List of historical capitals of Vietnam

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This list of historical capitals of Vietnam includes former capital cities as well as the current capital of Vietnam which is Hanoi in time order. The capitals in bold indicate long-term or important capitals in Vietnamese history while the capitals in italic indicate short-lived or transient capitals.

Capital Period Nation Era Palace Current location
Ngan Hong 2879 - ? BC Xich Quy Kinh Duong Vuong unknown Hong Linh mountain, Ha Tinh Province
Nghia Linh  ? - 2524 BC Xich Quy Lac Long Quan unknown Nghia Linh mountain, Phu Tho Province
Phong Chau 2524 - 258 BC Van Lang Hong Bang Dynasty unknown Phu Tho Province
Co Loa 257 - 208 BC Au Lac Thuc Dynasty Co Loa Citadel Dong Anh District, Hanoi
Panyu 207 - 111 BC Nanyue Trieu Dynasty Nanyue Palace Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China
Me Linh 40 - 43 Lingnan Trung Sisters unknown Me Linh District, Hanoi
Long Uyen 544 – 602 Van Xuan Early Ly Dynasty Long Biên Palace Long Bien District, Hanoi or Bac Ninh Province ?
Van An 713 - 722 Annam under Tang domination Mai Hac De unknown Nam Dan District, Nghe An Province
Dai La 905 - 938 Jinghai Khuc Family unknown Hanoi
Co Loa 939 - 967 Jinghai Ngo Dynasty Co Loa Citadel Dong Anh District, Hanoi
Hoa Lu 968 - 980 Dai Co Viet Dinh Dynasty Hoa Lu Citadel Ninh Binh Province
980 - 1009 Early Le Dynasty
1009 - 1010 Later Ly Dynasty
Thang Long 1010 - 1225 Dai Viet Later Ly Dynasty Imperial Citadel of Thang Long Hanoi
1226 - 1440 Tran Dynasty
Tay Do 1400 - 1407 Dai Ngu Ho Dynasty Ho Citadel Vinh Loc District, Thanh Hoa Province
Mo Do 1407 - 1409 Jiaozhi under Ming domination Later Tran Dynasty none Yen Mo District, Ninh Binh Province
Dong Kinh 1428 - 1527 Dai Viet Later Le Dynasty - early period Imperial Citadel of Thang Long Hanoi
1527 - 1592 Mac Dynasty
Van Lai 1533 - 1597 Dai Viet Later Le Dynasty - warlord period Van Lai Citadel Tho Xuan District, Thanh Hoa Province
Cao Binh 1592 - 1677 Dai Viet - northernmost region Mac Dynasty Ban Phu Citadel Cao Bang City, Cao Bang Province
Dong Kinh 1597 - 1789 Dai Viet Later Le Dynasty - warlord period Imperial Citadel of Thang Long Hanoi
1597 - 1787 Dai Viet - Outer Region Trinh lords Palace of Trinh Lords
Phu Xuan 1678 - 1777 Dai Viet - Inner Region Nguyen lords Palace of Nguyen Lords Hue City, Thua Thien-Hue Province
Qui Nhon 1778 - 1793 Dai Viet Tay Son Dynasty Emperor Citadel Binh Dinh Province
Phu Xuan 1786 - 1802 Dai Viet Tay Son Dynasty unknown Hue City, Thua Thien-Hue Province
Hue 1802 - 1945 Viet Nam, later Dai Nam Nguyen Dynasty Imperial City of Hue Hue City, Thua Thien-Hue Province
Saigon 1887 - 1901 French Indochina Indochinese Federation Governor-General Palace Ho Chi Minh City
Hanoi 1902 - 1954 French Indochina Indochinese Federation Indochinese Governor-General Palace Hanoi
1945 - 1976 Vietnam, later North Vietnam Democratic Republic Presidential Palace
Hue 1945 Vietnam Empire none Hue City, Thua Thien-Hue Province
Saigon 1946 - 1949 French Cochinchina Autonomous Republic none Ho Chi Minh City
Saigon 1949 - 1955 South Vietnam State Independence Palace Ho Chi Minh City
1955 - 1975 Republic
Loc Ninh 1972 - 1975 South Vietnam Provisional Government none Loc Ninh District, Binh Phuoc Province
Hanoi 1976 – present Vietnam Socialist Republic Presidential Palace current capital

Some secondary unofficial capitals also existed throughout Vietnamese history. These secondary capitals were established by dynasty founders merely as symbolic capitals to pay tribute to their ancestors.

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