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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1581 1582 1583 – 1584 – 1585 1586 1587|
|1584 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2337|
|Bahá'í calendar||−260 – −259|
|English Regnal year||26 Eliz. 1 – 27 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)
4280 or 4220
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4281 or 4221
|- Vikram Samvat||1640–1641|
|- Shaka Samvat||1506–1507|
|- Kali Yuga||4685–4686|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 12
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||328 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2127|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1584.|
- January–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia by Ivan the Terrible.
- January 11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
- March 18 (N.S. March 28) – Death of Ivan the Terrible, ruler of Russia since 1533. He is succeeded as Tsar by his son Feodor.
- May 17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute.
- June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.
- June 4 – Walter Ralegh sends Phillip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks of Virginia (now North Carolina), with a view to establishing an English colony; they locate Roanoke Island.
- June 11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga, towns in Latvia and Estonia respectively) receives city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory.
- July 5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome.
- July 10 – William I of Orange is assassinated.
- September 17 – Ghent falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese, governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
- December – The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain.
- Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom.
- The first translation of the complete Bible into the Slovenian language: Bibilija, tu je vse svetu pismu stariga inu noviga testamenta, slovenski tolmačena skuzi Jurija Dalmatina (Wittenberg), is published by Jurij Dalmatin.
- The Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius features Ming Dynasty-era Chinese carriages with masts and sails in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention.
- This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo, is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.
- January 29 – Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (d. 1647)
- February 26 – Albert VI of Bavaria (d. 1666)
- March 29 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English parliamentary general (d. 1648)
- August 13 – Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, English politician (d. 1640)
- December 16 – John Selden, English jurist (d. 1654)
- date unknown
- William Baffin, English explorer (d. 1622)
- Francis Beaumont, English dramatist (d. 1616)
- Antonio Cifra, Italian composer (d. 1629)
- Matthias Gallas, Austrian soldier (d. 1647)
- Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai, artist, philosopher (d. 1645)
- John Hales, English theologian (d. 1656)
- Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull (d. 1643)
- Mathieu Molé, French statesman (d. 1656)
- Herman Wrangel, Swedish soldier and politician (d. 1643)
- January 4 – Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter and drawer (b. 1539)
- March 10 – Thomas Norton, English politician and writer (b. 1532)
- March 18 – Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (b. 1530)
- May 18
- June 19 – François, Duke of Anjou (b. 1555)
- July – Francis Throckmorton, conspirator against Queen Elizabeth I of England (b. 1554)
- July 10 – William I of Orange (assassinated) (b. 1533)
- July 12 – Steven Borough, English explorer (b. 1525)
- July 13 – Balthasar Gérard, French assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1557)
- July 23 – John Day, English Protestant printer (b. 1522)
- August 22 – Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (b. 1530)
- October – Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll, Scottish nobleman and politician (b. 1541)
- October 29 – Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Turkish grand vizier
- November 4 – Saint Charles Borromeo, Italian cardinal (b. 1538)
- date unknown
- Jan Borukowski, royal secretary of Poland (b. 1524)
- Yi I of Joseon, Korean Confucian scholar (b. 1536)
- Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (b. 1512)
- Carolus Sigonius, Italian humanist (b. 1524)
- Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, viceroy of Peru (b. 1515)
- Michal Wisniowiecki, prince at Wiśniowiec (b. 1529)
- probable – James Balfour of Pittendreich, Scottish judge and politician
- Ford, L. L. (2004). "Mildmay, Sir Walter (1520/21–1589)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18696. Retrieved 2013-09-02. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 259. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A. (1873). "Ghent". The American Cyclopaedia 7. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Retrieved 2011-12-04.