Qashqai language

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Qashqai
Qaşqay dili
Native to Iran
Region Fars, Isfahan, Bushehr, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Khuzestan
Ethnicity Qashqai
Native speakers
949,000 (2015)[1]
Turkic
Persian alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 qxq
Glottolog qash1240[1]
Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-a

Qashqai (قاشقای ديلى, also spelled Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qašqāʾī,[2][3] and Qashqa'i) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars Province of southern Iran. Encyclopædia Iranica regards Qashqai as an independent third group of dialects within the southwestern Turkic language group.[4] It is known to speakers as Turki.[5] Estimates of the number of Qashqai speakers vary. Ethnologue gives a figure of 949,000 in 2015.[6]

The Qashqai language is closely related to Azerbaijani, also known as Azeri. However, some Qashqai varieties namely the variety spoken in the Sheshbeyli tribe share features with Turkish, too.[7] Some linguists argue that[further explanation needed] it is a dialect of Azerbaijani.[8] In a sociopolitical sense, though, Qashqai must be considered as a language on its own right.[9]

Like other Turkic languages spoken in Iran, such as the Azerbaijani language, Qashqai uses a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Morphology[edit]

Syntax[edit]

Lexicon[edit]

Sample sounds[edit]

Sample texts[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Qashqa'i". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Qašqāʾī Tribal Confederacy II: Language at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Michael Knüppel
  3. ^ Azeri Turkish at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Gerhard Doerfer
  4. ^ Qašqāʾi Tribal Confederacy II: Language at Encyclopædia Iranica
  5. ^ Qašqāʾi Tribal Confederacy II: Language at Encyclopædia Iranica
  6. ^ "Kashkay". Ethnologue. 
  7. ^ Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2016. Le qashqay: langue turcique d'Iran. CreateSpace: Independent Publishing Platform
  8. ^ Caferoglu & Gerhard Doerfer, 1959
  9. ^ Csató, Éva; Johanson, Lars; Róna-Tas, András (2016). Turks and Iranians. Interactions in Language and History: The Gunnar Jarring Memorial Program at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study. Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 101–20. ISBN 978-3-447-10537-8. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Csató Éva Ágnes, 2001. Present in Kashkay. In: Turkic Languages, Vol. 5: 104-119.
  • Csató Éva Ágnes, 2005. On copying in Kashkay. In: Éva Á. Csató, Bo Isakssons & Carina Jahani (eds.) Linguistic Conversion and areal diffusion: Case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, London, Routledge Curzon, 271-283.
  • Csató Éva Ágnes. 2006. Gunnar Jaring's Kashkay materials, In Lars Johanson & Christiane Bulut (eds.), Turkic-Iranian contact areas. Historical and linguistic aspect. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 209-225.
  • Doerfer Gerhard, et al. 1990. Qašqā’ī-Gedichte aus Fīrūz-ābād (=Südoghusisch). In: Oghusica aus Iran, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 67–132.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab, Csató Éva Á. & Karakoç Birsel. 2016. On the marker -(y)akï in Kashkay. In: Éva Á. Csató, Lars Johanson, András Róna-Tas, and Bo Utas (eds.) Turks and Iranians: Interactions in Language and History, pp. 283–301. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2016. Parlons qashqay "Let's speak Qashqay". Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2016. Le Qashqay: langue turcique d'Iran. CreateSpace Independent publishing platform
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2015. Qashqay Folktales: transcription, translation, glossary. CreateSpace Independent publishing platform.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2012. Elements for a grammar of Kashkay: a Turkic language of Iran. PhD dissertation. Paris: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2007. Présentation et documentation du folklore qashqai:langue turcique du sud d’Iran. Master thesis. Paris: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
  • Gharakhalou-Narrei, Mehdi. 1996. Migration and cultural change in urban communities of the Qashqa'i of Iran. PhD thesis. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
  • Jurie Étienne. 2005. Qashqa’i : derniers nomades d’Iran. Paris : Voyages Zellidja.
  • Mardâni R. Assadollâh, 2000. Asanaklar : Tarânehâye torkiye qašqâ’ī "Qashqai folksongs" [in Perso-Arabic script]. Iran: Nakhlhâ-ye Sorkh Publishers.
  • Mardâni R. Assadollâh, 2007. Qašqayı sözlügü [Qashqai Dictionary]. [in Azerbaijani and Perso-Arabic script with explications in Persian] Shiraz: Rahgosha Publishers.
  • Menges, Karl Heinrich, 1990. Drei Qašqā’ī Text. In: Doerfer et al. (eds.), pp. 135–138.
  • Shahbâzi, Habib. (ed.). 1989/1368 A.H., Qašqâ’ï še’ri [Qashqai poetry] [in Perso-Arabic script], Shiraz: Shahbazi.
  • Soper, John David, 1987. Loan Syntax in Turkic and Iranian: The Verb Systems of Tajik, Uzbek, and Qashqai. Doctoral dissertation, Los Angeles: University of California

External links[edit]