Orchidantha

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Orchidantha
Orchidantha maxillarioides.jpg
Orchidantha maxillarioides[1]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Lowiaceae
Ridl.[3]
Genus: Orchidantha
N.E.Br.[2]
Type species
Orchidantha borneensi
N.E.Br.
Synonyms[4]
  • Lowia Scort. 1886 not Hook.f. 1894
  • Lowia Hook.f. 1894 not Scort. 1886
  • Protamomum Ridl. 1893

Orchidantha is a genus of flowering plants. In the APG III system, it is placed in the family Lowiaceae,[3] as the sole genus.[5] It includes the plants in the formerly recognised genera Lowia and Protamomum.

Orchidantha remains a poorly known genus, found from southern China to Borneo.[4][6] Orchidantha means "orchid-flower", as one of the petals on the flowers is modified into a labellum, like the flowers of orchids.[7] One species, Orchidantha inouei of Borneo, imitates the smell of dung in order to attract small Onthophagus dung beetles as pollinators.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

Cladogram: Phylogeny of Zingiberales[9]
Zingiberales
Zingiberineae
Zingiberariae

Zingiberaceae

Costaceae

Cannariae

Cannaceae

Marantaceae

Strelitziineae

Lowiaceae

Strelitziaceae

Heliconiaceae

Musaceae

Species[edit]

As of August 2013, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepted 17 species:[4][10]

  1. Orchidantha borneensis N.E.Br. - Borneo
  2. Orchidantha chinensis T.L.Wu - Guangdong, Guangxi
  3. Orchidantha fimbriata Holttum - Pen. Malaysia
  4. Orchidantha foetida Jenjitt. & K.Larsen - Thailand
  5. Orchidantha grandiflora Mood & L.B.Pedersen - Sabah
  6. Orchidantha holttumii K.Larsen - Sabah, Brunei
  7. Orchidantha inouei Nagam. & S.Sakai - Sarawak
  8. Orchidantha insularis T.L.Wu - Hainan
  9. Orchidantha laotica K.Larsen - Laos
  10. Orchidantha longiflora (Scort.) Ridl. - Pen. Malaysia
  11. Orchidantha maxillarioides (Ridl.) K.Schum. - Pahang
  12. Orchidantha quadricolor L.B.Pedersen & A.L.Lamb - Sabah
  13. Orchidantha sabahensis A.L.Lamb & L.B.Pedersen - Sabah
  14. Orchidantha siamensis K.Larsen - Pen. Malaysia, S Thailand
  15. Orchidantha stercorea H.Ð.Trần & Škorničk. - Vietnam
  16. Orchidantha suratii L.B.Pedersen - Sabah
  17. Orchidantha vietnamica K.Larsen - Vietnam

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1894 illustration by Matilda Smith, published in "Curtis's Botanical Magazine" vol. 120 ser. 3 nr. 50 tabl. 7351
  2. ^ "Orchidantha". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  3. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. 
  4. ^ a b c Search for "Orchidantha", "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  5. ^ Stevens, P.F. "Lowiaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 319 兰花蕉科 lan hua jiao ke Lowiaceae Ridley
  7. ^ "Lowiaceae". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 9 September 2011
  8. ^ Sakai, Shoko; Tamiji, Inoue (1 January 1999). "A new pollination system: dung-beetle pollination discovered in Orchidantha inouei (Lowiaceae, Zingiberales) in Sarawak, Malaysia". American Journal of Botany. 86 (1): 56–61. doi:10.2307/2656954. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Sass et al 2016.
  10. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 

Bibliography[edit]