Women in computing
|Women in society|
Global concerns about current and future roles of women in computing occupations have gained more importance with the emerging information age. These concerns motivated public policy debates addressing gender equality as computer applications exerted increasing influence in society. This dialogue helped to expand information technology innovations and to reduce the consequences of sexism.
Historically, women played an important role in the evolution of computing, with many of the first programmers during the early 20th century being female. In the 2000s, women have also had leadership roles in computer companies, such as Meg Whitman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Marissa Mayer, President and CEO of Yahoo! since July 2012 and previously a long-time executive, usability leader, and key spokesperson for Google.
- 1 History
- 2 Gender gap
- 3 Benefits of gender diversity
- 4 Factors contributing to lack of female participation
- 5 Bringing women into computing
- 6 Relation to gender theory
- 7 Worldwide timeline
- 8 The Turing award recipients
- 9 Notable organizations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Ada Lovelace was the first person to publish an algorithm intended to be carried by the first modern computer, the Analytical Engine created by Charles Babbage. Because of this, she is often regarded as the first computer programmer, though this statement, as well as others about Ada's mathematical abilities and involvement with Babbage's project, has been criticized.
Grace Hopper was the first person to create a compiler for a Programming language and one of the first programmers of Mark I computer, an electro-mechanical computer based on Analytical Engine. The regularly working programmers of the ENIAC computer in 1944, were six female mathematicians; Marlyn Meltzer, Betty Holberton, Kathleen Antonelli, Ruth Teitelbaum, Jean Bartik, and Frances Spence. Adele Goldstine was one of the teachers and trainers of the six original programmers of ENIAC computer. Adele died of cancer in 1964 at the age of 44.
Adele Goldberg was one of the seven programmers that developed Smalltalk in 1970's, one of the first object-oriented programming languages, the base of current Graphic User Interface, that has its roots in 1968's The Mother of All Demos by Douglas Engelbart. Smalltalk was later used by Apple to launch Apple Lisa in 1983, the first personal computer with GUI, and one year later its Macintosh. Windows 1.0, based on the same principles, was launched a few months later in 1985.
A survey, conducted by SWIFT ("Supporting Women in Information Technology") based in Vancouver, Canada, asked 7,411 participants questions about their career choices. The survey found that females tend to believe that they lack the skill set needed to be successful in the field of computing. This study (as well as others) provides a strong base for a positive correlation between perceived ability and career choice. For more information about Canada in particular, see Women in computing in Canada.
A project based in Edinburgh, Scotland, "Strategies of Inclusion: Gender and the Information Society" (SIGIS) released its findings based on research conducted in 48 separate case studies all over Europe. The findings focus on recruiting as well as retention techniques for women already studying in the field. These techniques range from the introduction of role models, advertisement campaigns, and the allocation of quotas, in order to make the computing field appear more gender neutral. Educating reforms, which will increase the quality of the educating body and technological facilities, are also suggested.
Research suggests that Malaysia has a much more equal split that varies around the half-way mark. A job in the computing industry also implies a safe work environment. Strong belief by the previous generation that IT would be a flourishing sector with many job opportunities caused parents to encourage their children to take a computing career, no matter the gender.
In India, a growing number of women are studying and taking careers in technical fields. The percentage of women engineers graduating from IIT Bombay grew from 1.8% in 1972 to 8% in 2005. However, women remain underrepresented in information technology fields.
Statistics in education
In the United States, the proportion of women represented in undergraduate computer science education and the white-collar information technology workforce peaked in the mid-1980s, and has declined ever since. In 1984, 37.1% of Computer Science degrees were awarded to women; the percentage dropped to 29.9% in 1989-1990, and 26.7% in 1997-1998. Figures from the Computing Research Association Taulbee Survey indicate that fewer than 12% of Computer Science bachelor's degrees were awarded to women at U.S. PhD-granting institutions in 2010-11.
Although teenage girls are now using computers and the Internet at rates similar to their male peers, they are five times less likely to consider a technology-related career or plan on taking post-secondary technology classes. The National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT) reports that of the SAT takers who intend to major in computer and information sciences, the proportion of girls has steadily decreased relative to the proportion of boys, from 20 percent in 2001 to 12 percent in 2006. While this number has been decreasing, in 2001, the total number of these students (both boys and girls) reached its peak at 73,466.
According to a College Board report, in 2006 there were slightly more girls than boys amongst SAT takers that reported to having "course work or experience" in computer literacy, word processing, internet activity, and creating spreadsheets/databases. It was also determined that more boys than girls (59% vs 41%) reported course work or experience with computer programming, although this may likely be caused by false reporting. Of the 146,437 students (13%) who reported having no course work or experience, 61% were girls and 39% were boys.
More boys than girls take Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science exams. According to the College Board in 2006, 2,594 girls and 12,068 boys took the AP Computer Science A exam, while 517 girls and 4,422 boys took the more advanced AP Computer Science AB exam. From 1996 to 2004, girls made up 16–17% of those taking the AP Computer Science A exam and around 10% of those taking AP Computer Science AB exam.
Statistics in the workforce
Women’s representation in the computing and information technology workforce has been falling from a peak of 38% in the mid-1980s. From 1993 through 1999, NSF’s SESTAT reported that the percentage of women working as computer/information scientists (including those who hold a bachelor's degree or higher in an S&E field or have a bachelor's degree or higher and are working in an S&E field) declined slightly from 33.1% to 29.6% percent while the absolute numbers increased from 170,500 to 185,000. Numbers from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Catalyst in 2006 indicated that women comprise 27-29% of the computing workforce. A National Public Radio report in 2013 stated that about 20% of all U.S. computer programmers are female.
Benefits of gender diversity
A gender-diverse team is more likely to produce products that meet the needs of men and women. When women are underrepresented, many technical decisions are based on the experiences, opinions, and judgments of only men, which can result in products that meet the needs of only men. In addition, a review of research on gender-diverse teams reveals that gender-diverse teams are more productive, more creative, and more able to stay on schedule and within budget, compared to homogenous teams, while other research review suggests that the results are mixed, with many studies showing no result, non-linear results or even negative results of gender diversity on team performances. Research conducted by McKinsey & Company showed that companies with women in top management were more financially successful, in contrast analysis of sample major US companies showed no effect of inclusion of women (or minority members) on financial performance, these varied results give no conclusive evidence of the benefits of diversity.
The book Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide states that the lack of participation of females in computing excludes them from the "new economy", which calls for sophisticated computer skills in exchange for high salary positions.
Factors contributing to lack of female participation
Diminished participation by women relative to men in computer science dates from about 1984 following mass marketing of personal computers to boys as toys to play games. Fiddling with computers by boys resulted in increased interest and readiness for computer science classes by young men.
A study of over 7000 high school students in Vancouver, Canada showed that the degree of interest in the field of computer science for young women is comparably lower than that of young men. The same effect is seen in higher education; for instance, only 4% of female college freshmen expressed intention to major in computer science in the US. Research has shown that some aspects about computing may discourage women. One of the biggest turn-offs is the "geek factor". High school girls often envisage a career in computing as a lifetime in an isolated cubicle writing code. The "geek factor" affects both male and female high school students, but it seems to have more of a negative effect on the female students. In addition, computer programmers depicted in popular media are overwhelmingly male, contributing to an absence of role models for would-be female computer programmers. However, in 2015, computer science has for the first time become the most popular major for female students at Stanford University.
In part to qualify for federal education funding distributed through the states, most U.S. states and districts now focus on ensuring that all students are at least "proficient" in mathematics and reading, making it difficult for teachers to focus on teaching concepts beyond the test. According to a Rand Corporation study, such a concentration on testing can cause administrators to focus resources on tested subjects at the expense of other subjects (e.g., science) or distract their attention from other needs. Thus, computational thinking is unlikely to be taught either standalone or as integrated into other areas of study (e.g., mathematics, biology) anytime in the near future. The National Center for Women & IT distributes free resources for increasing awareness of the need for teaching computer science in schools, including the "Talking Points" card, "Moving Beyond Computer Literacy: Why Schools Should Teach Computer Science".
Female and male perspectives
According to a 1998–2000 ethnographic study by Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher at Carnegie Mellon University, men and women viewed computers very differently. Women interviewees were more likely to state that they saw the computer as a tool for use within a larger societal and/or interdisciplinary context than did the men interviewed. On the other hand, men were more likely to express an interest in the computer as a machine. Moreover, women interviewed in this study perceived that many of their male peers were "geeks," with limited social skills. Females often disliked the idea that computers "become their life." The students observed and interviewed in that study were probably not representative of students in general, since at that time, in order to be admitted to CMU Computer Science a student needed to have some programming experience. More research is needed to understand the ability to generalize Margolis' and Fisher's findings.
From a two-year research initiative published in 2000 by AAUW found that "Girls approach the computer as a “tool” useful primarily for what it can do; boys more often view the computer as a “toy” and/or an extension of the self. For boys, the computer is inherently interesting. Girls are interested in its instrumental possibilities, which may include its use as an artistic medium. They express scorn toward boys who confuse “real” power and power on a screen. “I see a computer as a tool,” a high school girl declares. “You [might] go play Kung Fu Fighting, but in real life you are still a stupid little person living in a suburban way.” Still, the National Assessment of Educational Progress showed as far back as 2000 that boys and girls use computers at about the same rates, albeit for somewhat different purposes.
Nearly 1000 students in University of Akron were surveyed, and it was discovered that females hold a more negative attitude towards computers than males. Another study assessed the computer-related attitude of over 300 students in University of Winnipeg and obtained similar results.
This is thought to contribute to the gender disparity phenomenon in computing, in particular the females' early lack of interest in the field.
Barriers to advancement
Research on the barriers that women face in undergraduate computing has highlighted such factors as:
- Undergraduate classroom teaching in which the "weedout" practices and policies privileging competition over cooperation tend to advantage men.
- Laboratory climates in which women are seen as foreign and not belonging at best, and experience blatant hostility and sexism at worst.
- Well-meaning people who unwittingly create stereotype threat by reminding students that "women can do computing as well as men".
- Strong resistance to changing the system in which these and other subtle practices are continuously reproduced.
Just like in the pre-college situation, solutions are most often implemented outside of the mainstream (e.g., providing role models, mentoring, and women’s groups), which can also create the perception among women, their male peers, and their professors that to be successful, women need "extra help" to graduate. Most people do not realize that the "extra help" is not academic, but instead access to the kind of peer networks more readily available to male students. Many women decline to participate in these extracurricular support groups because they do not want to appear deficient. In short, the conditions under which women (and underrepresented minority students) study computing are not the same as those experienced by men.
Lack of acknowledgment and promotion of skills
Women in technical roles often feel that the skills and feedback they bring to their jobs are not valued. According to a Catalyst report called "Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers", 65% of females in technical roles felt that those they reported to were receptive and responsive to their suggestions, as compared to 75% of women in non-technical roles. This also speaks directly to the retention of females in the industry as females will commonly leave a company when they feel that what they are offering a company is not valued. The report shows the concerns felt about this by sharing the following quote from an interviewee: "I would like to be involved with more projects than I am currently involved in; I feel that I am being underutilized. I would prefer my supervisor give me an opportunity to expand my skill sets and my responsibility at work".
However, it is not enough to just acknowledge skills. Women also lack the support and advocacy needed to promote these skills. Women feel alone and at a loss because they lack role models, networks, and mentors. These support systems not only help women develop talent and opportunities for career advancement, but they are also needed to promote women to more senior roles. It can be understood that advocacy is a major player in the advancement of females into senior tech roles.
Stereotyping computer scientists
Other research examines that undergraduates’ stereotype of the people in computer science and how changing this stereotype through media can influence women’s interest in computer science. Through this study they concluded that the image of computer science majors that is most prevalent in popular culture and in the minds of current undergraduates is someone who is highly intelligent, primarily obsessed with computers, and socially unskilled. This image can be considered to contrast with the more people-oriented, traditionally feminine image. According to this study, students continue to generate and propagate this stereotype when asked to describe people in computer science. Based on the results of their experiment based on this idea, they took a group of women and men undergraduates and had them read a stereotypical article and a non-stereotypical article. They found that women who read the non-stereotypical article were much more interested in computer science than those who read the article with the above-mentioned stereotypical computer science student. Overall, they concluded that the underrepresentation of women in computing not due to women’s lack of interest. The study contests the perception that college major decisions are free choices, instead they discuss the implications that the major decisions are more constrained by the prevalent stereotypes. This has a negative consequence such that it prevents women from developing an interest in these technical fields. The finding suggests that the stereotypical image of the computer scientists is unattractive to women who would otherwise be interested if presented with a true representation or role model from the computer science field.
Fraternity-like startup environments
The disproportionate number of startups in the computing industry, and the disproportionate hiring of primarily young workers, have created an environment in which many firms' technical teams consist largely of workers who are recent college graduates, sometimes giving the businesses fraternity-like cultures, leading to sexism that discourages female participation. The phenomenon of fraternity-like environments among technology teams of startup firms has been termed brogrammer culture.
Bringing women into computing
The majority of data collected about women in IT has been qualitative analysis such as interviews and case studies. This data has been used to create effective programs addressing the underrepresentation of women in IT. Suggestions for incorporating more women in IT careers include formal mentoring, ongoing training opportunities, employee referral bonuses, multicultural training for all IT employees, as well as educational programs targeting women.
The number of female college entrants expressing interest in majoring in computer science decreased in the 2000s to pre-1980's levels. A research study was initialized by Allan Fisher, then Associate Dean for Undergraduate Computer Science Education at Carnegie Mellon University, and Jane Margolis, a social scientist and expert in gender equity in education, into the nature of this problem. The main issues discovered in interesting and retaining women in computer science were feelings of an experience gap, confidence doubts, interest in curriculum and pedagogy, and peer culture. Universities across North America are changing their computer science programs to make them more appealing to women. Proactive and positive exposures to early computer experiences, such as The Alice Project, founded by the late Randy Pausch at Carnegie Mellon University, are thought to be effective in terms of retention and creation of enthusiasm for women who may later consider entering the field. Institutions of higher education are also beginning to make changes regarding the process and availability of mentoring to women that are undergraduates in technical fields.
Another strategy for addressing this issue has been early outreach to elementary and high-school girls. Programs like all-girl computer camps, girls’ after-school computer clubs, and support groups for girls have been instilled to create more interest at a younger age. A specific example of this kind of program is the Canadian Information Processing Society outreach program, in which a representative is sent to schools in Canada, speaking specifically to grade nine girls about the benefits of Information Technology careers. The purpose is to inform girls about the benefits and opportunities within the field of information technology. Companies like IBM also encourage young women to become interested in engineering, technology and science. IBM offers EX.I.T.E. (Exploring Interests in Technology and Engineering) camps for young women from the ages of 11 to 13.
Additionally, attempts are being made to make the efforts of female computer scientists more visible through events such as the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women conference series which allows women in the field to meet, collaborate and present their work. In the U.S., the Association for Women in Computing was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1978. Its purpose is to provide opportunities for the professional growth of women in computing through networking, and through programs on technical and career-oriented topics. In the United Kingdom, the British Computer Society (BCS) and other organizations have groups which promote the cause of women in computing, such as BCSWomen, founded by Sue Black, and the BCS Women's Forum. In Ontario, Canada, the Gr8 Designs for Gr8 Girls program was founded to develop grade 8 girls' interest in computer science.
- National Center for Women & Information Technology
The National Center for Women & IT (NCWIT) is currently one of the lead supporters of women’s entry and retention in computing. Their goal is to help to create academic and work environments that are welcoming and fair for women. Their research shows that encouragement is one of the key elements to help women enter a primarily male-dominated field. They found women report more often than their male-counterpart that they entered computer science due to the influence of a teacher, family member, or friend’s encouragement. Their findings conclude that support can make the difference in a woman’s belief that she is competent enough to compete in computing. Thus, the NCWIT developed a program called Aspirations in Computing in order to provide girls with the necessary encouragement, a network of support, and female role models. In a survey done, nearly half of the girls polled said they would feel uncomfortable being the only girl in a group or class, one of the Aspirations main goals is to enable girls to feel less isolated in these predicaments. They have found that creating a sense of belonging or “fitting in” is fundamental for interest and current retention. The NCWIT Aspirations Award was created in order to involve women in a national competition, awardees are selected for their computing and IT aptitude, leadership skills, academics, and plans for graduate schooling. Due to their reach and awareness of the program, they saw a 54% increase in the girls applying in the 2013 season compared to the previous year.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Academies and organizations
Hackbright Academy is an intensive, women-only 10-week programming course in San Francisco. A Moms in Tech sponsorship for Hackbright Academy is also available for mothers who are former IT professionals and wish to retrain and return to work as a technically hands-on lead or manager, sponsored by Facebook.
Geek Girl is an organization that was started in March 2006 by Leslie Fishlock. It is an organization that acts as a technology resource for women. The organization strives to empower women of all ages through making technology easy to understand and use. These services are provided entirely by women. Though the target audience tends to be female and the organization was founded on the goal to empower women, men are also encouraged to participate in any of the events or services the organization offers.
Geek Girl hosts localized events, meetups, and conferences. The organization also supports a video channel titled GeekGirl TV that provides workshops about technological tools as well as provides coverage for their events for those who are unable to attend. Additionally, Geek Girl’s website hosts a blog that provides technology-related news and information that is accessible to a reader with minimal technology experience.
Grace Hopper Academy, named after Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, is another woman-only immersive programming school, located in New York City. A partner school to Fullstack Academy, Grace Hopper's curriculum focuses on the MEAN stack, and through education and mentorship, aims to help women begin careers in software engineering.
CodeEd is a non-profit organization that focuses on teaching computer science to young girls in underserved communities. The organization partners with schools and programs to help provide volunteer teachers, computer science course offerings, and computers. The organization was co-founded by Angie Sciavoni and Sep Kamvar in 2010. CodeEd provides courses in HTML and CSS, and provides the curriculum and course material for free under a Creative Commons Attribution license. The organization offers classes that are taught by a team of two volunteer teachers, provide lessons in one-hour blocks that may be dispensed in a way that works for the receiving school, and teachers through fun and experimental projects. Code Ed currently offers services in New York City, Boston, and San Francisco.
she++ is an organization that facilitates a community driven to inspire women to take on a role in the computer sciences. The organization was founded at Stanford University by now-alumnae Ellora Israni and Ayna Agarwal, who spearheaded the organization’s inaugural conference in April 2012. The conference featured female speakers who held tech positions in companies like Google, Pinterest, and Facebook and was well attended. The conference inspired its organizers to continue with and expand upon she++ and now facilitates participation initiatives through hosting additional events such as a 2013 conference, curating a video library that features inspirational stories from technology professionals, and by offering a mentorship program. The organization is run by a collection of female students and Stanford University.
Nerd Girls was launched in 2000 by Dr. Karen Panetta, a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Tufts University. It is an organization that is represented by a group of female engineering students each year and encourages women to take on roles in the engineering and technology profession. The organization celebrates the coincidence of science knowledge and femininity. Participating members solve real-world problems as a group by addressing and fixing technology related issues in the community. Nerd Girls has gained national attention since its launch and has been approached by media producers to create a reality show based off the organization's problem-solving activities. Nerd Girls is sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Femgineer was started in 2007 by Poornima Vijayashanker. It was originally developed as a blog that focused on engineers, which evolved into an organization that supports women in technology careers. Femgineers is now an education-focused organization that offers workshops, free teaching resources on the topic of technology, supports forums and Meetups, and a team has been developed to continue to expand on the original blog. Poornima Vijayashanker is an avid public speaker and regularly speaks at technology-related conferences and events about the technology industry and about Femgineer itself. In addition to founding Femgineer, she also founded a startup called BizeeBee in 2010 that supports growing fitness businesses, teaches technology workshops for tech-driven organizations around the country, and was named one of the ten women to watch in tech in 2013 by Inc Magazine.
- Postsecondary education organization
Numerous postsecondary education institutions have student-run organizations that focus on the advancement of women in computer science. In addition to she++ based out of Stanford University, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) supports a chapter of the organization called Women In Computing. The campus's chapter of the organization is composed of students, faculty and staff at RIT and they strive to support and further develop the culture of computing to women. This effort is not only focused on their campus, but in the larger community. They host events both on their campus located in Henrietta, New York, and within surrounding Rochester schools. RIT is among a national list of schools that host a chapter of Women in Computing, which is founded in the organization Association of Computing Machinery's committee for women in computing (ACM-W).
Harvard University hosts the organization called Harvard Undergraduate Women in Computer Science (WiSC). The organization aims to promote women in computing across a variety of schools and industries, educate women on the profession of computer science, and provide opportunities for women in technical fields. WiCS supports the annual conference named WECode, a conference that aims to promote women's involvement in computer science.
In an effort to improve the gender composition in computing, the Women & Information Technology (NCWIT) created a nationwide U.S. program called “Pacesetters.” Through this program, twenty-four academic and corporate organizations added close to 1,000 “Net New Women” to the field of computer science by 2012. These Net New Women are women in the sciences that had not originally intended on pursuing a computer science degree. Pacesetters is the first program of its kind where different organizations come together to identify effective ways to broaden the participation of women in computer science. There are currently more than 300 corporations, academic institutions, government agencies and non-profit organizations devoted to this cause. Together they build internal teams in order to develop and fund the needed programs and share their overall results. Pacesetters organizations include some very prestigious companies such as AT&T, Intel, Microsoft, Google, Georgia Tech, Pfizer, and IBM to name a few. These are a few examples of their results due to the work with Pacesetters:
- Google: built a new programs for undergraduate women and held a career development panel of engineers which gave women the chance to participate in mock interviews. Due to these efforts, the number of women applicants grew and Google doubled the number of women in their software engineering summer internship program in 2011 compared to 2010.
- Intel: piloted a program called Command Presence Workshop in which senior technical women participated in specialized training,
- Virginia Tech: created a team of CS faculty, advisors, and student mentors to interact with potential female undergraduates and high school students. They saw a 56% increase in the number of female students who showed interest in their science programs.
Relation to gender theory
There are a number of thinkers who engage with gender theories and issues related to women and technology. Such thinkers include, for example, Donna Haraway, Sadie Plant, Julie Wosk, Sally L. Hacker, Evelyn Fox Keller, Janet Abbate, Thelma Estrin, and Thomas J. Misa, among others. A 2008 book titled Gender and Information Technology: Moving Beyond Access to Co-Create Global Partnership uses Riane Eisler's cultural transformation theory to offer an interdisciplinary, social systems perspective on issues of access to technology. The book explores how shifting from dominator towards partnership systems — as reflected in four primary social institutions (communication, media, education, and business) - might help society move beyond the simplistic notion of access to co-create a real digital revolution worldwide.
A 2000 book titled Athena Unbound provides a life-course analysis (based on interviews and surveys) of women in the sciences from an early childhood interest, through university, to graduate school and finally into the academic workplace. The thesis of this book is that "women face a special series of gender related barriers to entry and success in scientific careers that persist, despite recent advances".
Computer scientist Karen Petrie, from University of Dundee, has developed an argument to illustrate why an attack on sexism in computing is not an attack on men. Ian Gent, University of St Andrews, has described this idea which is key to the argument as the “Petrie Multiplier”.
According to J. McGrath Cohoon, senior research scientist for the National Center for Women & Information Technology, there are a few possible hypotheses for why women are underrepresented in computer sciences attributed to already established theories about the influence of gender and technology stereotypes. One gender related hypothesis is that women find it more difficult than men to contribute to the intellectual life of the field in the sense that reviewers of their work are unconsciously downgraded due to their status as women or those women have lower confidence in this field that inhibits women’s willingness to publicly present their technical findings. Due to this barrier of women as second-class citizens in the computing world, it creates an environment that is not accessible to women. A study by the Psychology of Women Quarterly backs this hypothesis up by concluding that even the enduring effect of single brief exposures to stereotypical role models leaves a strong mark. Their findings reported that the most important factor in recruiting women to the computer science field is that women meet with a potential role model, regardless of gender of that role model, that conveys to the woman a sense of belonging in the field. This finding suggests that support and encouragement are the two most important aspects that can influence women participation in computing. In order for women to be more receptive to the field is if the environment became a more welcoming place by their male counterparts.
Cordelia Fine in her book Delusions of Gender argues that apparent differences are due to constant exposure to societal beliefs of gender difference. Fine also argues that "...while social effects on sex differences are well-established, spurious results, poor methodologies and untested assumptions mean we don’t yet know whether, on average, males and females are born differently predisposed to systemizing versus empathising."
Another argument for why women are less prevalent in computer science is the ill-defined nature of computing according to Paul De Palma. In his article Why Women Avoid Computer Science, he postulates that women find careers in computing unattractive. He finds that among the many reasons offered, he believes the nature of computing is what drives them away. He claims that young men who are drawn to computer science and engineering are those that like to tinker, those who like to use tools to create and dismantle objects. He further claims that computing is not a true profession, that traditional career paths such as law, business, and medicine are more certain and profitable on average than computing. He compares it to using a computer, computers nowadays do not come with lengthy manuals on the inner workings of the modern day computer, in fact our tools are always more complicated than their what they are used for, thus the tinkering nature of men, the drive born from gender stereotyping from birth, has made men successful in this field for they are more inclined to spend endless hours of tinkering with software and hardware. His claim revolves around the focus that boys and girls fall into gender stereotypes, girls who usually are given dolls and boys who are given trucks and toy tool boxes. He claims that these gender roles placed on children is one of the primary causes for the gender gap seen in computer science. He postulates that if we were to see more girls playing with trucks and other “boy-related” toys that perhaps we would see an increase in this tinkering nature and therefore more participation of women in the computer science field.
||This article needs attention from an expert in Computer Science History. (June 2015)|
- 1842: Ada Lovelace (1815–1852) was an analyst of Charles Babbage's analytical engine and considered by many the "first computer programmer."
- 1893: Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868–1921) joined the Harvard "computers", a group of women engaged in the production of astronomical data at Harvard. She was instrumental in discovery of the cepheid variable stars, which are evidence for the expansion of the universe.
- 1926: Grete Hermann (1901-1984) published the foundational paper for computerized algebra. It was her doctoral thesis, titled "The Question of Finitely Many Steps in Polynomial Ideal Theory", and published in Mathematische Annalen.
- 1940s: American women were recruited to do ballistics calculations and program computers during WWII. Around 1943-1945, these women "computers" used a Differential Analyzer in the basement of the Moore School of Electrical Engineering to speed up their calculations, though the machine required a mechanic to be totally accurate and the women often rechecked the calculations by hand.
- 1943: Women worked as WREN Colossus operators during WW2 at Bletchley Park.
- 1943: Many wives of scientists at Los Alamos were first organized as "computers" on the Manhattan Project.
- 1943: Gertrude Blanch (1897–1996) led the Mathematical Tables Project group from 1938 to 1948. During World War II, the project operated as a major computing office for the U.S. government and did calculations for the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the Army, the Navy, the Manhattan Project and other institutions.
- 1946: Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Frances Spence, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, and Ruth Lichterman were the regularly working programmers of the ENIAC. Adele Goldstine, also involved in the programming, wrote the program manual for the ENIAC.
- 1948: Kathleen Booth (1922–) is credited with writing the assembly language for the ARC2 computer.
- 1949: Grace Hopper (1906–1992), was a United States Navy officer and one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I, known as the "Mother of COBOL". She developed the first compiler for an electronic computer, known as A-0. She also popularized the term "debugging" – a reference to a moth extracted from a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer.
- 1949: Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924–) was the second African-American woman in the U.S. to receive a PhD in mathematics. From 1956 to 1960, she worked for IBM on the Project Vanguard and Project Mercury space programs, analyzing orbits and developing computer procedures.
- 1950: Ida Rhodes (1900–1986) was one of the pioneers in the analysis of systems of programming. She co-designed the C-10 language in the early 1950s for the UNIVAC I – a computer system that was used to calculate the census.
- 1958: Orbital calculations for the United States' Explorer 1 satellite were solved by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's all-female "computers", many of whom were recruited out of high school.
Mechanical calculators were supplemented with logarithmic calculations performed by hand.
- 1961: Dana Ulery (1938–), was the first female engineer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, a 40-bit word size computer.
- 1962: Jean E. Sammet (1928–), developed the FORMAC programming language. She was also the first to write extensively about the history and categorization of programming languages in 1969, and became the first female president of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974.
- 1962: Dame Stephanie "Steve" Shirley (1933–), founded the UK software company F.I. She was concerned with creating work opportunities for women with dependents, and predominantly employed women, only 3 out of 300-odd programmers were male, until that became illegal. She adopted the name "Steve" to help her in the male-dominated business world. From 1989 to 1990, she was President of the British Computer Society. In 1985, she was awarded a Recognition of Information Technology Award.
- 1965: Mary Allen Wilkes (1937–) was the first person to use a computer in a private home (in 1965) and the first developer of an operating system (LAP) for the first minicomputer (LINC).
- 1965: Sister Mary Kenneth Keller (1913–1985) became the first American woman to earn a PhD in Computer Science in 1965. Her thesis was titled "Inductive Inference on Computer Generated Patterns."
- 1966: Margaret R. Fox (1916–2006) was appointed Chief of the Office of Computer Information in 1966, part of the Institute for Computer Science and Technology of NBS. She held the post until 1975. She was also actively involved in the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and served as the first Secretary for the American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS).
- 1969: Margaret Hamilton (1936–) was in late 1960s Director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for the Apollo space program. MIT work prevented an abort of the Apollo 11 moon landing by using robust architecture. Later, she was awarded the NASA Exceptional Space Act Award for her scientific and technical contributions.
- 1971: Erna Schneider Hoover (1926–) is an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which developed modern communication according to several reports. At Bell Laboratories, where she worked for over 32 years, Hoover was described as an important pioneer for women in the field of computer technology.
- 1972: Mary Shaw (1943–) became the first woman to get a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie Mellon University.
- 1972: Adele Goldberg (1945–), was one of developers of the Smalltalk language.
- 1972: Karen Spärck Jones (1935–2007), was one of the pioneers of information retrieval and natural language processing.
- 1972: Sandra Kurtzig founded ASK Computer Systems, an early Silicon Valley startup.
- 1973: Susan Nycum co-authored Computer Abuse, a minor classic that was one of the first studies to define and document computer-related crime.
- 1973: Lynn Conway (1938–), a trans woman who, after gender transition at the age of 30, led the "LSI Systems" group, and co-authored Introduction to VLSI Systems.
- 1973: Phyllis Fox (1923–) worked on the PORT portable mathematical/numerical library.
- 1974: Elizabeth Feinler (1931–) and her team defined a simple text file format for Internet host names. The list evolved into the Domain Name System and her group became the naming authority for the top-level domains of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, and .com.
- 1975: Irene Greif became the first woman to get a Ph.D. in computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- 1978: Sophie Wilson (1957–), is a British computer scientist. She is known for designing the Acorn Micro-Computer, as well as the instruction set of the ARM processor.
- 1979: Carol Shaw (1955–), was a game designer and programmer for Atari Corp. and Activision.
- 1980: Carla Meninsky was the game designer and programmer for Atari 2600 games Dodge 'Em and Warlords.
- 1982?: Lorinda Cherry worked on the Writer's Workbench (wwb) for Bell Labs.
- 1983: Janese Swanson (1958–) (with others) developed the first of the Carmen Sandiego games. She went on to found Girl Tech. Girl Tech develops products and services that encourage girls to use new technologies, such as the Internet and video games.
- 1984: Roberta Williams (1953–), did pioneering work in graphical adventure games for personal computers, particularly the King's Quest series.
- 1984: Susan Kare (1954–), created the icons and many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh in the 1980s, and was an original employee of NeXT, working as the Creative Director.
- 1985: Radia Perlman (1951–), invented the Spanning Tree Protocol. She has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. She received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007, among numerous others.
- 1985: Irma Wyman (1927–), was the first Honeywell CIO.
- 1987: Monica S. Lam receives a Ph.D. for her work on optimising compilers. She has since then performed influential research in many areas of computer science as well as co-authored a famous textbook on compilers.
- 1988: Éva Tardos (1957–), was the recipient of the Fulkerson Prize for her research on design and analysis of algorithms.
- 1989: Frances E. Allen (1932–), became the first female IBM Fellow in 1989. In 2006, she became the first female recipient of the ACM's Turing Award.
- 1989: Frances Brazier, professor of Computer Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, is one of the founder of NLnet, the first Internet service provider in the Netherlands.
- 1992: Donna Dubinsky (1955–), CEO and co-founder of Palm, Inc., co-founder of Handspring, co-founder of Numenta, Harvard Business School's Alumni Achievement Award winner for "introducing the first successful personal digital assistant (PDA) and who is now developing a computer memory system modeled after the human brain".
- 1993: Shafi Goldwasser (1958–), a theoretical computer scientist, is a two-time recipient of the Gödel Prize for research on complexity theory, cryptography and computational number theory, and the invention of zero-knowledge proofs.
- 1993: Barbara Liskov(1939–), together with Jeannette Wing, developed the Liskov substitution principle. Liskov was also the winner of the Turing Prize in 2008.
- 1994: Sally Floyd (1953–), is known for her work on Transmission Control Protocol.
- 1996: Xiaoyuan Tu (1967–), was the first female recipient of ACM's Doctoral Dissertation Award.
- 1997: Anita Borg (1949–2003), was the founding director of the Institute for Women and Technology (IWT).
- 1998: LinuxChix an international organization for women who use Linux and women and men who want to support women in computing was founded by Deb Richardson.
- 1999: Marissa Mayer (1975–), was the first female engineer hired at Google, and was later named Vice President of Search Product and User Experience. She is currently the CEO of Yahoo!.
- 2003: Ellen Spertus earned a PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT in 1998 with the notable thesis "ParaSite: Mining the structural information on the World-Wide Web".
- 2004: Jeri Ellsworth (1974–), is a self-taught computer chip designer and creator of the C64 Direct-to-TV.
- 2005: Audrey Tang (1981–), was the initiator and leader of the Pugs project.
- 2005: Mary Lou Jepsen (1965–), was the founder and chief technology officer of One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), and the founder of Pixel Qi.
- 2005: Ruchi Sanghvi (1982–) became the first female engineer at Facebook.
- 2006: Maria Klawe (1951–), was the first woman to become President of the Harvey Mudd College since its founding in 1955 and was ACM president from 2002 until 2004.
- 2006: Melanie Rieback's research concerns the security and privacy of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, she is known to have program the first virus to infect RFID devices.
- 2006: Joanna Rutkowska presented Blue Pill, a rootkit based on x86 virtualization, at the Black Hat Briefings computer security conference.
- 2013: Mehvish Mushtaq was the first female developer from the Indian state of J&K.Her first app was Dial Kashmir
- 2014: Kimberley Bolton became the first woman to win a Microsoft Apprentice of the Year award, winning in the "Medium Business Category".
The Turing award recipients
The A.M. Turing Award, sometimes referred to as the "Nobel Prize" of Computing, was named in honor of Alan Mathison Turing (1912–1954), a British mathematician and computer scientist. The Turing award has been won by 3 women between 1966 and 2015.
- Ada Initiative
- Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology, group for support of women, runs the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing yearly conference.
- Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Committee on Women
- Association for Women in Computing: one of the first professional organizations for women in computing. AWC is dedicated to promoting the advancement of women in the computing professions.
- BCSWomen, a women-only Specialist Group of the British Computer Society
- Black Girls Code, non-profit focused on providing technology education to young African-American women.
- Center for Women in Technology, university center focused on increasing the representation of women in the creation of technology.
- Computing Research Association's Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research (CRA-W), group focused on increasing the number of women participating in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) research and education at all levels.
- Girl Develop It, a nonprofit organization that provides affordable programs for adult women interested in learning web and software development in a judgment-free environment.
- Girl Geek Dinners, an International group for women of all ages.
- Girls Who Code, a national non-profit organization dedicated to closing the gender gap in technology.
- LinuxChix, a women-oriented community in the open source movement.
- National Center for Women In Technology, a nonprofit that increases the number of women in technology and computing.
- Systers, a moderated listserv dedicated to mentoring women in the Systers community.
- Women in Technology International, global organization dedicated to the advancement of women in business and technology.
- Women's Technology Empowerment Centre (W.TEC), non-profit organisation focused on providing technology education and mentoring to Nigerian women and girls.
- List of female mathematicians
- List of female scientists
- List of organizations for women in science
- List of prizes, medals, and awards for women in science
- Women in engineering
- Women in science
- Women in the workforce
- Women in venture capital
- Women and video games
- Grurer, Denis (1995) "Pioneering Women in Computer Science" ACM.
- Fuegi & Francis 2003, pp. 16–26.
- Phillips, Ana Lena (November–December 2011). "Crowdsourcing gender equity: Ada Lovelace Day, and its companion website, aims to raise the profile of women in science and technology". American Scientist 99 (6): 463.
- "Ada Lovelace honoured by Google doodle". The Guardian. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Chan, Vania; Stafford, Katie; Klawe, Maria; Chen, Grace (2000). "Gender Differences in Vancouver Secondary Students’ Interests Related to Information Technology Careers". Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia.
- Faulkner, Wendy (2004). "Strategies of Inclusion: Gender and the Information Society - Final Report", SIGIS, University of Edinburgh.
- Prof Robin Williams. "Getting More Women in Computer Science and Engineering" (PDF). University of Edinburgh.
- Prof. Vivian Anette Lagesen. "A Cyberfeminist Utopia?: Perceptions of Gender and Computer Science among Malaysian Women Computer Science Students and Faculty". Sage Publications.
- Simard, Caroline. "The state of women and technology fields around the world" (PDF). Anita Borg Institute.
- Varma, Roli (2010). "Computing self-efficiency among women in India" (PDF). Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 16: 257–274. doi:10.1615/jwomenminorscieneng.v16.i3.40.
- Camp, Tracy (2001). "Women in Computer Science: Reversing the Trend". Colorado School of Mines.
- "Computing Degree and Enrollment Trends", 2010-2011 CRA Taulbee Survey. The Computing Research Association.
- Melkymuka, Kathleen (8 January 2001). "If Girls Don't Get IT, IT Won't Get Girls", Computer World.
- Stross, Randall (15 November 2008). "What Has Driven Women Out of Computer Science?", The New York Times.
- 2006 College-Bound Seniors - Total Group Profile Report, CollegeBoard SAT.
- "Characteristics of Scientists and Engineers in the US", National Science Foundation.
- Thomas J. Misa, ed. (2010). Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing. Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press. pp. 32-34.
- Foust-Cummings, Heather; Sabattini, Laura; Carter, Nancy (2008). "Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers". Catalyst.
- Laura Sydell (Director) (2013-04-29). "Blazing The Trail For Female Programmers". All Tech Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- "Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women’s Success in Engineering and Computing". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "What Is the Impact of Gender Diversity on Technology Business Performance?: Research Summary" (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "RECEIVED WISDOM AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIVERSITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE". Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "The Gender and Ethnic Diversity of US Boards and Board Committees and Firm Financial Performance". Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- Cooper, J.; Weaver, K. (2003). Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4427-9
- "TABLE 33. Computer sciences degrees awarded, by degree level and sex of recipient: 1966–2010" (PDF). http://www.nsf.gov/statistics. NSF. Retrieved December 26, 2014. External link in
- Steve Henn (October 21, 2014). "When Women Stopped Coding". Morning Edition (NPR). Retrieved December 26, 2014.
The share of women in computer science started falling at roughly the same moment when personal computers started showing up in U.S. homes in significant numbers.
- Handcock, Mark S. et al. (2004). "Focus on Women in Computer Science", University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Dean, Cornelia (17 April 2007). "Computer Science Takes Steps to Bring Women to the Fold". New York Times.
- McBride, Sarah. "Computer science now top major for women at Stanford University". Reuters US Edition. Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Stecher, B. M. (2002). "Consequences of large-scale, high-stakes testing on school and classroom practice". In: Hamilton, L. S., B. M. Stecher, and S. P. Klein (Eds.). Making sense of test-based accountability in education. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
- Moving Beyond Computer Literacy: Why Schools Should Teach Computer Science, National Center for Women & Information Technology.
- Margolis, J. et al. (1999). Unlocking the Clubhouse. The MIT Press. p.4.
- AAUW Educational Foundation Commission on Technology, Gender, and Teacher Education (2000). "Tech Savvy: Educating Girls in the New Computer Age", p.8.
- Cohoon, J. McGrath; Aspray, William (2006). Women and Information Technology: Research on Underrepresentation, Chapter 5. The MIT Press.
- (2003). "Bit by Bit: Catalyst's Guide to Advancing Women in High Tech Companies". Catalyst.
- Cheryan, Sapna, et al. "The Stereotypical Computer Scientist: Gendered Media Representations As A Barrier To Inclusion For Women." Sex Roles 69.1/2 (2013): 58. Publisher Provided Full Text Searching. Web. 16 Jan. 2015.
- Forbes: Sexism In Startups: The Frank Conversation We Need To Be Having
- Business Week: The Rise of the 'Brogrammer'
- Moody, J W; Beise, C M; Woszczynski, A B; Myers, M E. (2003). "Diversity and the information technology workforce: Barriers and opportunities", p.3. The Journal of Computer Information Systems.
- Ramsey, N.; McCorduck, P. (2005). "Where are the women in Information Technology?". Anita Borg Institute.
- Eggers, Andy (17 November 2008). "Interest in computer science is volatile". The Institute of Quantitative Social Science. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Blum, Lenore (2001). "Women in Computer Science: The Carnegie Mellon Experience", Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science.
- The Alice Project, Carnegie Mellon University.
- Sullivan, Patricia; Kristen Moore (2013). "Time Talk: On Small Changes that Enact Infrastructural Mentoring for Undergraduate Women in Technical Fields". Journal of Technical Writing & Communication 43 (3): 333–354. doi:10.2190/TW.43.3.f. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- "Women in IT", Canada's Association of IT Professionals.
- "Association for Women in Computing". Awc-hq.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- DuBow, Wendy M., et al. "Bringing Young Women Into Computing Through The NCWIT Aspirationgs In Computing Program." Communications of the ACM 56.12 (2013): 34-37. Business Source Premier. Web. 16 Jan 2015.
- Girl Develop It site.
- "Hackbright Academy". Hackbright Academy. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Made with love the Geek Girls. "Geek Girl Tech Conferences Education Training for Women". Geek Girl. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Exclusive: Grace Hopper Academy, An All-Women Coding School, To Open In New York". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "Grace Hopper Academy". gracehopper.com. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
- "CodeEd". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "she++". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "About -". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Karen Panetta: Bringing Geek Chic Into Style". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Femgineer". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Poornima Vijayashanker: Femgineer & Top Ten Woman to Watch in Tech". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "10 Women to Watch in Tech in 2013". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Women in Computing". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Home". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Harvard’s WECode conference welcomes more women into tech". Boston.com. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Closing the gender gap in computer science". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Improving Gender Composition in Computing." Communications Of The ACM 55.4 (2012): 29-31.Business Source Premier. Web. 15 Jan. 2015
- Smith, Erika E (2013). "Recognizing a Collective Inheritance through the History of Women in Computing". CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 15 (1). doi:10.7771/1481-4374.1972.
- Kirk, Mary (2008). Gender and Information Technology: Moving Beyond Access to Co-Create Global Partnership. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-59904-786-7
- Etzkowitz, Henry; Kemelgor, Carol; Uzzi, Brian (2000). Athena Unbound - The advancement of women in science and technology, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-03833-X
- Petrie, Karen (2013). Attack on sexism not an attack on men, The Scotsman, 27 November 2013, http://www.scotsman.com/news/attack-on-sexism-not-an-attack-on-men-1-3209552
- Gent, Ian (2013) The Petrie Multiplier: Why an Attack on Sexism in Tech is NOT an Attack on Men, Posted on Ian Gent's Blog, 13 October 2013, http://iangent.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/the-petrie-multiplier-why-attack-on.html
- "Gender And Computing Conference Papers." Communications of the ACM 54.8 (2011): 72-80. Business Source Premier. Web. 15 Jan. 2015
- Cheryan, Sapna, Benjamin J. Drury, and Marissa Vichayapai. "Enduring Influence Of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women’s Academic Aspirations." Psychology Of Women Quarterly 37.1 (2013): 72-79. ERIC. Web. 16 Jan. 2015.
- "Forum | The Psychologist". thepsychologist.bps.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- "Letters | The Psychologist". thepsychologist.bps.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- "Letters | The Psychologist". thepsychologist.bps.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- De Palma, Paul. "Why Women Avoid Computer Science." Communications Of the ACM 44.6 (2001): 27-29. Business Source Premier. Web. 16 Jan. 2015
- Fuegi, J.; Francis, J. (asd). Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'. Annals of the History of Computing 25. pp. 18–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887. Check date values in:
- Grete Hermann (1926). "Die Frage der endlich vielen Schritte in der Theorie der Polynomideale". Mathematische Annalen 95: 736–788. doi:10.1007/bf01206635.
- Gumbrecht, Jamie (8 February 2011). "Rediscovering WWII's female 'computers'". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Copeland, Jack B. (2010). Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Code Breaking Computers. Oxford University Press.
- Grier, David Alan (1998). "The Math Tables Project of the Work Projects Administration: The Reluctant Start of the Computing Era". IEEE Ann. Hist. Comput. 20 (3): 33–50. doi:10.1109/85.707573. ISSN 1058-6180.
- Light, Jennifer S. (1999). "When Computers Were Women". Technology and Culture 40 (3): 469, 455–483.
- "bug". Catb.org. 1947-09-09. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- "JPL Computers". NASA JPL.
- Conway, Erik (27 March 2007). "Women Made Early Inroads at JPL". NASA/JPL. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- Steel, Martha Vickers (2001). "Women in Computing: Experiences and Contributions Within the Emerging Computing Industry" (PDF). Computing History Museum.
- "UW-Madison Computer Science Ph.D.s Awarded, May 1965 - August 1970". UW-Madison Computer Sciences Department. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe has commented saying "The concepts she and her team created became the building blocks for modern software engineering. It's an honor to recognize Ms. Hamilton for her extraordinary contributions to NASA.".
- NASA Press Release "NASA Honors Apollo Engineer" (September 03, 2003)
- Michael Braukus NASA News "NASA Honors Apollo Engineer" (Sept. 3, 2003)
- Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2002). International encyclopedia of women scientists. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 136–137. ISBN 0816043817.
- Parker, Donn B.; Nycum, Susan (1973). Computer Abuse. Stanford Research Institute.
- Cortada, James W. (2007). The Digital Hand, Vol 3 : How Computers Changed the Work of American Public Sector Industries. Oxford University Press. pp. 133–134, 390. ISBN 978-0-19-803709-5.
- "DoD INTERNET HOST TABLE SPECIFICATION". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Rosen, Rebecca J.. (2014-03-05) The First Woman to Get a Ph.D. in Computer Science From MIT - Rebecca J. Rosen. The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2014-03-25.
- "Lemelson-MIT Program". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Official ACM Turing award website". http://amturing.acm.org. ACM. Retrieved 14 February 2015. External link in
- ACM Awards 1996, ACM.
- Kottoor, Naveena (2012-05-18). "BBC News - Ruchi Sanghvi: Facebook's pioneer woman". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Rieback, M., Crispo, B., Tanenbaum, A., (2006), " Is Your Cat Infected with a Computer Virus?", Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- "First Female to Win a Microsoft Apprentice of the Year Award". MarketWatch. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Association for Women in Computing". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "The Women's Technology Empowerment Centre – W.TEC". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Cooper, Joel; Weaver, Kimberlee D. (2003). Gender and Computers: Understanding the Digital Divide. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4427-9.
- Galpin, Vashti (2002). "Women in computing around the world". ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 34 (2): 94–100. doi:10.1145/543812.543839.
- Light, Jennifer S. (1999). "When Computers Were Women". Technology and Culture 40 (3): 455–483.
- Margolis, Jane; Fisher, Allan (2002). Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262632690.
- Misa, Thomas J., ed. (2010). Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing. Wiley/IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 978-0-470-59719-4.
- Moses, L. E. (1993). "Our computer science class rooms: Are they friendly to female students?". SIGCSE Bulletin 25 (3). pp. 3–12.
- Newitz, Annalee (ed.); Anders, Charlie (ed.) (2006). She's Such a Geek: Women Write About Science, Technology, and Other Nerdy Stuff. Seal Press. ISBN 978-1580051903.
- Varma, Roli; Galindo-Sanchez, Vanessa (2006). "Native American Women in Computing" (PDF). University of New Mexico.
- Carnegie Mellon Project on Gender and Computer Science
- National Center for Women & Information Technology US
- Equate Scotland
- Institute for Women in Trades, Technology and Science
- MNT - Mulheres na Tecnologia Brazil
- Resources related to Women in Computing US
- Society for Canadian Women in Science and Technology
- Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology UK
- Women's Engineering Society UK
- When Woman Stopped Coding