Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
The Kashmir issue has been the main cause, whether direct or indirect, of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
- 1 Background
- 2 Wars
- 3 Other armed engagements
- 4 Incidents
- 5 Nuclear-arms race
- 6 Annual celebrations
- 7 Involvement of other nations
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The Partition of British India came about in the aftermath of World War II, when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilisation. It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came.
The partition itself, according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, and Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress, should have resulted in peaceful relations. As the Hindu and Muslim populations were scattered unevenly in the whole country, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 was not possible along religious lines. Nearly one third of the Muslim population of British India remained in India. Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 and 1 million casualties.:6
Princely-ruled territories, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved in the Partition. Rulers of these territories had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan laid claim on Kashmir and thus it became the main point of conflict.:8 The ruler of Kashmir, which had a Muslim majority population, joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
The war, also called the First Kashmir War, started in October 1947 when Pakistan feared that the Maharajah of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu would accede to India. Following partition, states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. Tribal forces with support from the army of Pakistan attacked and occupied parts of the princely state forcing the Maharajah to sign the Agreement to the accession of the princely state to the Dominion of India to get Indian military aid. The UN Security Council passed the Resolution 47 on 22 April 1948. The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 1 January 1949.:379 India gained control of about two-third of the state including (Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh) whereas Pakistan gained roughly a third of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan),
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. The hostilities between the two countries ended after a ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Both India and Pakistan claimed victory.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Leader of East Pakistan, and Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, leaders of West Pakistan. This would culminate in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India. India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement. After a large scale pre-emptive strike by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced.
Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with Pakistan, but the Indian Army successfully held their positions. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army's movements in the west and made some initial gains, including capturing around 5,795 square miles (15,010 km2) of Pakistan territory (land gained by India in Pakistani Kashmir, Pakistani Punjab and Sindh sectors but gifted it back to Pakistan in the Simla Agreement of 1972, as a gesture of goodwill). Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of Indian and Bangladeshi forces following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created. This war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts, as well as the largest number of prisoners of war since the Second World War after the surrender of more than 90,000 Pakistani military and civilians. In the words of one Pakistani author, "Pakistan lost half its navy, a quarter of its air force and a third of its army".
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
Commonly known as the Kargil War, this conflict between the two countries was mostly limited. During early 1999, Pakistani troops infiltrated across the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district. India responded by launching a major military and diplomatic offensive to drive out the Pakistani infiltrators. Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken most of the ridges that were encroached by the infiltrators. according to official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control. Fearing large-scale escalation in military conflict, the international community, led by the United States, increased diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to withdraw forces from remaining Indian territory. Faced with the possibility of international isolation, the already fragile Pakistani economy was weakened further. The morale of Pakistani forces after the withdrawal declined as many units of the Northern Light Infantry suffered heavy casualties. The government refused to accept the dead bodies of many officers, an issue that provoked outrage and protests in the Northern Areas. Pakistan initially did not acknowledge many of its casualties, but Nawaz Sharif later said that over 4,000 Pakistani troops were killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict. By the end of July 1999, organized hostilities in the Kargil district had ceased.
Other armed engagements
Apart from the aforementioned wars, there have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time. Some have bordered on all-out war, while others were limited in scope. The countries were expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides, but full-scale war did not break out.
Standing armed conflicts
- Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir: An insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir has been a cause for heightened tensions. India has also accused Pakistan-backed militant groups of executing several terrorist attacks across India.
- Siachen conflict: In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot capturing all of the Siachen Glacier. Further clashes erupted in the glacial area in 1985, 1987 and 1995 as Pakistan sought, without success, to oust India from its stronghold.
- Sir Creek: The dispute lies in the interpretation of the maritime boundary line between Kutch and Sindh. Before India's independence, the provincial region was a part of Bombay Presidency of British India. After India's independence in 1947, Sindh became a part of Pakistan while Kutch became a part of India. Pakistan lays claim to the entire creek as per paras 9 and 10 of the Bombay Government Resolution of 1914 signed between the then Government of Sindh and Rao Maharaj of Kutch.
- India–Pakistan maritime trespassing: frequent trespassing and violation of respective national territorial waters of India and Pakistan in peacetime occurs commonly by Pakistani and Indian fishermen operating along the coastline of the Indian state of Gujarat and the Pakistani province of Sindh. Most violations occur due to the absence of a physical boundary and lack of navigational tools for small fishermen. Hundreds of fishermen are arrested by the Coast Guards of both nations, but obtaining their release is difficult and long-winded owing to the hostile relations between the two nations.
Past skirmishes and standoffs
- Indian integration of Junagadh: The princely state of Junagadh, which had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan on 15 September 1947, claiming a connection by sea. Pakistan's acceptance of the Instrument of Accession was seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held in Kashmir which had a Muslim majority and a Hindu ruler. Following communal tensions Indian military entered the territory which was protested by Pakistan as a violation of International law. Later a plebiscite was held and the accession was reversed for the state to join India.
- Operation Brasstacks: (the largest of its kind in South Asia), conducted by India between November 1986 and March 1987, and Pakistani mobilisation in response, raised tensions and fears that it could lead to another war between the two neighbours.:129
- 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff: The terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001, which India blamed on the Pakistan-based terrorist organisations, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, prompted the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war.
- 2008 India Pakistan standoff: a stand-off between the two nations following the 2008 Mumbai attacks which was defused by diplomatic efforts. Following ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, tensions heightened between the two countries since India claimed interrogation results alleging Pakistan's ISI supporting the attackers while Pakistan denied it. Pakistan placed its air force on alert and moved troops to the Indian border, voicing concerns about proactive movements of the Indian Army and the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil. The tension defused in short time and Pakistan moved its troops away from border.
- 2016 India-Pakistan military confrontation: On 18 September 2016, militants attacked the Indian Army's brigade headquarters at Uri, killing 19 soldiers. The attack came after two months of extreme unrest in Kashmir, caused due to the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in an encounter with Indian security forces. Amid high tensions and risk of escalation along the Line of Control, ten days after the attack, on 29 September 2016, the Indian Army carried out a military raid in Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir, targeting launchpads along the LoC, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. An Indian soldier was captured by the Pakistan Army the very next day, but it was claimed that he had inadvertently crossed the border and that his capture was unrelated to the 'surgical strikes' conducted the night before. The soldier was eventually released as a goodwill gesture from the Pakistani side, and ceasefire violations stopped on either side as tensions were defused and normalcy returned to the Kashmir valley.
In 2016, An Indian army official claimed that over 4,500 Indian soldier have been killed in ceasefire violation related incidents since 2001.
- Atlantique Incident: Pakistan Navy's Naval Air Arm Breguet Atlantique patrol plane, carrying 16 people on board, was shot down by the Indian Air Force for alleged violation of airspace. The episode took place in the Rann of Kutch on 10 August 1999, just a month after the Kargil War, creating a tense atmosphere between India and Pakistan. Foreign diplomats noted that the plane fell inside Pakistani territory, although it may have crossed the border. However, they also believe that India's reaction was unjustified. Pakistan later lodged a compensation claim at the International Court of Justice, accusing India for the incident, but the Court dismissed the case in a split decision ruling the Court did not have jurisdiction.
- The 2011 India–Pakistan border shooting incident took place between 30 August and 1 September 2011 across the Line of Control in Kupwara District/Neelam Valley, resulting in five Indian soldiers and three Pakistani soldiers being killed. Both countries gave different accounts of the incident, each accusing the other of initiating the hostilities.
- 2013 India–Pakistan border incident in the Mendhar sector of Jammu & Kashmir, due to the beheading of an Indian soldier. A total of 22 soldiers died (12 Indian and 10 Pakistani soldiers).
- 2014–16 India–Pakistan border skirmishes in Arnia sector of Jammu & Kashmir due to killing of 1 soldier of Border Security Force and injured 3 soldiers and 4 civilians by Pakistan Rangers.
The nuclear conflict between both countries is of passive strategic nature with nuclear doctrine of Pakistan stating a first strike policy, although the strike would only be initiated if and only if, the Pakistan Armed Forces are unable to halt an invasion (as for example in 1971 war) or a nuclear strike is launched against Pakistan, whereas India has a declared policy of no first use.
- Pokhran-I (Smiling Buddha): On 18 May 1974 India detonated an 8-kiloton nuclear device at Pokhran Test Range, becoming the first nation to become nuclear capable outside the five permanent members of United Nations Security Council as well as dragging Pakistan along with it into a nuclear arms race with the Pakistani prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto swearing to reciprocate India quoting "His countrymen would prefer having a nuclear bomb even if they have to eat grass ". The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan said that the test would force Pakistan to test its own nuclear bomb.
- Kirana-I: In 1980s a series of 24 different cold tests were conducted by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission led by chairman Munir Ahmad Khan under extreme secrecy. The tunnels at Kirana Hills, Sargodha, are reported to have been bored after the Chagai nuclear test sites, it is widely believed that the tunnels were constructed sometime between 1979 and 1983. As in Chagai, the tunnels at Kirana Hills had been bored and then sealed and this task was also undertaken by PAEC's DTD. Later due to excessive US intelligence and satellite focus on the Kirana Hills site, it was abandoned and nuclear weapons testing was shifted to the Kala Chitta Range.
- Pokhran-II (Operation Shakti): On 11 May 1998 India detonated another 5 nuclear devices at Pokhran Test Range. With jubilation and large scale approval from the Indian society came International sanctions as a reaction to this test. The most vehement reaction of all coming from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan, which issued a severe statement claiming that India was instigating a nuclear arms race in the region. Pakistan vowed to match India's nuclear capability with statements like: "We are in a headlong arms race on the subcontinent".
- Chagai-I: (Youm-e-Takbir) Within half a month of Pokhran-II, on 28 May 1998 Pakistan detonated 5 nuclear devices to reciprocate India in the nuclear arms race. Pakistani public, like the Indian, reacted with a celebration and heightened sense of nationalism for responding to India in kind and becoming the only Muslim nuclear power. The day was later given the title Youm-e-Takbir to further proclaim such.
- Chagai-II: Two days later, on 30 May 1998, Pakistan detonated a 6th nuclear device completing its own series of underground tests with this being the last test the two nations have carried out to date.
- 28 May (since 1998) as Youm-e-Takbir (The day of Greatness) in Pakistan.
- 26 July (since 1999) as Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India.
- 6 September (since 1965) as Defence Day (Youm-e-Difa) in Pakistan.
- 7 September (since 1965) as Air Force Day (Youm-e-Fizaya) in Pakistan.
- 8 September (since 1965) as Victory Day/Navy Day (Youm-e-Bahr'ya) in Pakistan.
- 4 December (since 1971) as Navy Day in India.
- 16 December (since 1971) as Vijay Diwas (Victory Day) in India.
Involvement of other nations
- Soviet Union:
- The USSR remained neutral during the 1965 war and played a pivotal role in negotiating the peace agreement between India and Pakistan.
- The Soviet Union provided diplomatic and military assistance to India during the 1971 war. In response to the US and UK's deployment of the USS Enterprise and the HMS Eagle aircraft carriers, Moscow sent nuclear submarines and warships with anti-ship missiles in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean, respectively.
- United States:
- The US had not given any military aid to Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- The United States provided diplomatic and military support to Pakistan during the 1971 war by sending the USS Enterprise into the Indian Ocean.
- The United States did not support Pakistan during the Kargil War, and successfully pressured the Pakistani government to end hostilities.
In popular culture
These wars have provided source material for both Indian and Pakistani film and television dramatists, who have adapted events of the war for the purposes of drama and to please target audiences in their nations.
- Hindustan Ki Kasam, a 1973 Hindi war film based on Operation Cactus Lilly of the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War, directed by Chetan Anand.
- Aakraman, a 1975 Hindi war film based on the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by J. Om Prakash.
- Vijeta, a 1982 Hindi film based on the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, produced by Shashi Kapoor and directed by Govind Nihalani.
- Param Vir Chakra, a 1995 Hindi film based on Indo-Pakistani War, directed by Ashok Kaul.
- Border, a 1997 Hindi war film based on the Battle of Longewala of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by J.P.Dutta.
- LOC Kargil, a 2003 Hindi war film based on the Kargil War, directed by J. P. Dutta
- Deewaar, a 2004 Hindi film starring Amitabh Bachchan based on the POW of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by Milan Luthria.
- Lakshya, a 2004 Hindi film partially based on the events of the Kargil War, directed by Farhan Akhtar.
- 1971, 2007 Hindi war film based on a true story of prisoners of war after the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, directed by Amrit Sagar
- Kurukshetra, a 2008 Malayalam film starring Mohanlal based on Kargil War, directed by Major Ravi.
- Tango Charlie, a 2005 Hindi film starring Ajay Devgan, and Bobby Deol based on Kargil Conflict, directed by Mani Shankar.
- War Chhod Na Yaar, a 2013 comedy film, directed by Faraz Haider.
- 1971: Beyond Borders, a 2017 Malayalam film, directed by Major Ravi.
- Waar, a 2013 Pakistani English action movie surrounding Pakistan's role in war on terror and Indian involvement against Pakistan, directed by Bilal Lashari.
Pakistani miniseries and dramas
- Angaar Waadi, an Urdu drama serial based on the Kashmir conflict, directed by Rauf Khalid
- Laag, an Urdu drama serial based on the Kashmir conflict, directed by Rauf Khalid
- Operation Dwarka, 1965, an Urdu drama based on the naval Operation Dwarka of 1965, directed by Qasim Jalali
- PNS Ghazi (Shaheed), an Urdu drama based on sinking of PNS Ghazi, ISPR
- Alpha Bravo Charlie, an Urdu drama serial based on three different aspects of Pakistan Army's involvement in action, directed by Shoaib Mansoor
- Shahpar, an Urdu drama serial based on Pakistan Air Force, directed by Qaisar Farooq & Syed Shakir Uzair
- Sipahi Maqbool Hussain, an Urdu drama serial based on a 1965 war POW, directed by Haider Imam Rizvi
- United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
- India–Pakistan relations
- Two nation theory
- Patriotic hacking
- List of wars involving India
- List of wars involving Pakistan
- Khan, Yasmin (18 September 2007). The great Partition: the making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-300-12078-3. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Ambedkar, B.R. (1946). Pakistan, or Partition of India (2 ed.). AMS Press Inc. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-404-54801-8.
- Dixit, Jyotindra Nath (2002). India-Pakistan in War & Peace. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-30472-6.
- Unspecified author (6 November 2008). "Q&A: Kashmir dispute". BBC News – South Asia. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Prasad, S.N.; Dharm Pal (1987). History of Operations in Jammu and Kashmir 1947–1948. New Delhi: History Department, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. (printed at Thomson Press (India) Limited). p. 418.
- Hagerty, Devin (2005). South Asia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 161. ISBN 9780742525870. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher. 2004. p. 460. ISBN 9780753457849. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- New Zealand Defence Quarterly, Issues 24-29. New Zealand. Ministry of Defence. 1999. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Thomas, Raju (1992). Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia. Westview Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780813383439. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- David R. Higgins 2016.
- Rachna Bisht 2015.
- Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "Pakistan :: The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965". Library of Congress Country Studies, United States of America. April 1994. Retrieved 2 October 2010. Quote: Losses were relatively heavy--on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan.
- Hagerty, Devin. South Asia in world politics. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. p. 26. ISBN 0-7425-2587-2. Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat.
- Wolpert, Stanley (2005). India (3rd ed. with a new preface. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 235. ISBN 0520246969. Quote: India, however, was in a position to inflict grave damage to, if not capture, Pakistan's capital of the Punjab when the cease-fire was called, and controlled Kashmir's strategic Uri-Poonch bulge, much to Ayub's chagrin.
- Kux, Dennis (1992). India and the United States : Estranged democracies, 1941-1991. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0788102796. Quote: India had the better of the war.
- "Asia: Silent Guns, Wary Combatants". Time. 1 October 1965. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Quote: India, by contrast, is still the big gainer in the war. Alternate link: 
- Dennis Kux's "India and the United States estranged democracies", 1941–1991, ISBN 1-4289-8189-6, DIANE Publishing, Pg 238
- Dijkink, Gertjan. National identity and geopolitical visions: maps of pride and pain. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-13934-1.
- Praagh, David. The greater game: India's race with destiny and China. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 2003. ISBN 0-7735-2639-0.
- Till, Geoffrey (2004). Seapower: a guide for the twenty-first century. Great Britain: Frank Cass Publishers. p. 179. ISBN 0-7146-8436-8. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- Christophe Jaffrelot, Gillian Beaumont. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6. ISBN 9781843311492.
- Times Staff and Wire Reports (30 March 2002). "Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' Led Pakistani Army". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Syed Badrul Ahsan (15 July 2011). "A Lamp Glows for Indira Gandhi". Volume 10, Issue 27. The Daily Star. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Nawaz, Shuja (2008). Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within. Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-19-547697-2.
- Chitkara, M. G (1996). Benazir, a Profile – M. G. Chitkara. ISBN 9788170247524. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Schofield, Victoria (18 January 2003). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War – Victoria Schofield. ISBN 9781860648984. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Leonard, Thomas (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-97662-6.
- Unspecified author. "The 1971 war". India – Pakistan:Troubled relations. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Ali, Tariq (1997). Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State. Verso Books. ISBN 0-86091-949-8. ISBN 9780860919490.
- Wolpert, Stanley (14 Aug 2010). "Recent Attempts to Resolve the Conflict". India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict or Cooperation?. University of California Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780520271401.
- Ali, Tariq. "Bitter Chill of Winter". London Review of Books=. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Colonel Ravi Nanda (1999). Kargil: A Wake Up Call. Vedams Books. ISBN 81-7095-074-0. Online summary of the Book Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Kargil: where defence met diplomacy Archived 16 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. - India's then Chief of Army Staff VP Malik, expressing his views on Operation Vijay. Hosted on Daily Times; The Fate of Kashmir By Vikas Kapur and Vipin Narang Stanford Journal of International Relations; Book review of "The Indian Army: A Brief History by Maj Gen Ian Cardozo" Archived 8 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. - Hosted on IPCS
- R. Dettman, Paul (2001). "Kargil War Operations". India Changes Course: Golden Jubilee to Millennium. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 119–120. ISBN 9780275973087.
- Samina Ahmed. "Diplomatic Fiasco: Pakistan's Failure on the Diplomatic Front Nullifies its Gains on the Battlefield" (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
- Daryl Lindsey and Alicia Montgomery. "Coup d'itat: Pakistan gets a new sheriff". salon.com. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "War in Kargil - The CCC's summary on the war" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Samina Ahmed. "A Friend for all Seasons." (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
- "Rediff On The NeT: Pakistan refuses to take even officers' bodies". rediff.com. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "press release issued in New Delhi regarding bodies of two Pakistan Army Officers" Archived 15 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Second-Class Citizens by M. Ilyas Khan, The Herald (Pakistan), July 2000. Online scanned version of the article(PDF)
- Musharraf and the truth about Kargil - The Hindu 25 September 2006
- "Over 4000 soldier's killed in Kargil: Sharif". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Kapur, S. Paul (2007). Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia (23rd ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0804755498.
- Wirsing, Robert (15 February 1998). India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir dispute: on regional conflict and its resolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-312-17562-7. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "India-Pakistan talks: Sir Creek". Embassy of India. Retrieved 21 May 2006.
- "Dialogue on Sir Creek begins". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 May 2006.
- "India to stop fishermen from straying into Pakistan". In.reuters.com. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Raman, Sunil (8 April 2008). "India tracks stray fishing boats". BBC News. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Plight of ants". Rediff.com. 7 August 2002. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- History introduction Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. at hellojunagadh.com: "On September 15, 1947, Nawab Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III of Junagadh, a princely state located on the south-western end of Gujarat and having no common border with Pakistan, chose to accede to Pakistan ignoring Mountbatten's views, arguing that Junagadh adjoined Pakistan by sea. The rulers of two states that were subject to the suzerainty of Junagadh Mangrol and Babariawad reacted by declaring their independence from Junagadh and acceding to India."
- Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 292. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
- Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 438. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
- A.G. NOORANI. "Of Jinnah and Junagadh". Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Weisman, Steven R. (6 March 1987). "On India's border, a huge mock war". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Unspecified author (12 January 2002). "Musharraf declares war on extremism". South Asia. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Freeze, Colin (11 April 2011). "Accused in India massacre claims ties to Pakistani secret service – The Globe and Mail". Globe and Mail. Toronto.
- "Rana, Headley implicate Pak, ISI in Mumbai attack during ISI chief's visit to US". The Times of India. 12 April 2011.
- "Diplomat denies Pakistan role in Mumbai attacks". The Independent. London. 31 January 2009.
- Khan, Zarar (1 December 2008). "Pakistan Denies Government Involvement in Mumbai Attacks". Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- King, Laura (7 January 2009). "Pakistan denies official involvement in Mumbai attacks". Los Angeles Times.
- "Indian jets violating Pakistani airspace 'technical incursion', says Zardari (Fourth Lead) – Thaindian News". Thaindian.com. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Pak might soon move troops from border with India". The Times of India. 16 June 2009.
- "Over 4,500 soldiers killed along LoC in Pak firing since 2001: Army". Indian express. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- Pakistani plane "may have crossed border" 13 August 1999 BBC Retrieved 23 July 2007
- "The Case concerning the Aerial Incident of 10th August, 1999 – Summaries of Judgments and Orders". International Court of Justice. 21 June 2000. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "In 2011 five security men were martyred, according to the Indian Sources.". IBN Live.
- "Kashmir border deaths spark India and Pakistan row". BBC. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
- "LoC: Three Pakistani soldiers died in attack by Indian forces". The Express Tribune. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Pak troops kill two jawans, behead, mutilate one of them - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "India's Nuclear Weapons Program – Smiling Buddha: 1974". Nuclear Weapon Archive.
- "India's Nuclear Weapons Program – Smiling Buddha: 1974". Nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- APP and Pakistan Television (PTV), Prime minister Secretariat Press Release (18 May 1974). "India's so-called Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) is tested and designed to intimidate and establish "Indian hegemony in the subcontinent", most particularly Pakistan....Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime minister of Pakistan, on May of 1974.". Statement published on Associated Press of Pakistan and the on-aired on Pakistan Television (PTV).
- Khan, Munir Ahmad (18 May 1974). "India's nuclear explosion: Challenge and Response". Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and former director of the IAEA Reactor Division. International Atomic Energy Agency and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.
- "Koh Kambaran (Ras Koh Hills)". Pakistan Paedia.
- "Rediff on the NeT: It was 'Operation Shakti' on Budh Purnima". Rediff.com. 16 May 1998. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Herald Exclusive By Pervez Hoodbhoy 16 February 2011 (16 February 2011). "Herald exclusive: Pakistan’s nuclear bayonet | Pakistan". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Army Chief Kayani wants SC to probe memo". Thenews.com.pk. 22 February 1923. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program – 1998: The Year of Testing". Nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Pakistan Nuclear Weapons". Fas.org. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Dunya News: Pakistan:-13th Youm-e-Takbeer to be observed today". Dunyanews.tv. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Youm-e-Takbeer today | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Battle for Pakistan: the air war of 1965 – John Fricker – Google Boeken. Google Books. 1 January 1979. ISBN 978-0-7110-0929-5. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Asymmetric Conflicts By T. V. Paul Cambridge University Press 1994 ISBN 0-521-46621-0, pp119
- See: Tashkent Agreement
- "1971 India Pakistan War: Role of Russia, China, America and Britain". The World Reporter. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "Cold war games". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
- Birth of a nation. Indianexpress.com (11 December 2009). Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
- "United States – Pakistan Alliance". Library of Congress Country Studies, United States of America. April 1994. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- John P. Lewis (9 December 1971). "Mr. Nixon and South Asia". The New York Times. p. 47.
The Nixon Administration's South Asia policy... is beyond redemption
- 1971 War: How the US tried to corner India. Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
- Burne, Lester H. (2003). Chronological History of U.S. Foreign Relations: 1932–1988. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93916-X. ISBN 9780415939164.
- Dialogue call amid fresh fighting - – BBC News
- Bill Clinton (2004). My Life. Random House. ISBN 0-375-41457-6., Pg 865
- Pakistan and India Play With Nuclear Fire By Jonathan Power The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research
- "India and Pakistan: Over the Edge". Time Magazine. 13 December 1971. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Naqvi, Javed (29 December 2001). "Pressure mounts to stall war rhetoric". Dawn archives. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- Agencies (4 October 2012). "Pakistan, Russia renewing ties". Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Param Vir Chakra (1995)". IMDB. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- APP 25 November 2011 (25 November 2011). "Prominent writer, actor, Rauf Khalid dies in road accident | Entertainment". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indo-Pakistani wars.|