List of female mathematicians

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This is a list of notable female mathematicians. Many have made significant contributions to mathematics.

Many of the best known mathematicians are male, although more women have entered mathematics since World War II. Women make up a significant collection of notable figures in mathematics and neighboring branches of science such as physics. A number of prizes instituted by the AMS and other mathematical societies are aimed at improving the situation and recognition of distinguished female mathematicians.

A[edit]

Maria Gaetana Agnesi wrote one of the first calculus textbooks in 1748. She was offered a professorship by the Bologna Academy of Sciences, making her the first female mathematics professor since antiquity, but it is unknown whether she accepted.[1]

B[edit]

  • Rosemary A. Bailey (1947– ), British statistician who works in the design of experiments and the analysis of variance
  • Deborah Loewenberg Ball, American mathematics education researcher, AMS Fellow
  • Nina Bari (1901–1961), Soviet mathematician known for her work on trigonometric series
  • Ruth Aaronson Bari (1917–2005), American mathematician known for her work in graph theory and homomorphisms
  • Ida Barney (1886–1982), American mathematics professor and astronomer
  • Charlotte Barnum (1860–1934), mathematician and social activist, first female mathematics PhD from Yale
  • Lida Barrett (1927– ), second female president of the MAA, AMS Fellow
  • Jean Bartik (1924–2011), one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer
  • Grace Bates (1914–1996), one of few women in the United States to be granted a PhD in mathematics in the 1940s
  • Patricia E. Bauman, studies the mathematics of liquid crystals and superconductors, AMS Fellow
  • Agnes Sime Baxter (1870–1917), second Canadian and fourth North American woman to earn a mathematics PhD
  • Eva Bayer-Fluckiger (1951– ), Swiss mathematician, proved Serre's conjecture on Galois cohomology of algebraic groups
  • Alexandra Bellow (1935– ), Romanian researcher in ergodic theory, probability and analysis
  • Suzan Rose Benedict (1873–1942), first woman to earn a PhD from the University of Michigan
  • Georgia Benkart, American expert on Lie algebras, AMS Fellow
  • Bonnie Berger, American mathematician and computer scientist, researcher in computational molecular biology
  • Marsha Berger (1953– ), American researcher in numerical analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and parallel computing
  • Nicole Berline (1944– ), French researcher on index theory of elliptic differential operators
  • Dorothy Lewis Bernstein (1914–1988), applied mathematician, first female president of the MAA
  • Andrea Bertozzi (1965– ), American researcher in partial differential equations, studies mathematics of urban crime
  • Vasanti N. Bhat-Nayak (1938–2009), professor of combinatorics and head of mathematics at the University of Mumbai
  • Sara Billey (1968– ), American algebraic combinatorialist, AMS Fellow
  • Joan Birman (1927– ), American braid and knot theorist, AMS Fellow
  • Gertrude Blanch (1897–1996), American numerical analyst
  • Lenore Blum (1942– ), distinguished professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University
  • Mary L. Boas (1917–2010), author of Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences
  • Alicia Boole Stott (1860–1940), Irish–English four-dimensional geometer
  • Mary Everest Boole (1832–1916), self-taught author of didactic works on mathematics
  • Valentina Borok (1931–2004), Soviet Ukrainian mathematician who studied partial differential equations
  • Celia Grillo Borromeo (1684–1777), Genovese mathematician and scientist, discovered Clélie curve
  • Linda Bostock, author of English secondary school mathematics texts
  • Sylvia Bozeman (1947– ), African-American mathematician and academic administrator, AMS Fellow
  • Bodil Branner, founder of European Women in Mathematics, chair of the Danish Mathematical Society, AMS Fellow
  • Marilyn Breen, American geometer, AMS Fellow
  • Susanne Brenner, expert in the numerical solution of differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Kathrin Bringmann (1977– ), German number theorist, expert on mock theta functions, winner of SASTRA Ramanujan Prize
  • Barbara M. Brizuela, American researcher on mathematics education in early childhood and elementary school
  • Marjorie Lee Browne (1914–1979), one of the first African-American women to receive a doctorate in mathematics
  • Sophie Bryant (1850–1922), Anglo-Irish mathematician, educator, feminist and activist
  • Regina S. Burachik, Argentine–Australian researcher in convex analysis, functional analysis and non-smooth analysis
  • Leone Burton (1936–2007), British researcher in ethnomathematics, founded book series on women in mathematics
  • Ida Busbridge (1908–1988), studied integral equations and radiative transfer, first female mathematics fellow at Oxford
  • Margaret K. Butler (1924–2013), computer programmer, director of the National Energy Software Center at Argonne

C[edit]

Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat is a leading authority on general relativity and is known for existence results in a variety of physical theories. In 1984 she made an influential study of supergravity.
Maria Chudnovsky was awarded a Macarthur Fellowship for her work on graph theory, including a proof of the strong perfect graph theorem.
  • Maria-Carme Calderer, Spanish–American researcher in applied mathematics, AMS Fellow
  • Ana Caraiani, Romanian–American IMO medalist, Putnam fellow, expert in algebraic number theory and the Langlands program
  • Mary Cartwright (1900–1998), British mathematician, one of the first to analyze a dynamical system with chaos
  • María Andrea Casamayor (1700–1780), only 18th century Spanish scientist whose work is still extant
  • Emma Castelnuovo (1913–2014), Italian mathematics educator and textbook author
  • Beatrice Mabel Cave-Browne-Cave (1874–1947), English pioneer in the mathematics of aeronautics
  • Frances Cave-Browne-Cave (1876–1965), English mathematician and computer, taught at Girton College, Cambridge
  • Anny Cazenave, French space geodesist, pioneer in satellite altimetry
  • Zoia Ceaușescu (1949–2006), Romanian functional analyst, daughter of Communist leader
  • Sun-Yung Alice Chang (1948– ), Chinese American mathematical analyst, member of National Academy of Sciences
  • Ruth Charney, American expert on geometric group theory and Artin groups, president of AWM, AMS Fellow
  • Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749), French translator and commentator of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica
  • Jennifer Tour Chayes (1956– ), expert on phase transitions in networks, founder of the theory group at Microsoft Research
  • Eugenia Cheng, English category theorist and pianist, uses analogies with food and baking to teach mathematics to non-mathematicians
  • Graciela Chichilnisky (1944– ), Argentine–American mathematical economist and authority on climate change
  • Phyllis Chinn (1941– ), American graph theorist and historian of mathematics
  • Grace Chisholm Young (1868–1944), English mathematician, first woman to receive a German doctorate
  • YoungJu Choie, Korean number theorist, AMS Fellow
  • Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat (1923– ), French mathematician and physicist, first woman elected to the French Academy
  • Maria Chudnovsky (1977– ), Israeli–American graph theorist, MacArthur Fellow
  • Fan Chung (1949– ), Taiwanese–American researcher in random graphs, fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • Mónica Clapp, Mexican researcher in nonlinear partial differential equations and algebraic topology, AMS Fellow
  • Joan Clarke (1917–1996), English code-breaker at Bletchley Park, numismatist
  • Marion Cohen (1943– ), American poet and mathematician, teaches the relationship between art and mathematics
  • Miriam Cohen (1941– ), Israeli researcher in Hopf algebras, quantum groups and non-commutative rings
  • Amy Cohen-Corwin, American expert in the Korteweg–de Vries equation and cubic Schrödinger equation
  • Gertrude Mary Cox (1900–1978), researcher on experimental design, president of the American Statistical Association
  • Marie Crous, 17th century mathematician who introduced the decimal system to France
  • Marianna Csörnyei (1975– ), Hungarian researcher in real analysis, geometric measure theory, and functional analysis
  • Stella Cunliffe (1917–2012), British statistician, first female president of the Royal Statistical Society
  • Susan Jane Cunningham (1842–1921), founded the mathematics and astronomy departments at Swarthmore College

D[edit]

  • Christine Darden (1942– ), American aeronautical engineer who researches sonic booms
  • Geraldine Claudette Darden (1936– ), one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in mathematics
  • Ingrid Daubechies (1954– ), Belgian physicist and mathematician, known for wavelets
  • Florence Nightingale David (1909–1993), English statistician, winner of first Elizabeth L. Scott Award
  • Valeria de Paiva, Brazilian researcher in categorical logic
  • Mary Deconge (1933– ), one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in mathematics
  • Huguette Delavault (1924–2003), French mathematical physicist, activist for women in mathematics
  • Laura DeMarco, American researcher in dynamical systems and complex analysis, AMS Fellow
  • Shakuntala Devi (1939–2013), Indian child prodigy, writer, and mental calculator
  • Cécile DeWitt-Morette (1922– ), French founder of l'École de physique des Houches
  • Alicia Dickenstein (1955– ), Argentine algebraic geometer, vice-president of the International Mathematical Union
  • Irit Dinur, Israeli researcher in probabilistically checkable proofs and hardness of approximation
  • Mary P. Dolciani (1923–1985), developed modern method for teaching high school algebra in the United States
  • Agnes Meyer Driscoll (1889–1971), American cryptanalyst during both World War I and World War II
  • Cornelia Druțu, Romanian mathematician, won Whitehead Prize for research in geometric group theory
  • Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin (1905–1972), first woman full professor of mathematics in France, expert in fluid mechanics and abstract algebra
  • Ioana Dumitriu (1976– ), Romanian–American numerical analyst, AMS Fellow

E[edit]

  • Annie Easley (1933–2011), African-American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist
  • Mary Edwards (c. 1750–1815), human computer for the British Nautical Almanac
  • Tatyana Pavlovna Ehrenfest (1905–1984), Dutch researcher in combinatorics and graph theory
  • Carolyn Eisele (1902–2000), American mathematician, historian of mathematics, expert on Charles Sanders Peirce
  • Nicole El Karoui (1944– ), Tunisian–French pioneer in mathematical finance
  • Susanna S. Epp, American researcher in discrete mathematics and mathematical logic
  • Karin Erdmann (1948– ), German researcher in modular representation theory and homological algebra
  • Hélène Esnault (1953– ), French algebraic geometer, winner of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize
  • Maria J. Esteban (1956– ), Basque-French applied mathematician, president of International Council for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
  • Alison Etheridge, English researcher in theoretical population genetics and mathematical ecology, Fellow of the Royal Society

F[edit]

Philippa Fawcett gained international fame when she obtained the top score on the 1890 Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge.
  • Fariba Fahroo, Persian-American expert in in pseudospectral optimal control, winner of AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award
  • Etta Zuber Falconer (1933–2002), one of the first African-American women to receive a PhD in mathematics
  • Mary Celine Fasenmyer (1906–1996), Catholic nun whose research on hypergeometric functions prefigured WZ theory
  • Philippa Fawcett (1868–1948), English educationalist, first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos
  • Joan Feigenbaum (1958– ), theoretical computer scientist, co-inventor of trust management
  • Genevieve Grotjan Feinstein (1912–2006), helped decipher Japanese Purple cryptography, worked on Venona counter-intelligence
  • Käte Fenchel (1905–1983), Jewish German researcher on non-abelian groups
  • Jacqueline Ferrand (1918–2014), French researcher on conformal representation theory, potential theory, and Riemannian manifolds
  • Irene Fischer (1907–2009), Austrian–American geodecist for Mercury and Apollo spaceflights, member of National Academy of Engineering
  • Sarah Flannery (1982– ), winner of the EU Young Scientist of the Year Award for her teenage research on cryptography
  • Erica Flapan, American researcher in low-dimensional topology and knot theory, AMS Fellow
  • Irmgard Flügge-Lotz (1903–1974), German aerodynamics researcher, first female engineering professor at Stanford
  • Irene Fonseca (1956– ), Portuguese–American director of the Center for Nonlinear Analysis at Carnegie Mellon University
  • Phyllis Fox (1923– ), American mathematician and computer scientist, collaborator on the first LISP interpreter
  • Marguerite Frank (1927– ), French–American pioneer in convex optimization theory and mathematical programming
  • Ailana Fraser, Canadian researcher on geometric analysis and the theory of minimal surfaces, AMS Fellow
  • Herta Freitag (1908–2000), Austrian–American expert on Fibonacci numbers
  • Susan Friedlander (1946– ), English–American researcher in fluid dynamics, first female editor-in-chief of the Bulletin of the AMS
  • Charlotte Froese Fischer (1929– ), Canadian–American expert on atomic-structure calculations who predicted negative calcium ions

G[edit]

These planar shapes with the same spectrum, discovered in part by Carolyn S. Gordon, gave a negative answer to the old question "Can you hear the shape of a drum?"
The Gray graph, the smallest cubic semi-symmetric graph, was discovered by Marion Gray while she was working at AT&T.
  • Irene M. Gamba, Argentine–American applied mathematician, AMS Fellow
  • Jane Piore Gilman, topologist and group theorist, distinguished professor of mathematics at Rutgers University, AMS Fellow
  • Hilda Geiringer (1893–1973), Austrian researcher on Fourier series, statistics, probability, and plasticity, refugee from Nazi Germany
  • Sophie Germain (1776–1831), French number theorist, physicist, and philosopher, correspondent of Gauss
  • Lisa Goldberg, American mathematical finance scholar and statistician
  • Shafi Goldwasser (1958– ), American-born Israeli theoretical cryptographer
  • Sherry Gong, second American gold medal winner at International Mathematical Olympiad
  • Carolyn S. Gordon, isospectral geometer who proved that you can't hear the shape of a drum, AMS Fellow
  • Judith Grabiner (1938), American historian of 18th and 19th century mathematics
  • Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924– ), one of the first African-American women to receive a PhD in mathematics
  • Marion Cameron Gray (1902–1979), Scottish telephone engineer, discoverer of the Gray graph
  • Mary W. Gray (1939– ), author on mathematics, mathematics education, economic equity, discrimination law, and academic freedom
  • Cindy Greenwood, Canadian statistician, winner of Krieger–Nelson Prize
  • Ruth Gregory, British mathematical physicist specializing in general relativity and cosmology
  • Margaret Greig (1922–1999), English applied mathematician, developed theory for worsted spinning
  • Birgit Grodal (1943–2004), Danish mathematical economist, studied atomless economies
  • Edna Grossman, German-born American designer of the Data Encryption Standard and of the slide attack in cryptography
  • Helen G. Grundman, American number theorist
  • Geneviève Guitel, French mathematician who studied natural-language numbering systems
  • Kanta Gupta, Indian–Canadian researcher on abstract algebra and group theory

H[edit]

Ancient Greek Egyptian mathematician Hypatia was the subject of many literary interpretations in the 19th and 20th centuries. Here, she is portrayed by Marie Spartali in an 1867 photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron.
  • Betz Halloran, biostatistician who studies causal inference and the biostatistics of infectious diseases
  • Ursula Hamenstädt (1961– ), German differential geometry
  • Christine Hamill (1923–1956), English mathematician specializing in group theory and finite geometry
  • Bronwyn Harch, Australian environmental statistician, applies mathematical sciences to agriculture, environment, health, manufacturing and energy
  • Frances Hardcastle (1866–1941), group theorist, one of the founders of the American Mathematical Society
  • Valentina Harizanov, Serbian–American researcher in computability and model theory
  • Jenny Harrison, American expert on generalized functions and minimal surfaces
  • Kathryn E. Hare, Canadian expert in harmonic analysis
  • Shelly Harvey, American researcher in knot theory, low-dimensional topology, and group theory, AMS Fellow
  • Jane M. Hawkins, American researcher in dynamic systems, complex dynamics, cellular automata, and Julia sets
  • Louise Hay (1935–1989), founding member of the Association for Women in Mathematics
  • Ellen Hayes (1851–1930), American mathematician, astronomer, and political radical
  • Euphemia Haynes (1890–1980), first African-American woman to gain a PhD in mathematics
  • Olive Hazlett (1890–1974), American algebraist at the University of Illinois
  • Dagmar R. Henney (1931– ), German–American expert on additive set-values and Banach spaces
  • Rebecca A. Herb (1948– ), American researcher in abstract algebra and Lie groups, AMS Fellow
  • Grete Hermann (1901–1984), German mathematician and philosopher also noted for her work in physics and education
  • Gloria Conyers Hewitt (1935– ), early African-American female mathematics PhD, MAA governor
  • Hoàng Xuân Sính, first female Vietnamese mathematician, student of Grothendieck, founder of Thang Long University
  • Dorit S. Hochbaum, American expert on approximation algorithms for facility location, covering and packing, and scheduling
  • Judy A. Holdener (1965– ), American number theorist who simplified the proof of Touchard's theorem on perfect numbers
  • Tara S. Holm, American algebraic geometer and symplectic geometer, AMS Fellow
  • Olga Holtz (1973– ), Russian numerical analyst, winner of the European Mathematical Society Prize
  • Grace Hopper (1906–1992), American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral
  • Susan Howson (1973– ), British mathematician known for work on algebraic number theory and arithmetic geometry
  • Celia Hoyles (1946– ), British mathematician, president of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications
  • Hu Hesheng (1928– ), differential geometer, president of Shanghai Mathematical Society, member of Chinese Academy of Science
  • Verena Huber-Dyson (1923– ), Swiss–American group theorist and logician, expert on undecidability in group theory
  • Annette Huber-Klawitter (1967– ), German algebraic geometer, expert in the Bloch–Kato conjectures, AMS Fellow
  • Hilda Phoebe Hudson (1881–1965), English researcher on Cremona transformations in algebraic geometry
  • Rhonda Hughes (1947– ), American wavelet researcher, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
  • Birge Huisgen-Zimmermann, German–American representation theorist and ring theorist, AMS Fellow
  • Fern Hunt (1948– ), American mathematician known for her work in applied mathematics and mathematical biology
  • Joan Hutchinson (1945– ), American graph theorist who extended the planar separator theorem to graphs of higher genus
  • Hypatia (died 415), head of the Neoplatonic school at Alexandria, murdered by a Christian mob

I[edit]

  • Vanaja Iyengar (died 2001), founding vice chancellor of Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, a women's university in Andhra Pradesh, India

J[edit]

Australian mathematician Nalini Joshi
  • Trachette Jackson (1972– ), researcher in mathematical oncology, second African-American woman to become a Sloan Fellow in mathematics
  • Jessie Marie Jacobs (1890–1954), fired from mathematics instructorship for having a child, aided husband Hermann Muller's Nobel-winning genetic research
  • Lisa Jeffrey, Canadian expert in symplectic geometry and quantum field theory, Fellow of Royal Society of Canada and of AMS
  • Svetlana Jitomirskaya (1966– ), Ukrainian mathematician working on dynamical systems and mathematical physics
  • Katherine Johnson (1918– ), calculated the trajectory for Project Mercury and the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the Moon
  • Eleanor Jones (1929– ), one of the first African American women to achieve a PhD in mathematics
  • Nalini Joshi, researcher in differential equations, Australian Laureate Fellow, Hardy Lecturer, president of Australian Mathematical Society

K[edit]

Sofia Kovalevskaya is known for her contributions to differential equations, and gives her name to the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem, the fundamental existence result for analytic partial differential equations.
  • Margarete Kahn (1880–c. 1942), one of the first female German doctorates, contributed to Hilbert's sixteenth problem
  • Suzan Kahramaner (1913–2006), one of the first female mathematicians in Turkish academia
  • Eva Kallin, American researcher in geometric axiom systems, functional algebra, and polynomial convexity
  • Shoshana Kamin (1930– ), Soviet–Israeli mathematical physicist, expert on parabolic partial differential equations
  • Carol Karp (1926–1972), American researcher on infinitary logic, viola player
  • Svetlana Katok (1947– ), Jewish Russian-American founder of Electronic Research Announcements of the AMS
  • Bruria Kaufman (1918–2010), Israeli theoretical physicist who collaborated with Einstein on general relativity
  • Linda Keen (1940– ), American mathematician and computer scientist, president of AWM
  • Ruth Kellerhals (1957– ), Swiss expert on hyperbolic geometry, geometric group theory and polylogarithm identities
  • Claribel Kendall (1889–1965), one of the founders of the Rocky Mountain Section of the MAA
  • Leah Keshet, Israeli–Canadian mathematical biologist, first female president of the Society for Mathematical Biology
  • Barbara Keyfitz (1944– ), Canadian–American researcher on nonlinear partial differential equations, president of AWM and ICIAM
  • Olga Kharlampovich, Russian–Canadian group theorist who solved the Tarski conjecture on first-order theories of free groups
  • Charlotte Kipling (1919–1992), English statistician, ichthyologist, and cryptographer
  • Ellen Kirkman, American algebraist, AMS Fellow
  • Frances Kirwan (1959– ), British specialist in algebraic and symplectic geometry
  • Tinne Hoff Kjeldsen, Danish researcher in mathematics education and the philosophy and history of mathematics, AMS Fellow
  • Maria Klawe (1951– ), Canadian–American theoretical computer scientist, president of Harvey Mudd College
  • Julia F. Knight, American specialist in model theory and computability theory, AMS Fellow
  • Nancy Kopell (1942– ), American researcher in the dynamics of the nervous system
  • Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach (1941– ), French differential geometer, namesake of the Kosmann lift
  • Sofia Kovalevskaya (1850–1891), first major Russian female mathematician, worked in analysis, differential equations and mechanics
  • Bryna Kra (1966– ), American mathematician who applies dynamical systems in number theory and combinatorics, AMS Fellow
  • Edna Kramer (1902–1984), American mathematician and author of mathematics books
  • Cecilia Krieger (1894–1974), third person and first woman to earn a Canadian mathematics PhD, translator of Sierpiński
  • Anna Zofia Krygowska (1904–1988), Polish mathematician known for her work in mathematics education
  • Vera Kublanovskaya (1920–2012), Russian inventor of the QR algorithm for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors
  • Daniela Kühn, German–English combinatorialist, expert on infinite graphs, winner of the Whitehead Prize
  • Krystyna Kuperberg (1944– ), Polish–American topologist who found a smooth counterexample to the Seifert conjecture
  • Rachel Kuske, American–Canadian expert on stochastic and nonlinear dynamics, asymptotic methods, and industrial mathematics

L[edit]

Olga Ladyzhenskaya proved the existence of long-time solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in 2+1 dimensions.
Ada, Countess of Lovelace wrote the first computer program, an algorithm for computing Bernoulli numbers on the Analytical Engine.
  • Izabella Łaba (1966– ), Polish–Canadian specialist in harmonic analysis, geometric measure theory, and additive combinatorics
  • Carole Lacampagne, American mathematician known for her work in mathematics education and gender equality, AMS Fellow
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847–1930), American psychologist, logician, and mathematician
  • Olga Ladyzhenskaya (1922–2004), Soviet mathematician, proved convergence of a finite difference method for Navier–Stokes
  • Nan Laird (1943– ), American biostatistician, discoverer of the EM algorithm
  • Susan Landau (1954– ), American mathematician and computer scientist, known for internet security and denesting radicals
  • Glenda Lappan (1939– ), developed Connected Mathematics curriculum, led National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
  • Irena Lasiecka, Polish–American expert in control theory of partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Renu C. Laskar, Indian–American graph theorist, specialist in domination numbers and circular arc graphs
  • Kristin Lauter, American researcher in elliptic curve cryptography, president of AWM, AMS Fellow
  • Ruth Lawrence (1971– ), child prodigy, British–Israeli researcher in knot theory and algebraic topology
  • Anneli Cahn Lax (1922–1999), American mathematician, winner of the George Pólya Award
  • Lê Thị Thanh Nhàn (1970– ), Vietnamese mathematician, vice rector for Science at Thái Nguyên University, won Kovalevskaya Prize
  • Alice Lee (1858–1939), one of the first women to graduate from London University
  • Emma Lehmer (1906–2007), Russian–American mathematician known for work on reciprocity laws in algebraic number theory
  • Suzanne Lenhart, American researcher in partial differential equations, president of AWM, AMS Fellow
  • Winnie Li, Chinese–American researcher in number theory, coding theory, automorphic forms, and spectral graph theory, AMS Fellow
  • Paulette Libermann (1919–2007), French specialist in differential geometry
  • Lillian Rosanoff Lieber (1886–1986), American mathematics professor and author of popular books on science and mathematics
  • Elizaveta Litvinova (1845–c. 1919), Russian mathematician and biographer, defied czar's order forbidding women to study abroad
  • Chiu-Chu Melissa Liu (1974– ), Taiwanese–American researcher in algebraic geometry and symplectic geometry, AMS Fellow
  • Deborah Frank Lockhart, administrator at the National Science Foundation, AMS Fellow
  • Susan Loepp, American algebraist and cryptographer, AMS Fellow
  • Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), wrote the first computer program as part of her work on Babbage's Analytical Engine
  • Edith Hirsch Luchins (1921–2002), Polish–American mathematician, experimented on psychology of mathematical problem solving
  • Monika Ludwig (1966– ), Austrian researcher in convex geometry, member of Austrian Academy of Sciences, AMS Fellow
  • Élisabeth Lutz (1914–2008), French student of Weil, showed how to compute torsion subgroups of elliptic curves

M[edit]

  • Sheila Scott Macintyre (1910–1960), Scottish mathematician researcher on the Whittaker constant, co-author of German–English mathematics dictionary
  • Chrystal Macmillan (1872–1937), Scottish Liberal politician, barrister, feminist and pacifist, first female honours graduate in mathematics from University of Edinburgh
  • Jessie MacWilliams (1917–1990), English researcher on error-correcting codes
  • Ada Maddison (1869–1950), British mathematician known for her work on differential equations
  • Penelope Maddy (1950– ), American philosopher of mathematics
  • Dorothy Maharam (1917–2014), American mathematician who made important contributions to measure theory
  • Carolyn Mahoney (1946– ), African-American combinatorialist, president of Lincoln University of Missouri
  • Vivienne Malone-Mayes (1932–1995), fifth African-American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics, researcher in functional analysis
  • Matilde Marcolli (1969– ), Italian mathematical physicist
  • Fotini Markopoulou-Kalamara (1971– ), Greek theoretical physicist interested in foundational mathematics and quantum mechanics
  • Emilie Martin (1869–1936), American group theorist
  • Vera Nikolaevna Maslennikova (1926–2000), Russian researcher on partial differential equations, hydrodynamics of rotating fluids, and function spaces
  • Gordana Matic, Croatian–American low-dimensional topologist, expert on contact topology, AMS Fellow
  • Lola J. May (1923–2007), American mathematics educator and early proponent of new math
  • Dusa McDuff (1945– ), English researcher on symplectic geometry, winner of Satter Prize, Fellow of the Royal Society, first female Hardy Lecturer
  • Danica McKellar (1975– ), American actor, author, mathematician, and education advocate
  • Joyce McLaughlin, American researcher in inverse problems, AMS Fellow
  • Barbara McMartin (1931–2005), American mathematician who became an environmentalist and writer about the Adirondack Mountains
  • Florence Marie Mears (1896–1995), American specialist in summation methods
  • Helen Abbot Merrill (1864–1949), American mathematician, educator and textbook author
  • Jill P. Mesirov, American mathematician, computer scientist, and computational biologist, president of AWM, AMS Fellow
  • Winifred Edgerton Merrill (1862–1951), first woman with a degree from Columbia University and first American female doctorate in mathematics
  • Marie-Louise Michelsohn (1941– ), American researcher on complex geometry, spin manifolds, the Dirac operator, and algebraic cycles
  • Alison Miller, first American female IMO gold medalist, three-time Elizabeth Lowell Putnam award winner
  • Maryam Mirzakhani (1977– ), first Iranian female IMO gold medalist, first female Fields medalist, researcher on the symmetry of curved surfaces
  • Irina Mitrea, Romanian–American researcher in partial differential equations known for outreach to women and minorities, AMS Fellow
  • Susan Montgomery (1943– ), American researcher in noncommutative algebra
  • Sophie Morel (1979– ), French number theorist and contributor to the Langlands program, first female tenured mathematics professor at Harvard
  • Joan Moschovakis, American intuitionistic logician
  • Cathleen Synge Morawetz (1923– ), Canadian–American researcher on the partial differential equations governing fluid flow
  • Ruth Moufang (1905–1977), German researcher on non-associative algebraic structures, namesake of Moufang loops
  • Anna Mullikin (1893–1975), American mathematician, early investigator of point set theory

N[edit]

One of Florence Nightingale's pioneering works in statistical graphics
Emmy Noether has been called "the greatest woman mathematician of all time".[2] In the early 1920s she developed the modern formulation of ring theory. She is also known for a result in the calculus of variations known as Noether's theorem, which relates symmetries to conservation laws.
  • Anna Nagurney, Ukrainian–American mathematician, economist, educator and author in operations management
  • Andrea R. Nahmod, American expert in nonlinear Fourier analysis, harmonic analysis, and partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Seema Nanda, Indian researcher in applications of mathematics to biology, engineering and finance
  • Caryn Navy (1953– ), blind American researcher in set-theoretic topology and Braille technology
  • Gabriele Nebe, German researcher on sphere packings, lattices, and codes
  • Evelyn Nelson (1943–1987), Canadian researcher in universal algebra with applications to theoretical computer science
  • Claudia Neuhauser, German–American mathematical biologist whose research concerns spatial ecology, AMS Fellow
  • Hanna Neumann (1914–1971), German-born mathematician who worked on group theory
  • Mara Neusel (1964–2014), German–American invariant theorist and advocate for women in mathematics
  • Mary Frances Winston Newson (1869–1959), first female American to receive a PhD in mathematics from a European university
  • Phyllis Nicolson (1917–1968), British developer of the Crank–Nicolson method for solving partial differential equations
  • Florence Nightingale (1820–1910), English founder of modern nursing, pioneer in information visualization and statistical graphics
  • Wiesława Nizioł, Polish researcher in arithmetic algebraic geometry
  • Emmy Noether (1882–1935), German researcher in abstract algebra and theoretical physics, named "the greatest woman mathematician of all time"[2]

O[edit]

  • Hee Oh (1969– ), Korean–American dynamical systems theorist, expert on equidistribution in fractal structures, AMS Fellow
  • Kathleen Adebola Okikiolu (1965– ), British–American researcher on differential operators, developed curricula for inner-city children
  • Olga Oleinik (1925–2001), Soviet researcher on partial differential equations, elastic media, and boundary layers
  • Kathleen Ollerenshaw (1912– ), British mathematician and politician, mayor of Manchester, educational advisor to Margaret Thatcher
  • Mollie Orshansky (1915–2006), American economist and statistician, set poverty thresholds for household income
  • Barbara L. Osofsky, American algebraist, first woman in 50 years to address a national AMS meeting, first female AMS journal editor
  • Helen Brewster Owens (1881–1968), American suffragette, associate editor of the American Mathematical Monthly

P[edit]

In 1678, Elena Cornaro Piscopia became the first woman to earn a doctoral degree.
  • Erika Pannwitz (1904–1975), German geometric topologist who proved that every knot has a quadrisecant
  • Raman Parimala (1948– ), Indian mathematician known for her contributions to algebra
  • Karen Parshall (1955– ), American historian of mathematics, AMS Fellow
  • Irena Peeva, American researcher in commutative algebra and its applications, AMS Fellow
  • Rose Peltesohn (1913–1998), German–Israeli researcher in additive combinatorics
  • Bernadette Perrin-Riou (1955– ), French number theorist, winner of the Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize
  • Rózsa Péter (1905–1977), recursion theorist, first woman elected to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
  • Linda Petzold (1954– ), researcher in differential algebraic equations and simulation, member of National Academy of Engineering
  • Flora Philip (1865–1943), first female member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society
  • Ragni Piene (1947– ), Norwegian algebraic geometer, member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
  • Marie Anne Victoire Pigeon (1724–1767), French mathematician, writer, and teacher
  • Faustina Pignatelli (d. 1785), princess of Colubrano, second woman elected to the Academy of Sciences of Bologna
  • Jill Pipher (1955– ), researcher in in harmonic analysis, Fourier analysis, differential equations, and cryptography, president of AWM
  • Elena Cornaro Piscopia (1646–1684), Italian philosopher, musician, and mathematics lecturer, first woman to earn a doctorate
  • Toniann Pitassi, American–Canadian computational complexity theorist, expert on on proof complexity
  • Vera Pless (1931– ), American mathematician specializing in combinatorics and coding theory
  • Elżbieta Pleszczyńska (1933– ), Polish statistician, disability rights activist
  • Kim Plofker (1964), American historian of Indian mathematics, winner of the Brouwer Medal
  • Harriet Pollatsek (1942– ), Lie theorist who has applied difference sets to error correcting codes and coding theory
  • Pelageya Polubarinova-Kochina (1899–1999), Soviet researcher in fluid mechanics, hydrodynamics, and history of mathematics
  • Cheryl Praeger (1948– ), Australian researcher in group theory, algebraic graph theory and combinatorial designs
  • Emma Previato, researcher in algebraic geometry and partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Hilary Priestley, British mathematician who used topological methods to study distributive lattices

R[edit]

Lacking any formal training, Marjorie Rice conducted a systematic study of pentagon tiling, discovering four of the fifteen known types of tiling convex pentagons.
  • Virginia Ragsdale (1870–1945), American specialist in algebraic curves, formulated the Ragsdale conjecture
  • Susan Miller Rambo (1883–1977), second woman awarded a PhD from the University of Michigan, delegate to 1928 ICM
  • Sujatha Ramdorai, Indian–Canadian algebraic number theorist, expert on Iwasawa theory
  • Helena Rasiowa (1917–1994), Polish researcher in the foundations of mathematics and algebraic logic
  • Marina Ratner (1938– ), Russian–American ergodic theorist, member of National Academy of Sciences
  • Mary Rees (1953– ), British specialist in complex dynamical systems
  • Mina Rees (1902–1997), first female President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Karin Reich (1941– ), German historian of mathematics and biographer of mathematicians
  • Nancy Reid (1952– ), Canadian theoretical statistician, president of Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Statistical Society of Canada
  • Idun Reiten (1942– ), Norwegian representation theorist, member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
  • Ida Rhodes (1900–1986), American pioneer in computer programming, designed the first computer used for Social Security
  • Marjorie Rice (1923– ), American amateur mathematician who discovered new pentagon tilings
  • Julia Robinson (1919–1985), American researcher on diophantine equations, contributed to solution of Hilbert's Tenth Problem
  • Alvany Rocha, American specialist in Lie groups, computed characters of the Virasoro algebra, AMS Fellow
  • Judith Roitman (1945– ), American specialist in in set theory, topology, Boolean algebra, and mathematics education, AMS Fellow
  • Frances A. Rosamond, Australian researcher in parameterized complexity, advocate for women in computer science and mathematics
  • Mary G. Ross (1908–2008), first Native American female engineer, studied mathematics for aeronautics and celestial mechanics
  • Alice Roth (1905–1977), Swiss mathematician who made significant contributions to approximation theory
  • Linda Preiss Rothschild (1945– ), president of AWM, vice-president of AMS, co-editor-in-chief of Mathematical Research Letters
  • Christel Rotthaus, German–American researcher in commutative algebra, AMS Fellow
  • Christiane Rousseau (1954– ), French–Canadian mathematician, president of the Canadian Mathematical Society, AMS Fellow
  • Marie-Françoise Roy (1950– ), French expert in real algebraic geometry, co-founder of two organizations for women in mathematics
  • Mary Ellen Rudin (1924– ), constructed many counterexamples in topology, AMS Fellow
  • Iris Runge (1888–1966), German applied mathematician, translator and biographer
  • Mary Beth Ruskai (1944– ), proved subadditivity of quantum entropy, bounded the electrons in an atom, advocate for women in mathematics

S[edit]

  • Cora Sadosky (1940–2010), Argentinian–American analyst, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
  • Laure Saint-Raymond (1975– ), French specialist in partial differential equations, member of the French Academy of Sciences
  • Judith D. Sally (1937– ), American researcher in in commutative algebra, Noether lecturer
  • Jean E. Sammet (1928– ), supervised the first scientific programming group, helped develop COBOL
  • Mildred Sanderson (1889–1914), American mathematician, established a correspondence between modular and formal invariants
  • Marta Sanz-Solé (1952– ), Catalan researcher on stochastic processes, president of the European Mathematical Society
  • Ruth Lyttle Satter (1923–1989), American researcher on circadian rhythms, namesake of Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics
  • Lisa Sauermann (1992– ), German mathematician ranked third in the International Mathematical Olympiad Hall of Fame
  • Carla Savage, American researcher on parallel algorithms and combinatorial generation, secretary of AMS, AMS Fellow
  • Jane Cronin Scanlon (1922– ), American researcher in partial differential equations and mathematical biology, AMS Fellow
  • Alice T. Schafer (1915–2009), American differential geometer, founding member of the Association for Women in Mathematics
  • Mary Schaps, Israeli mathematician and academic administrator, researcher in deformation theory, group theory, and representation theory
  • Doris Schattschneider (1939– ), American mathematician known for writing about tessellations and the art of M. C. Escher
  • Leila Schneps (1961– ), American–French analytic number theorist and arithmetic geometer, archivist of Grothendieck's works
  • Maria E. Schonbek, Argentine–American researcher in fluid dynamics and associated partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Marie-Hélène Schwartz (1913–2013), French mathematician known for her work on characteristic numbers of spaces with singularities
  • Charlotte Scott (1858–1931), British mathematician who promoted mathematical education of American women
  • Elizabeth Scott (1917–1988), applied statistics to astronomy and weather modification, promoted equal opportunity for women
  • Jennifer Seberry (1944– ), Australian cryptographer, mathematician, and computer scientist, one of the founders of Asiacrypt
  • Rose Whelan Sedgewick (c. 1904–2000), first person to earn a PhD in mathematics from Brown University
  • Sylvia Serfaty, French expert on superconductivity, winner of the European Mathematical Society Prize
  • Marjorie Senechal (1939– ), American expert on quasicrystals, author on history of science, editor-in-chief of The Mathematical Intelligencer
  • Caroline Series (1951– ), English specialist in hyperbolic geometry, Kleinian groups and dynamical systems
  • Tatyana Shaposhnikova, Russian–Swedish researcher on multipliers in function spaces, partial differential operators, and history of mathematics
  • Mei-Chi Shaw (1955– ), Taiwanese–American researcher on partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Diana Shelstad (1947– ), Australian–American mathematician, formulated the fundamental lemma of the Langlands Program, AMS Fellow
  • Brooke Shipley, American expert in homotopy theory and homological algebra, AMS Fellow
  • Lesley Sibner (1934–2013), American differential geometer and Hodge theorist, produced a constructive proof of the Riemann–Roch theorem
  • Alice Silverberg, American number theorist and cryptographer, AMS Fellow
  • Rodica Simion (1955–2000), Romanian–American pioneer in the study of permutation patterns
  • Hourya Sinaceur, Moroccan expert in the theory and history of mathematics
  • Ajit Iqbal Singh (1943–), Indian researcher in functional analysis and harmonic analysis
  • Lucy Joan Slater (1922–2008), British expert on hypergeometric functions and the Rogers–Ramanujan identities
  • Marian Small, Canadian proponent of constructivist mathematical instruction
  • Karen Smith (1965– ), American specialist in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry
  • Kirstine Smith (1878–1939), Danish statistician, created the field of optimal design of experiments
  • Agata Smoktunowicz (1973– ), Polish–Scottish researcher in abstract algebra, constructed noncommutative nil rings, AMS Fellow
  • Nina Snaith (1974– ), British researcher in random matrix theory, quantum chaos, and zeta functions
  • Priyanshi Somani (1998– ), Indian mental calculator
  • Mary Somerville (1780–1872), Scottish science writer and polymath, one of two first female members of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Christina Sormani, American researcher on Riemannian geometry, metric geometry, and Ricci curvature, AMS Fellow
  • Vera T. Sós (1930– ), Hungarian number theorist and combinatorialist
  • Diane Souvaine, American computational geometer, advocate for women and minorities in mathematics and gender neutrality in teaching
  • Ayşe Soysal (1948– ), Turkish mathematician, president of Boğaziçi University
  • Birgit Speh, American expert in Lie groups, namesake of Speh representations, AMS Fellow
  • Domina Eberle Spencer (1920– ), researcher on electrodynamics and field theory, founded fringe science organization Natural Philosophy Alliance
  • Pauline Sperry (1885–1967), mathematician, musician, and astronomer, unconstitutionally fired from UC Berkeley for refusing to sign a loyalty oath
  • Dolores Richard Spikes (1936–2015), African-American mathematician, first female university chancellor and first female president of a university system in the US
  • Bhama Srinivasan (1935– ), representation theorist, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
  • Gigliola Staffilani, Italian–American researcher on harmonic analysis and partial differential equations, AMS Fellow
  • Nancy K. Stanton, American researcher on complex analysis, partial differential equations, and differential geometry, AMS Fellow
  • Irene Stegun (1919–2008), American mathematician who edited a classic book of mathematical tables
  • Elizabeth Stephansen (1872–1961), first Norwegian woman to receive a mathematics doctorate
  • T. Christine Stevens, American researcher on topological groups, history of mathematics, and mathematics education, associate executive director of AMS
  • Angeline Stickney (1830–1892), American suffragist, abolitionist, and mathematician, namesake of the largest crater on Phobos
  • Ileana Streinu, Romanian–American computational geometer, expert on kinematics and structural rigidity, AMS Fellow
  • Bella Subbotovskaya (1938–1982), Soviet founder of the Jewish People's University
  • Indulata Sukla (1944– ), Indian researcher on Fourier series, author of textbook on number theory and cryptography
  • Catherine Sulem, Algerian-born Canadian mathematician and violinist, expert on singularities in wave propagation, AMS Fellow
  • Marcia P. Sward (1939–2008), executive director of the Mathematical Association of America
  • Henda Swart (1939– ), South African geometer and graph theorist, editor-in-chief of Utilitas Mathematica
  • Esther Szekeres (1910–2005), Hungarian–Australian mathematician posed the happy ending problem in discrete geometry

T[edit]

  • Daina Taimina (1954– ), Latvian–American mathematician, crochets objects to illustrate hyperbolic space
  • Rosalind Tanner (1900–1992), English mathematician and a historian of mathematics
  • Éva Tardos (1957– ), Hungarian–American researcher in combinatorial optimization algorithms
  • Olga Taussky-Todd (1906–1995), Austrian and later Czech–American advocate of matrix theory
  • Jean Taylor (1944– ), American mathematician known for her work on soap bubbles and crystals, AMS Fellow
  • Montserrat Teixidor i Bigas, Spanish–American expert on moduli of vector bundles on curves
  • Keti Tenenblat, (1944– ), Turkish-Brazilian differential geometer
  • Chuu-Lian Terng (1949– ), Taiwanese–American differential geometer
  • Audrey Terras (1942– ), American number theorist specializing in quantum chaos and zeta functions
  • Theano (6th century BC), one or possibly two different Pythagorean philosophers
  • Rekha R. Thomas, American mathematician and operations researcher, AMS Fellow
  • Abigail Thompson (1958– ), American low-dimensional topologist, educational reformer, AMS Fellow
  • Ulrike Tillmann (1962– ), German–English algebraic topologist, Fellow of the Royal Society
  • Françoise Tisseur, French–English numerical analyst
  • Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann, Polish–Canadian geometric functional analyst, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada
  • Reidun Twarock, German-born mathematical biologist
  • Regina Tyshkevich, Belarussian graph theorist, co-invented split graphs

U[edit]

Karen Uhlenbeck is a leading expert in partial differential equations and has worked on a variety of topics related to mathematical physics.
  • Karen Uhlenbeck (1942– ), American mathematician, MacArthur Fellow, National Medal of Science, Leroy P. Steele Prize
  • Corinna Ulcigrai (1980– ), Italian researcher on dynamical systems, won European Mathematical Society Prize and Whitehead Prize
  • Nina Uraltseva (1935– ), Russian mathematical physicist, specialist in nonlinear partial differential equations

V[edit]

  • Brigitte Vallée (1950– ), French mathematician and computer scientist, expert in lattice basis reduction algorithms
  • Tatyana Velikanova (1932–2002), Soviet mathematician, computer programmer, dissident, and political prisoner
  • Michèle Vergne (1943– ), French specialist in analysis and representation theory, member of French Academy of Sciences
  • Marie-France Vignéras (1946– ), French mathematician who proved that one cannot hear the shape of a hyperbolic drum
  • Roxana Vivian (1871–1961), first female mathematics doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania
  • Karen Vogtmann (1949– ), American geometric group theorist, namesake of Culler–Vogtmann outer space, AMS Fellow
  • Claire Voisin (1962– ), French expert on Hodge structures and mirror symmetry
  • Loulou von Brochwitz (1986– ), Swiss pin-up model and contortionist turned mathematician
  • Elisabeth Vreede (1879–1943), Dutch mathematician, astronomer and Anthroposophist

W[edit]

  • Michelle L. Wachs, American specialist in algebraic combinatorics, AMS Fellow
  • Grace Wahba (1934– ), American pioneer in methods for smoothing noisy data, member of National Academy of Sciences
  • Helen M. Walker (1891–1983), first female president of the American Statistical Association
  • Judy L. Walker, American algebraic coding theorist, AMS Fellow
  • Lynne H. Walling, British number theorist, AMS Fellow
  • Marion Walter (1928– ), German-born mathematician who wrote about using mirrors to explore symmetry
  • Johanna Weber (1910–2014), German–British mathematician and aerodynamicist, contributed to supersonic aircraft design
  • Katrin Wehrheim (1974– ), American symplectic topologist and gauge theorist
  • Guofang Wei (1965– ), Chinese–American differential geometer, found new positively-curved manifolds, AMS Fellow
  • Katrin Wendland, German mathematical physicist, expert on singularities in quantum field theories, AMS Fellow
  • Elisabeth M. Werner, researcher on convex geometry, functional analysis, and probability theory, AMS Fellow
  • Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler (1883–1966), American researcher on infinite-dimensional linear algebra
  • Mary Wheeler (1931– ), American expert on domain decomposition methods for partial differential equations
  • Sue Whitesides, Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, expert in computational geometry and graph drawing
  • Sylvia Wiegand (1945– ), American algebraist, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics, AMS Fellow
  • Anna Wienhard (1977– ), German differential geometer, AMS Fellow
  • Amie Wilkinson (1968– ), American researcher in ergodic theory and smooth dynamical systems, AMS Fellow
  • Elizabeth Williams (1895–1986), British mathematician and educationist
  • Ruth J. Williams, American probability theorist, president of Institute of Mathematical Statistics, member of National Academy of Sciences
  • Maria Wonenburger (1927–2014), Galician–American group theorist, first Spanish Fulbright scholar in mathematics
  • Carol S. Wood (1945– ), American expert in model-theoretic algebra, president of AWM, AMS Fellow
  • Melanie Wood (1981– ), first female American to compete in the International Mathematical Olympiad
  • Sarah Woodhead (d. 1912), first woman to pass the Tripos
  • Mary Lee Woods (1924– ), British mathematician and computer programmer
  • Margaret H. Wright (1944– ), American researcher in optimization, linear algebra, and scientific computing
  • Dorothy Maud Wrinch (1894–1976), Argentine–English mathematician and biochemical theorist, expert in protein structure
  • Lucy R. Wyatt, British mathematician and oceanographer, studies high frequency radar oceanography and ocean surface waves

Y[edit]

  • Sofya Yanovskaya (1896–1966), restored mathematical logic research in Soviet Union, edited mathematical works of Karl Marx
  • Florence Yeldham (1877–1945), British school teacher and historian of arithmetic
  • Lai-Sang Young (1952– ) Hong Kong born dynamical systems theorist
  • Bin Yu, Chnese–American statistician, president of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics
  • Sufiah Yusof (1984– ), British Pakistani mathematics prodigy, feminist blogger

Z[edit]

  • Tamar Ziegler, Israeli researcher in ergodic theory and arithmetic combinatorics, won Erdős Prize

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Maria Gaetana Agnesi". Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Alexandrov, Pavel S. (1981), "In Memory of Emmy Noether", in Brewer, James W; Smith, Martha K, Emmy Noether: A Tribute to Her Life and Work, New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 99–111, ISBN 0-8247-1550-0 .

External links[edit]