List of historical capitals of Vietnam

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This list of historical capitals of Vietnam includes former capital cities as well as the current capital of Vietnam which is Hanoi in time order. The capitals in bold indicate long-term or important capitals in Vietnamese history while the capitals in italic indicate short-lived or transient capitals.

Capital Period Nation Era Palace Current location
Ngan Hong 2879 – ? BC Xích Quỷ Kinh Duong Vuong unknown Hồng Lĩnh mountain, Hà Tĩnh Province
Nghĩa Lĩnh ? – 2524 BC Xích Quỷ Lac Long Quan unknown Nghĩa Lĩnh mountain, Phú Thọ Province
Phong Châu 2524–258 BC Văn Lang Hồng Bàng dynasty unknown Phú Thọ Province
Cổ Loa 257–208 BC Âu Lạc Thục dynasty Cổ Loa Citadel Đông Anh District, Hanoi
Panyu 207–111 BC Nanyue Triệu dynasty Nanyue Palace Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China
Mê Linh 40–43 Lingnan Trưng Sisters unknown Mê Linh District, Hanoi
Long Uyen 544–602 Vạn Xuân Early Lý dynasty Long Biên Palace Long Biên District, Hanoi or Bắc Ninh Province ?
Vạn An 713–722 Annam under Tang domination Mai Hắc Đế unknown Nam Đàn District, Nghệ An Province
Đại La 905–938 Jinghai Khúc clan unknown Hanoi
Cổ Loa 939–967 Jinghai Ngô dynasty Cổ Loa Citadel Đông Anh District, Hanoi
Hoa Lư 968–980 Đại Cồ Việt Đinh dynasty Hoa Lư Citadel Ninh Bình Province
980–1009 Early Lê dynasty
1009 – 1010 Later Lý dynasty
Thăng Long 1010 – 1225 Đại Việt Later Lý dynasty Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long Hanoi
1226–1440 Trần dynasty
Tây Đô 1400–1407 Đại Ngu Hồ dynasty Ho Citadel Vĩnh Lộc District, Thanh Hóa Province
Mo Do 1407–1409 Jiaozhi under Ming domination Later Trần dynasty none Yên Mô District, Ninh Bình Province
Dong Kinh 1428–1527 Đại Việt Later Lê dynasty – early period Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long Hanoi
1527–1592 Mạc dynasty
Vạn Lại 1533–1597 Đại Việt Later Lê dynasty – warlord period Van Lai Citadel Thọ Xuân District, Thanh Hóa Province
Cao Bình 1592–1677 Đại Việt – northernmost region Mạc dynasty Ban Phu Citadel Cao Bằng City, Cao Bằng Province
Đông Kinh 1597–1789 Đại Việt Later Lê dynasty – warlord period Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long Hanoi
1597–1787 Đại ViệtOuter Region Trịnh lords Palace of Trịnh Lords
Phú Xuân 1678–1777 Đại ViệtInner Region Nguyễn lords Palace of Nguyễn Lords Huế City, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Qui Nhơn 1778–1793 Đại Việt Tây Sơn dynasty Emperor Citadel Bình Định Province
Phú Xuân 1786–1802 Đại Việt Tây Sơn dynasty unknown Huế City, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Huế 1802–1945 Viet Nam, later Dai Nam Nguyễn dynasty Imperial City of Huế Huế City, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Saigon 1887–1901 French Indochina Indochinese Federation Governor-General Palace Ho Chi Minh City
Hanoi 1902–1954 French Indochina Indochinese Federation Indochinese Governor-General Palace Hanoi
1945–1976 Vietnam, later North Vietnam Democratic Republic Presidential Palace
Huế 1945 Vietnam Empire none Huế City, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Saigon 1946–1949 French Cochinchina Autonomous Republic none Ho Chi Minh City
Saigon 1949–1955 South Vietnam State Independence Palace Ho Chi Minh City
1955–1975 Republic
Lộc Ninh 1972–1975 South Vietnam Provisional Government none Lộc Ninh District, Bình Phước Province
Hanoi 1976 – present Vietnam Socialist Republic Presidential Palace current capital

Some secondary unofficial capitals also existed throughout Vietnamese history. These secondary capitals were established by dynasty founders merely as symbolic capitals to pay tribute to their ancestors.

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