Maluku
40°28′0″S 129°39′0″E / 40.46667°S 129.65000°E / -40.46667; 129.65000 (Banda Island)
6065; Mixed:
(iv), (vi), (x)
2015 The Banda Islands are also known under the name 'Spice Islands’, as this island group was the original and sole location of the production of the spices nutmeg and mace during the most prosperous years of Dutch, English and Portuguese colonization. The Banda Islands are situated in the eastern part of the Indo-Malayan archipelago. It consists of eleven small volcanic islands, called Neira, Gunung Api, Banda Besar, Rhun, Ai, Hatta, Syahrir, Karaka, Manukan, Nailaka and Batu Kapal, with an approximate land area of 8,150 hectares in total. These islands were the scene of the earliest European ventures in Asia. [22]
Historical City Centre of Yogyakarta Front hall of traditionally grandeur structure. Special Region of Yogyakarta
7°48′03.8″S 110°21′53.3″E / 7.801056°S 110.364806°E / -7.801056; 110.364806 (Historical City Centre of Yogyakarta)
6206; Cultural:
(i), (ii), (vi)
1260 ha 2017 The historical city of Yogyakarta is a traditional Javanese city founded in 1756 by Pangeran Mangkubumi or the first Sultan Hamengkubuwana as the centre of the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (henceforth: Kasultanan Yogyakarta). Distinct from other Javanese city, the city centre was designed based on specific Javanese cosmology and philosophy as manifested in its location and plan. The location of Yogyakarta city was deliberately chosen to precisely reflect microcosmos, whereas the plan of the city centre was drawn up based on the Javanese philosophy regarding the nature of human destiny. Accordingly, every component of the historical city centre of Yogyakarta has its own philosophical meaning. [23]
Kebun Raya Bogor A botanic garden, with a fountain at the center. Bogor, West Java
6°36′13.28″S 106°48′17.6″E / 6.6036889°S 106.804889°E / -6.6036889; 106.804889 (Kebun Raya Bogor)
6353; Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
75.4 ha 2018 Kebun Raya Bogor or Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG) is an ex situ conservation area located in the administrative area of Bogor City, West Java Province, Indonesia. Area of BBG was 75.4 ha. Bogor Botanical Garden is at N 6º35‟32.78" S 6º36‟13.28" W 106º47‟36.72" E 106º48‟17.6". Bogor Botanic Gardens is one of the plant conservation areas that became important evidence in the historical development of science in Indonesia. There are more than 24 research institutions on natural sciences directly and directly established by Bogor Botanic Gardens located in Buitenzorg/Bogor. In the beginning the establishment of Bogor Botanic Gardens was intended as a place of acclimatization of plant species originating from foreign countries that have high economic value. Now, Bogor Botanic Gardens not only conserve the types of economic value, but also conserve the species of plants that are rare, endemic, scientific value and have the potential to be developed from the entire tropics. Collection of plants arranged in the form of blocks and grouped by taxonomic and thematic classification pattern. [24]
Muara Takus Compound Site A lonely square of brown structures. Kampar Regency, Riau
0°20′20″N 100°38′24.62″E / 0.33889°N 100.6401722°E / 0.33889; 100.6401722 (Muara Takus Compound Site)
5464; Cultural:
(i), (iv), (vi)
2009 Muara Takus Site is administratively under the Muara Takus village, in the district of Koto Kampar XIII, which is situated in the Kampar regency of Riau province. The Kampar Kanan river divides Muara Takus into two regions. The river flowing northward forms a parabolic river bend. In the eastern side of the river, there is a small river which is known by the local people as the Umpamo or Limpamo river. The headwaters of this small river is located in the swamp areas in the southeast of Muara Takus and this small river ends in the Kampar Kanan River. The estuary of the Umpamo or Limpamo river is situated exactly at the northernmost curve of the Kampar Kanan River. In the past, a human settlement was situated at the inner side and northern side of the river bend, but more specifically in the eastern side of the river. However, due to the hydro-power electricity plant development project, both sub-village regions were relocated to a new location approximately 1.5 kilometres southwards of the former settlement. [25]
Muara Jambi Temple Compound Entrance to a brown, squared temple. Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi
1°24′0″S 103°2′0″E / 1.40000°S 103.03333°E / -1.40000; 103.03333 (Muarajambi Temple Compound)
5465; Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2062 ha 2009 The Muarajambi Temple Compound Site is located in the Muarajambi Village, in the District of Maro Sebo, Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi Province. From Jambi city, the site is less than 40 kilometers and can be reached by land transportation or through the river in one hour. The site is spread along 7.5 kilometers of the riverbanks of Batanghari River in which old canals or man-made rivers are positioned to connect the Batanghari River with the site. Through these ancient canals that circulate the site, people could reach the temple compounds. In the Muarajambi Temple Compound Site that covers an area of 2062 hectares, there were at least 82 ruins of ancient buildings made of brick construction. Seven of these ancient temples have been given intensive conservation treatment; meanwhile the remaining structures are covered with primary and secondary vegetation, and surrounded by the local community plantation of Sumatran endemic plants (planted by the local people known as Menapo). The seven temple compounds are the Gumpung, Tinggi I, Tinggi II, Kembar Batu, Astano, Gedong I and Gedong II, and the Kedaton Temple. In addition to that conservation treatment, several of the ancient canals and the old ponds that were previously covered with water vegetation have been cleared and are now restored to normal, such as the ancient canals in Jambi River and the Telago Rajo Pond. Based on archaeology research and historical sources, the Muarajambi Temple Compound Site was once the centre for worship and education of the Buddhist religion in the period of the Ancient Malay Kingdom in the 7th–14th centuries AD. [26]
The Old Town of Jakarta (Formerly old Batavia) and 4 Outlying Islands (Onrust, Kelor, Cipir dan Bidadari) View of a colonial area. Jakarta
6°08′05″S 106°48′48″E / 6.13472°S 106.81333°E / -6.13472; 106.81333 (The Old Town of Jakarta (Formerly old Batavia) and 4 Outlying Islands (Onrust, Kelor, Cipir dan Bidadari))
6010; Cultural:
- 2015 Located at the mouth of the Ciliwung River in Java, the Old Town of Jakarta was established by the VOC in 1619. Its 17th-century town plan was completed in 1650. In 17th and 18th century VOC had largest volume of trade in the world, governed from Batavia. No colonial town built by VOC matched the grandeur and completeness (military, civil engineering, and urban elements) of Dutch town planning & architecture of Batavia. The nominated property: the 1650 town (1.5 km x 1 km) with 4 major areas on the Ciliwung River sides. West side: former Jayakarta and two 18th century houses. Northwest side: West Warehouse, old town wall remains, Floating Warehouse, VOC shipyard, Luar Batang Mosque. East side: East Warehouse, Town Square, Town Hall. South east side: China Town. Kalibesar Canal with traditional boats wharf. Islands: Onrust, Kelor, Cipir & Bidadari with shipyard and forts. [27]
Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep Handprints at an aging wall. Maros Regency, South Sulawesi
4°42′49″S 119°34′17″E / 4.71361°S 119.57139°E / -4.71361; 119.57139 (Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep)
5467; Natural:
21,631 ha forest area, 43,750 ha the Karst Maros-Pangkep area 2009 In general, the karst landscape is hilly and has mountainous terrains. The mountainous area is situated in the north east or located in the Bulusaraung Mountains. The highest peak of the mountain is 1,565 m above sea level in the northern side of Bulusaraung Mountain. This side of the mountain has a steep slope with rough texture. The climate in the Maros Pangkep area is tropical with the dry season between the months of November to April meanwhile the rainy season runs from May to October. The temperature ranges from 210–310 °C or on average 26.40 °C, with fluctuating humidity. The area of the Pangkep conservation forest covers around ± 21.631 hectares from the total forest area of 32.503 hectares. Most of the conservation forest is within the karst area that is part of the National Park of Bantimurung and Bulusaraung (Babul). [28]
Raja Ampat Islands A vibrant, lively coral reef. West Papua province
0°30′0″N 124°30′0″E / 0.50000°N 124.50000°E / 0.50000; 124.50000 (Raja Ampat Islands)
2003; Natural:
(vii), (x)
4.6 million ha 2005 The Raja Ampat Islands, situated near the Northwest coast of Papua, consists of about 1,500 islands, including several large, mountainous islands, the largest being Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. The land and surrounding sea occupy approximately 46,000 sq km or about 4.6 million ha. The islands are located in a region on the western boarder of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and at the Northeastern ‘entrance’ of the Indonesian Throughflow from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The vast majority of the archipelago rests on the Sahul shelf. The wide distribution of small islands across the shelf edge creates a strong gradient from clear water, open oceanic conditions to sheltered and turbid bays, surrounded by karst limestone formations. [29]
Sangkulirang – Mangkahilat Karts: Prehistoric rock art area Painting of a bull in Lubang Jeriji Saléh. East Kalimantan
1°09′39.12″N 117°09′32.62″E / 1.1608667°N 117.1590611°E / 1.1608667; 117.1590611 (Sangkulirang - Mangkahilat Karts: Prehistoric rock art area)
6009; Cultural:
- 2015 The property is situated in the middle-eastern part of East Kalimantan Province, at Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Peninsula. It contains thousands of red rock-art paintings, and some sites with engraving located at 35 sites in seven different karst mountain areas at the head of the Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Peninsula (Merabu, Batu Raya, Batu Gergaji, Batu Nyere, Batu Tutunambo, Batu Pengadan and Batu Tabalar). [30]
Semarang Old Town Photo of a colonial complex. Semarang, Central Java
6°58′06″S 110°25′40″E / 6.96833°S 110.42778°E / -6.96833; 110.42778 (Semarang Old Town)
6011; Cultural:
- 2015 Semarang is a colonial city par excellence. Established in 17th century, Kota Lama Semarang is a best preserved colonial city with remarkable testimony of important historical phases of human civilization – in economic, political and social – in the South East Asia and the World. Although it is today a sprawling metropolis of 1.2 million inhabitants, its old centre retains a group of buildings with various architectural styles coming from medieval, baroque and modern style. Its unique urban landscape shows a development of a fortified city which is growing into an international and cosmopolitan port city in its age. Therefore it is worth preserving Kota Lama Semarang, especially from today’s thread: extensive flooding and land subsidence. [31]
Taka Bonerate National Park Photo of coral reefs in the park. Selayar Regency, South Sulawesi
6°16′0″S 120°54′0″E / 6.26667°S 120.90000°E / -6.26667; 120.90000 (Taka Bonerate National Park)
2005; Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
530,765 ha 2005 The Bonerate National Park is home to the third biggest atoll in the world after Kwajifein in the Marshall Isles and Suvadiva in the Moldiva Isles. The total area of the atoll is about 220,000 hectares with coral reefs spreading over 500 sq km. The national park includes an area of 530,765 ha. Taka Bonerate is a Bugis’ name that somewhat has a meaning coral piled up on sand. There are 15 islands in Taka Bonerate National Park where visitors can enjoy diving, snorkelling and marine tours. [32]
Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement A set of traditional, tall structures made of straws. Tana Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi
2°36′0″S 119°22′0″E / 2.60000°S 119.36667°E / -2.60000; 119.36667 (Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement)
5462; Cultural:
(iv), (v), (vi)
3,205 km2 2009 Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement is a series of 10 traditional settlements or constituents of them, such as burial or ceremonial grounds. The properties are scattered within Tana Toraja Regency in the Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tana-Toraja occupies about 3.205 sq km of a relatively hilly terrain with plateaus rising from 300 to 2,800 meters above sea level. The nominated Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement consists of 10 sites which are dispersed in the Tana Toraja Regency (see part I). Traditionally, a Toraja settlement consists of a compound of houses (tongkonan) and granaries (alangs), burials (liang), ceremonial grounds with menhirs (rante), rice-fields, bamboo forests, and grazing ground or pasture for buffalo and pigs. However, not all the nominated sites possess all the settlement components, on account of developmental changes in each site. A brief description of the nominated sites is provided in part I Identification of the Property. The following descriptions present some complementary information about each site. [33]
Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung A traditional, wooden structure. Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatra
0°42′49″S 100°59′28″E / 0.71361°S 100.99111°E / -0.71361; 100.99111 (Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung)
6059; Cultural:
- 2015 Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung (Perkampungan Adat Nagari Sijunjung) located at two villages, Jorong Koto Padang and Tanah Bato, of Sijunjung regency of West Sumatra. The main setting of settlement is in a linier position lies between two large rivers, namely Batang Sukam and Batang Kulampi. The compound of traditional houses is surrounded by hills, forest, paddy fields, and plantation. There are 76 houses in this area inhabited by nine clans and their subordinate clans. The traditional houses symbolize matrilineal-based clans in Nagari, customary village of Minangkabau. It consists of paddy fields and plantation, graveyards, mosques and madrasah-Islamic school, market, and balai adat (customs hall). [34]
Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom Two tall, brown, wavy structures facing each other, with a gap between that allows people to pass through. Mojokerto Regency, East Java
7°30′0″S 112°18′0″E / 7.50000°S 112.30000°E / -7.50000; 112.30000 (Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom)
5466; Cultural:
(i), (v)
99 km2 2009 The Trowulan site is the only city site of the Hindu-Budha classical age in Indonesia that can still be found. The site covers an area of 11 km x 9 km, which includes the Districts of Trowulan and Sooko within the Regency of Mojokerto and the Districts of Mojoagung and Mojowarno under the Jombang Regency. The site of the former capital city of the Majapahit Kingdom was built on flat terrains at the foot of three mountains, namely the Penanggungan, Welirang, and Anjasmara Mountain. Geographically, the Trowulan area was suitable for human settlement since it was supported by plane topography with relatively shallow ground water. Hundreds of thousands of archaeological remnants of the old city in the Trowulan Site were found buried underground as well as on the surface in the form of: artifacts, eco-facts, and features. [35]
Wakatobi National Park Vibrant view of a coral reef. Buton Regency, Southeast Sulawesi
5°12′0″S 123°20′0″E / 5.20000°S 123.33333°E / -5.20000; 123.33333 (Wakatobi National Park)
2006; Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
1,390,000 ha 2005 Wakatobi National Park has very high marine resource potential, in terms of both species and uniqueness, with enchanting submarine landscapes. In terms of configuration, the marine waters of the park generally start flat and then slope seawards, with sheer precipices in some parts. The water depth varies, the deepest parts reaching 1,044 metres with sand and coral at the bottom. This park has 25 chains of coral reefs, and the total circumference of the coral islands is 600 km. The National Park includes an area of 1,390,000 hectares. [36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Indonesia". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  4. ^ "World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  6. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Borobudur Temple Compounds". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  8. ^ "Cultural Landscape of Bali Province". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  9. ^ "Komodo National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  10. ^ "Lorentz National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  11. ^ "Prambanan Temple Compounds". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  12. ^ "Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Sangiran Early Man Site". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  14. ^ "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  15. ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  16. ^ "Ujung Kulon National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  17. ^ "Tentative Lists: Indonesia". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  18. ^ "Bawomataluo Site". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  19. ^ "Betung Kerihun National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
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