|City of Muskegon|
|Nickname(s): Lumbertown, Port City, Lumber Queen of the World, Skeetown|
Location of Muskegon within Muskegon County, Michigan
|• Mayor||Stephen J. Gawron |
|• City Manager||Frank Peterson|
|• City||18.12 sq mi (46.93 km2)|
|• Land||14.21 sq mi (36.80 km2)|
|• Water||3.91 sq mi (10.13 km2)|
|Elevation||617 ft (191.4 m)|
|• Estimate (2014)||38,393|
|• Density||2,702.4/sq mi (1,043.4/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1620963|
Muskegon // is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan, and is the largest populated city on the eastern shores of Lake Michigan. At the 2010 census the city population was 38,401. The city is the county seat of Muskegon County. It is located at the southwest corner of Muskegon Township, but is administratively autonomous.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture and recreation
- 8 Media
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Human occupation of the Muskegon area goes back seven or eight thousand years to the nomadic Paleo-Indian hunters who occupied the area following the retreat of the Wisconsonian glaciations. The Paleo-Indians were superseded by several stages of Woodland Indian developments, the most notable of whom were the Hopewellian type-tradition, which occupied this area, perhaps two thousand years ago.
During historic times, the Muskegon area was inhabited by various bands of the Ottawa and Pottawatomi Indian tribes. In 1830 Muskegon was solely an Ottawa village. Perhaps the best remembered of the Indian inhabitants of the area was Ottawa Indian Chief, Pendalouan. A leading participant in the French-inspired annihilation of the Fox Indians of Illinois in the 1730s, he and his people lived in the Muskegon vicinity during the 1730s and 1740s until induced by the French to move the settlement to the Traverse Bay area in 1742.
The name "Muskegon" is derived from the Ottawa tribe term "Masquigon", meaning "marshy river or swamp".
The "Masquigon" River was identified on French maps dating from the late seventeenth century, suggesting that French explorers had reached Michigan's western coast by that time. Father Jacques Marquette traveled northward through the area on his fateful trip to St. Ignace in 1675 and a party of French soldiers under La Salle's lieutenant, Henry de Tonty, passed through the area in 1679.
The earliest known Euro-American resident of the county was Edward Fitzgerald, a fur trader and trapper who first came to the Muskegon area in 1748 and who died there, reportedly being buried in the vicinity of White Lake. Sometime between 1790 and 1800, a French-Canadian trader named Joseph La Framboise established a fur trading post at the mouth of Duck Lake. Between 1810 and 1820, several French Canadian fur traders, including Lamar Andie, Jean Baptiste Recollect and Pierre Constant had established fur trading posts around Muskegon Lake.
Euro-American settlement of Muskegon began in earnest in 1837, which coincided with the beginning of the exploitation of the area's extensive timber resources. The commencement of the lumber industry in 1837 inaugurated what some regard as the most romantic era in the history of the region. Lumbering in the mid-nineteenth century brought many settlers, especially ones from Germany, Ireland, and Canada.
Some neighborhoods of Muskegon began as separate villages. Bluffton was founded as a lumbering village in 1862 in Laketon Township. It had its own post office from 1868 until 1892. It was annexed by Muskegon in 1889.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.12 square miles (46.93 km2), of which 14.21 square miles (36.80 km2) is land and 3.91 square miles (10.13 km2) is water. The city is adjacent to Lake Michigan to the west and Muskegon Lake to the north. The Muskegon River empties into Muskegon Lake at the city's northeast end.
|Climate data for Muskegon, Michigan|
|Record high °F (°C)||63
|Average high °F (°C)||30.8
|Average low °F (°C)||19.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−21
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.00
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||29.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||15.7||12.2||11.2||12.1||10.7||9.0||9.5||9.0||10.1||11.9||14.1||15.7||141.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||15.3||11.0||6.1||1.7||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||4.0||12.9||51.4|
|Source #1: NOAA (normals 1981−2010),|
|Source #2: ThreadEx (extremes 1892−2012) |
As of the census of 2010, there were 38,401 people, 13,967 households, and 7,895 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,702.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,043.4/km2). There were 16,105 housing units at an average density of 1,133.4 per square mile (437.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.0% White, 34.5% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.6% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.2% of the population.
There were 13,967 households of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.9% were married couples living together, 22.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.5% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age in the city was 34.1 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.8% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64; and 11.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 52.1% male and 47.9% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 40,105 people, 14,569 households, and 8,537 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,794.5 per square mile (1,079.1/km²). There were 15,999 housing units at an average density of 1,114.8 per square mile (430.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 57.9% White, 31.7% African American, 2.3% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.69% from other races, and 3.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any origins were 6.4% of the population.
There were 14,569 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,929, and the median income for a family was $32,640. Males had a median income of $29,114 versus $22,197 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,283. About 16.8% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.
- Major employers
- Alcoa-Howmet Castings (Whitehall, MI, formerly Misco) - Aerospace components manufacturing
- Anderson Global (Formerly Anderson Pattern)
- Cannon-Muskegon Corporation - specialty alloys
- Century Foundry
- Cole's Quality Foods - garlic bread, frozen foods
- Consumers Energy - Coal-fired power plant
- GE Aviation - Muskegon, (formerly Johnson Technology) - turbine engine components manufacturing
- Great Lakes Die Cast (formerly Dilesco)
- Kaydon Corp - Precision Bearings
- Knoll Inc.
- L3 Communications (formerly Teledyne) - armored vehicle manufacturing
- Mahle (Formerly Dana (formerly Sealed Power)) - piston rings - aerospace
- Mercy Health - Member of Trinity Health
- Michigan's Adventure - amusement park (Michigan's largest amusement park and water park)
- Nugent Sand
- Port City Group
- Pratt & Whitney Component Solutions - a United Technologies Company
- SAF-Holland - Muskegon (Formerly Neway Equipment Company) - Commercial vehicle axles, suspensions and coupling devices
- Wesco, inc. (Headquarters)
In 1976, Muskegon Mall was built in downtown Muskegon, featuring Sears, Steketee's, and Hardy's-Herpolsheimer's. A second mall, The Lakes Mall, was built southeast of town in 2001, resulting in the closure of Muskegon Mall.
Other retail sectors include Apple Avenue, Sherman Boulevard, and Henry Street.
Muskegon Public Schools was founded in 1860 and serves students from preschool through 12th grade. Additionally, it runs the Muskegon Museum of Art and the Muskegon Training and Education Center. In addition to Muskegon Public Schools, Muskegon is served by these private K-12 schools: Muskegon Catholic Central, Fruitport Calvary Christian, and Western Michigan Christian.
In 2010, North Muskegon High School was noted as the top performing public school in the State of Michigan by the state Department of Education.
Grand Valley State University's Muskegon Campus is home to the Michigan Alternative and Renewable Energy Center (MAREC) and Annis Water Resources Institute (AWRI) inside the Lake Michigan Center located in downtown Muskegon.
Western Michigan University, Ferris State University, and Grand Valley State University all operate programs out of the Stevenson Center for Higher Education on the campus of Muskegon Community College. It is designed so that an undergrad at MCC may transfer to any of the above schools and complete a bachelors and/or master's degree without having to leave Muskegon.
Culture and recreation
Music and fine arts
Muskegon County is home to Blue Lake Fine Arts Camp, located in the Manistee National Forest in the town of Twin Lake.
Once a movie house, the Frauenthal Center for the Performing Arts includes two theaters (the main Frauenthal house and the smaller Beardsley Theater in the adjoining Hilt Building). It was refurbished in 1998, and runs JAM Theatrical productions, Muskegon Civic Theatre productions, is home of the West Michigan Symphony Orchestra, was the venue for all Muskegon Community Concert Association events, and used to be home to the now-defunct Cherry County Playhouse. The Frauenthal was originally built as the Michigan Theater in 1929.
Muskegon also has one the of founding chapters of the Barbershop Harmony Society.
A lackluster attendance in 2011 caused the cancellation of the 2012 Muskegon Summer Celebration festival. A new festival, Coast West has taken its place. The Art Fair also returned in 2013.
Muskegon Bike Time is held every July. From the website: Over 35,000 bikes (with 38 states and Canada represented) and 90,000 people visited the lakeshore community of Muskegon, Michigan for the event in 2010. Bike Time was attended by an estimated 100,000 people in 2012.
The Muskegon Motorcycle Club, organized in 1920, hosts the Hill Climb every other year, an American Motorcycle Association (AMA) sanctioned race.
In September, the Michigan Irish Music Festival brings renowned Celtic musicians to Heritage Landing on the shore of Muskegon Lake. Artists have included Tommy Makem, Gaelic Storm, Slide, The Old Blind Dogs, Scythian and many more. In addition to music, Irish food, beverages, merchandise and cultural exhibits contribute to the appeal of this event. The Michigan Feis (Irish Dance competition) is affiliated and is held at Muskegon Catholic Central High School.
Museums and theater
Broadway at the Frauenthal (fall through spring) brings Broadway musicals to Muskegon. Muskegon is also home to Muskegon Museum of Art and West Michigan Symphony Orchestra. The Muskegon Community Concert Association provides concerts from September through May.
Lakeshore Museum Center (formerly known as Muskegon County Museum) and Hackley & Hume Historic Site: Mansions built by Muskegon's lumber barons themselves are restored to their old glory and open to the public. The Hackley & Hume mansions are part of downtown Muskegon's Heritage Village—2 blocks from Muskegon Lake, and a National Register Historic District. The mansions are operated with the Lakeshore Museum Center, which details the grand, rich history of Muskegon County, from the Pottawatomi and Ottawa Native American tribes and lakeside fur traders to the Lumber Queen of the World to today. Also includes science and nature exhibits.
The Muskegon Museum of Art is touted[by whom?] as one of the finest art museums in the Midwest. Among the highlights of its permanent collection is Tornado Over Kansas, by John Steuart Curry (one of three leading painters, along with Grant Wood and Thomas Hart Benton, identified as Regionalists and known for their canvases celebrating the rural Midwest).
Muskegon is also the home of the USS Silversides Submarine Museum which features the USS Silversides, a World War II submarine; the USS LST-393, a World War II amphibious landing ship; and the USCGC McLane, a Prohibition-era United States Coast Guard cutter.
In addition, Muskegon also berths the S.S. Milwaukee Clipper, a former car ferry that traveled the same route as Lake Express does today. The ship (which is a National Historic Landmark) is in the middle of a long process of being restored to its original form, but in the meantime is open for tours and hosts a museum aboard the vessel with information on both the Milwaukee Clipper, as well as the history of maritime in Muskegon. Muskegon is an historical port for commerce and lake travel. The lumbering era through World War II was its busiest historical use. Its image as a port the city has embraced with the local nickname 'The Port City'. It possesses a fine deep-water port and still functions delivering bulk cement, aggregate, and large cargoes to several lakeshore facilities, also coal to the B.C. Cobb power plant, an outdated coal-burning facility due to shut down.
- The Muskegon Heritage Museum-The Muskegon Heritage Association is non-profit corporation founded in 1973 to promote the enhancement of Muskegons Historic Resources. One of the MHA's missions is to maintain a museum to show the economic, industrial and social history of the greater Muskegon area.The Museum was begun by the MHA in 1983 to accommodate the donated Corliss Valve 90 hp steam engine. The goal of the museum is to preserve information, photos and artifacts pertaining to: The Industries of the Muskegon Area, Historic/Heritage Homes and Businesses of Muskegon. In 2009 a revitalization of the museum began with a complete rearrangement of the main room adding new displays in the cases and on the walls. A print shop was set up and an Industrial section in the back building was rearranged. Printed signs for all displays were added. In 2010 the museum was expanded into what was the shoe store next door. During 2011-2012 we reconfigured and remodeled the 2nd floor of the building where the Corliss Engine is housed. This is a "Made in Muskegon" exhibit. The museum also added a classroom that accommodates 35 people comfortably with all the AV equipment necessary for any presentation.
- Carr-Fles Planetarium, Muskegon
- The Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame exhibits, detailing the area's rich athletic past, are on display at the L.C. Walker Arena.
Muskegon State Park and Winter Sports Complex with all season Luge run.
Pere Marquette Beach is the largest free public beach on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, and one of thee loveliest in the state. Windsurfing, kite boarding competitions, and professional volleyball tournaments are held there. Its quartz sand beach is a Clean Beaches Counsel certified beach. The beach area is popular with cyclists, runners and hikers, and sand dunes border the beach to the east.
Muskegon Lake is a 1st. class walleye fishery and has many other freshwater species including the Lake Perch. Lake Michigan off Muskegon host large numbers of coho and Chinook salmon, steelhead, and brown trout, lake perch and many other game fish.
Sailing and recreational boating are major summer pastimes with many services and marinas in the area for boats of all sizes.
Muskegon Lakeshore Bike Trail—Bike along the shores of Muskegon Lake to Lake Michigan. There are two trails that consist the Muskegon bike paths, one runs along the east side of Muskegon and the other along the north side.
Michigan's Adventure, the largest amusement park in the state, is located in Muskegon County, a few miles north of the city of Muskegon. Michigan's Adventure features a midway with roller coasters, general rides, amusements, and a full water park.
Muskegon has a long history of involvement in professional and nonprofessional sports.
|Muskegon Lumberjacks||Ice hockey||United States Hockey League||L.C. Walker Arena|
Previous sports teams to play in Muskegon have included:
|Muskegon Lumberjacks/Fury (1992–2010)||Hockey||1992−2010||IHL, UHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Thunder||Indoor football||2007−2009||IFL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Michigan Mayhem||Basketball||2004−2006||CBA||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Lumberjacks (1984–1992)||Hockey||1984−1992||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Mohawks||Hockey||1965−1984||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Zephyrs||Hockey||1960−1965||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Lassies||Baseball||1946−1949||AAGPBL||Marsh Field|
The Chronicle Seaway Run is run every year in late June. It features a 15k race, 5k race, 5k walk for fun, 15k wheelchair race.
- Muskegon's leading newspaper is The Muskegon Chronicle. The Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Muskegon, Michigan owned by Booth Newspapers. It started publication in 1857.
- Muskegon is served by several local television channels:
- WMKG-CD 38 is a low-powered television station serving the area. This station features a homey mix of programming such as television bingo and Dial-A-Bargain. The Dial-A-Bargain show includes a host reading menus from various local eateries. Viewers may then call in and purchase certificates for that particular establishment at 50% off the regular price.
- DSETV-97 is the locally run Government-access television (GATV) cable TV channel based out of City Hall Privately ran by Digital Spectrum Enterprises on Comcast Cable Channel 97. It features Live televised City Hall meetings as well as a long list of locally made television shows showcasing Muskegon. It also is home to Local Sporting events.
- MCCTV-98 is Muskegon Community College's television outlet on Comcast Cable Channel 98.
- WWMT-TV 3 (CBS and CW), WOOD-TV 8 (NBC), WZZM-TV 13 (ABC), WXMI-TV 17 (FOX), WOMS-TV 29 (MNTV), WGVU-TV 35 (PBS), WOTV (ABC), WZPX (ION), and WTLJ-TV 54 (TBN). Green Bay, Milwaukee, South Bend, and Chicago affiliates are also common in the warmer months.
- Comcast holds the local cable franchise.
- The Muskegon area is also served by several radio stations. WUVS-LP 103.7 is a popular urban (hip-hop/R&B) and gospel station with local programming as well as Sunday religious programming and local-based talk. Another local low-powered FM station is WMMT-LP 106.1, owned by the Muskegon Training and Education Center, which airs an Urban Oldies format dubbed "M-TEC 106 FM, Rock 'n' Soul."
- Local radio talk shows include the Ramona Show on WKBZ 1090. On this show the host interviews local small business people. A once-a-week, Friday afternoon show on the same station is called "Talking Muskegon". "Talking Muskegon" is hosted by local celebrity Jon Van Wyke. It features homey conversations about area nightlife, his work life and volunteer activities, and the state of the professional hockey team the Muskegon Fury. Usually the show is co-hosted..
- Other local FM stations include 90.3 WBLV-FM (classical/jazz/NPR), 91.7 WMCQ-FM (religious), WLAW-FM 92.5 ("outlaw" country), WGVS-FM 95.3 (public radio), WWSN FM 97.5 (sports), WLCS-FM 98.3 (oldies), WVIB-FM 100.1 (urban contemporary), WMRR-FM 101.7 (classic rock), WSNX-FM 104.5 (top 40, studios in Grand Rapids), WMUS-FM 106.9 (country), and WMUS FM 107.9 (adult contemporary). Other local AM stations aside from WKBZ include WGVS 850 (NPR), WKLQ 1490 (sports), and WMHG-AM 1600 (adult standards). Other area stations can be received from Grand Haven (WGHN-FM 92.1, adult contemporary), Grand Rapids (WGRD-FM 97.9), Ludington, Holland, Zeeland (WJQK-FM 99.3, Christian pop), and Milwaukee.
- Clear Channel Communications is the major radio-station owner in Muskegon, owning WKBZ-AM, WSHZ-FM, WMUS-FM, WMRR-FM and WMHG-AM, as well as WSNX (although WSNX is considered primarily a Grand Rapids station despite being licensed to Muskegon). Citadel Broadcasting owns WODJ-AM, WLAW-FM, WEFG-FM, WLCS-FM and WVIB-FM.
MATS operates the Muskegon Trolley Company. Three routes cover north side, south side, and downtown; each trolley stops at 11 locations, including Hackley and Hume Historic Site, USS Silversides, Muskegon State Park. (Memorial Day-Labor Day, daily; no trips during special events).
Muskegon is the eastern port of the Lake Express High Speed Car Ferry that crosses Lake Michigan to Milwaukee, Wisconsin offering three roundtrips a day in the summer, and two roundtrips in the fall. There are many bike paths starting to be built around the area.
Several major highways serve the city, including:
- John Beyrle, son of Joseph Beyrle, appointed as United States Ambassador to the Russian Federation on May 13, 2008, confirmed July 3, 2008.
- Joseph Beyrle, only soldier to have served in both the US Army and the Soviet Army in World War II
- Nancy Anne Fleming, Miss America 1961
- Mark Grimmette, luger
- George Edward Hilt, founder of the nation’s largest farm-store retailer
- David Leestma, astronaut
- Rocky Marquette, actor known for roles in Shallow Ground and Mortuary
- Lulu F. Miller, Director, Muskegon Museum of Art, the second female art museum director in the country.
- Harry Morgan, actor in films and popular Dragnet and M*A*S*H television series
- Earl Morrall, NFL quarterback
- Frank Stanton, past president of CBS, member of Television Hall of Fame
- Vonda Kay Van Dyke, Miss America 1965
- Richard Versalle, opera singer
- Captain Jonathan Walker, "The Man With Branded Hand" abolitionist
- Business and politics
- Charles Hackley (1837–1905), lumber baron, philanthropist (Hackley Hospital, Hackley Library, Hackley Administration Building, Hackley Avenue, Hackley Art Gallery, Hackley Park); after a gift of $12,000,000 to the community, the city of Muskegon considered changing its name to "Hackleyville"
- Richard Mell, politician
- Jim Bakker, TV evangelist
- Edmund Cardinal Szoka, cardinal, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
- Science and technology
- Clara H. Hasse (1880–1926), botanist
- W. Wesley Peterson, mathematician and computer scientist, best known for inventing the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
- Haddon Sundblom, graphic arts designer, best known for his images of Santa Claus for Coca-Cola
- Laurie Keller, children's book writer and illustrator best known for The Scrambled States of America and Grandpa Gazillion's Number Yard
- John Frederick Nims, poet
- Lewis B. Smedes, theologian and author
- Bob Wood, author of Dodger Dogs to Fenway Franks and Big Ten Country
- Steve Gorman, drummer, Black Crowes, born in Muskegon
- Rick Johnson, musician, bass player for Mustard Plug
- Bettye LaVette, soul singer
- Iggy Pop, punk rock icon
- Wayne Static, lead singer and guitarist for industrial metal band, Static-X
- Bill Szymczyk, music producer of the Eagles, The Who and others
- Gerry Teifer, music publisher, songwriter, performer
- Buster Keaton, iconic comedian and film director; born in Kansas but spent childhood summers in Muskegon with his family as a member of the Muskegon Actors' Colony; as a vaudevillian who traveled constantly in non-summer months, Keaton always regarded Muskegon as his home town.
- Kate Reinders, Broadway actress known for playing the role of Glinda in Wicked and Caroline in Good Vibrations
- Harry Morgan, versatile stage, film and TV actor best remembered as Colonel Potter on the TV series M*A*S*H (1972–1983)
- Frank Stanton, former president of CBS
- Justin Abdelkader – NHL player, Detroit Red Wings
- Curtis Adams – NFL player, San Diego Chargers
- Beatrice Allard – All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player
- Donna Cook – AAGPBL player
- Doris Cook – AAGPBL player
- Paul Dekker – NFL and CFL player
- Tony Ferguson – winner of Ultimate Fighter Season 13
- Bill Green - hammer thrower, former U.S. record holder, 5th place in 1984 Olympic Games; visiting son to resident William Hipkiss, attorney and stage performer in productions at Frauenthal Center for the Performing Arts
- Bobby Grich – MLB All-Star second baseman for the Baltimore Orioles and California Angels
- Mark Grimmette – men's double luge, winner of Olympic silver (2002) and bronze (1998) medals
- Mark Hughes – basketball player and coach
- Ronald Johnson – University of Southern California and San Francisco 49ers wide receiver
- Ruvell Martin – NFL player for the Seattle Seahawks
- Beulah McGillicutty – manager in Extreme Championship Wrestling
- Nate McLouth – MLB player for the Washington Nationals
- Earl Morrall – Michigan State and NFL quarterback, three-time Super Bowl champion
- Robert Morse – NFL player for the New Orleans Saints
- Drew Naymick - professional basketball player
- Don Nelson – NBA player and coach in Basketball Hall of Fame
- Ray Newman – MLB pitcher
- Bennie Oosterbaan – three-time University of Michigan All-American football player and head coach
- Terrance Taylor – Detroit Lions defensive tackle
- Bob Zuppke – University of Illinois football coach
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- Helen Hornbeck Tanner. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987) p. 134
- Sherman, Elizabeth B. (2003). Beyond the Windswept Dunes: The Story of Maritime Muskegon, p. 2. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3127-0.
- "History of the Churches of St. Mary's, Our Lady of Grace & St. Jean Baptiste". Our Lady of Grace & St Mary Catholic Parishes, Muskegon. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
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- "District Information". muskegonpublicschools.org. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
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- "Muskegon Summer Celebration Will Not Return In 2012". Channel 95.7.
- "coastwestfestival.com". coastwestfestival.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- Alexander, Dave (February 9, 2012). "New Muskegon music festival to have a different look and feel, organizers promise". Muskegon Chronicle. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "Muskegon summer art fair re-emerges as Lakeshore Art Festival". grbj.com.
- Super User. "Muskegon Bike Time - Home". muskegonbiketime.com.
- "muskegonfilmfestival.com". muskegonfilmfestival.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009.
- "Rock the Coast is back for 2013 - May 24-25". rockthecoast.net.
- "2014 Buster Keaton Convention". busterkeaton.com.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muskegon, Michigan.|
- Official website
- Muskegon Area Chamber of Commerce
- Muskegon Guide
- Muskegon Chronicle
- Muskegon Business Directory
- Muskegon Convention and Visitor's Bureau
- Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame
- Muskegon Museum of Art
- Muskegon, Michigan at DMOZ
- Seven Towns Where Land Is Free; CNBC.com; November 17, 2010[dead link]