Chevrolet Spark

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Chevrolet Spark
Chevrolet Spark LS+ 1.2 – Frontansicht, 26. Juni 2011, Mettmann.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Chevrolet (General Motors)
Production 1998–present
Body and chassis
Class City car
Body style 5-door hatchback
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Chronology
Predecessor Daewoo Tico

The Chevrolet Spark is a city car, today produced under the Chevrolet brand of General Motors, and originally as Daewoo Matiz. It has been available solely as a five-door hatchback.

The first generation of Daewoo Matiz was launched in 1998 by General Motors' South Korean division GM Korea, previously known as Daewoo Motors, replacing the Daewoo Tico. After the General Motors company took control over Daewoo Motors in 2002, it has increasingly been marketed under the Chevrolet badge. The second generation model was introduced in 2005, with the third generation launched in 2010.

An all-electric version, the Chevrolet Spark EV, was released in the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013. The Spark EV is the first all-electric passenger car marketed by General Motors since the EV1 was discontinued in 1999.[1][2]

First generation (1998–2005)[edit]

First generation (M100 & M150)
20100801 daewoo matiz 01.jpg
Overview
Also called Daewoo Matiz, Matiz II
Baojun Lechi (China)
Chevrolet Exclusive
Chevrolet Joy
Chevrolet Lechi (China)
Chevrolet Matiz
Chevrolet Spark
UzDaewoo Matiz
Formosa Matiz (Taiwan)[3]
FSO Matiz
Pontiac G2
Pontiac Matiz
Chevrolet Taxi 7:24 Chronos (Colombia)
Production 1998–2005 (South Korea)
1998–present (under license)
Assembly Changwon, South Korea
Kerman, Iran (Kerman Khodro)
Asaka, Uzbekistan (UzDaewoo)
Warsaw, Poland (FSO)[4]
Craiova, Romania (Rodae)
Hanoi, Vietnam (VIDAMCO)
Halol, Gujarat, India (GM India)
Karachi, Pakistan (Nexus Automotive)
Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa)[5]
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door hatchback
5-door panel van
Related Italdesign Lucciola
Powertrain
Engine 0.8 L S-TEC I3 (petrol)
1.0 L S-TEC I4 (petrol)
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,340 mm (92.1 in)
Length 3,495 mm (137.6 in)
Width 1,495 mm (58.9 in)
Height 1,485 mm (58.5 in)

M100 (1998–2001)[edit]

The production of Daewoo Matiz started in 1998 and it was sold in South Korea and many European markets with the code name M100. The exterior design is based on the Lucciola, a Fiat Cinquecento concept by Italdesign Giugiaro[6] which had been rejected by Fiat. The 0.8-litre gasoline engine and the transmission were carryovers from the Daewoo Tico, but it was now using a multipoint injection fuel system.[7] Engineering was carried out at Daewoo's Worthing Technical Centre in England. The car became the best selling Daewoo model in Europe and in India for the next four years.[8]

The Matiz was originally launched with just a 0.8-litre straight-three engine. It developed a maximum power of 51 hp (38 kW), a maximum torque of 68.5 N·m (51 lb·ft) and had a combined consumption of 6.4 l/100 km (44 mpg-imp). It had a top speed of 144 km/h (89 mph) and could reach from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 17 seconds.[7] This engine was developed from the Tico unit by Tickford, a UK company based in Milton Keynes. The Tickford connection was acknowledged in the brochures distributed in UK showrooms.

It was released mainly with three trim levels: E, S and SE. The latter had air conditioning, wheel covers, body-colored bumpers, rear spoiler, fog lights and a stereo, with optional features such as roof rails, power steering, central locking, electric front windows, ABS and driver airbag.[9] In certain markets it was also available with an automatic transmission.

Copying controversy[edit]

The Chery QQ became the center of an industrial copyright and intellectual rights controversy, as General Motors claimed the car was a copy of the Daewoo Matiz. GM executives demonstrated the extent of the design duplication, noting for example that the doors of the QQ and those of the Spark are interchangeable[10] without modification.

GM China Group indicated the two vehicles "shared remarkably identical body structure, exterior design, interior design and key components"[10] MotorAuthority.com[11] and Car and Driver called the QQ a "carbon copy", while the International Herald Tribune, in a 2005 article, referred to it as a clone.[12]

The Detroit News reported that "the dispute reflects the confusion, risks and ambitions in China's new auto industry, where global carmakers are battling pugnacious upstarts for a piece of what may become the world's largest auto market."[13]

The ZAP Xebra was a similar intellectual property violation by another Chinese carmaker. As the Xebra was sold in the US, which protects intellectual property rights, GM was able to sue to stop its importation.[citation needed]

M150 (2000–2005)[edit]

Facelifted M150-series Daewoo Matiz

This facelift was designed at Daewoo's Worthing Technical Centre in England and introduced in South Korea in late 2000, and exported from 2001. The front-end structure was modified to accommodate a four-cylinder engine, although the introduction of this engine, the 1.0-litre S-Tec unit, was delayed until after Daewoo's takeover by General Motors in 2002.

M150 is still produced by UzDaewooAuto in Uzbekistan. In South Korea and Japan this updated Matiz was sold under the name Daewoo Matiz II.

Lechi[edit]

In China the car was sold as the Chevrolet Lechi. It remained in production until 2012, when an updated version was introduced as the Baojun Lechi. It is to be offered under both Chevrolet and Baojun brands during a transition period.[14] The Lechi has also received certain powertrain updates, making the car economical enough to qualify for a subsidy and a tax break from the Chinese government.[14]

Safety[edit]

Euro NCAP test results for a RHD, 5-door hatchback variant on a 2000 registration:

Test[15] Score Points
Overall: N/A N/A
Adult occupant: 3/5 stars 19
Child occupant: N/A N/A
Pedestrian: 2/4 stars 15
Safety assist: N/A N/A

Engines[edit]

It featured a range of two petrol engines, which had the following specifications:

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque 0–100 km/h Top speed CO2 emissions Notes
0.8 I3 796 cc 51 PS (38 kW; 50 hp) 69 N·m (51 lb·ft) at 4,200 rpm 17.0 s 144 km/h (89 mph) 161 g/km
1.0 I4 995 cc 63 PS (46 kW; 62 hp) 87 N·m (64 lb·ft) at 4,300 rpm 14.2 s 155 km/h (96 mph) 157 g/km introduced in 2002

Second generation (2005–2009)[edit]

Second generation (M200 & M250)
Chevrolet Matiz SE front.jpg
Chevrolet Matiz M200
Overview
Also called Daewoo Matiz Classic (South Korea)
Chevrolet Matiz
Chevrolet Matiz Eco Logic (Italy)
Chevrolet Taxi 7:24 Chronos
Chevrolet Spark
Chevrolet Joy
Pontiac Matiz G2
Pontiac Matiz
FSO Matiz
Production 2005–2009 (South Korea)
2005–present (under license)
Assembly Changwon, South Korea
Karachi, Pakistan (Nexus Automotive)
Halol, Gujarat, India (GM India)
Hanoi, Vietnam (VIDAMCO)
Bogotá, Colombia (GM Colombia)
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door hatchback
Powertrain
Engine 0.8 L S-TEC I3 (petrol)
1.0 L S-TEC I4 (petrol)
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,345 mm (92.3 in)
Length 3,495 mm (137.6 in)
Width 1,495 mm (58.9 in)
Height 1,500 mm (59.1 in)

In 2005 the Matiz received substantial modifications (M200), previewed by the Chevrolet M3X concept car shown at 2004 Paris Motor Show. The upper body was significantly revised based again on a design from Italdesign Giugiaro, the S-Tec engines were updated and the car's drag coefficient was lowered, resulting in better fuel economy. The interior was also significantly revised, one notable feature of this car being its centre-mounted instrument cluster. The platform was also revised, with a twist-beam rear suspension system replacing the previous 3-link beam axle, and the front suspension making use of cast, rather than pressed and fabricated, lower control arms.

Daewoo Matiz M250
Interior view with the centrally mounted dashboard console

In 2008, the 800cc engine was revised to fall below the 120g/km level, thus qualifying for the UK's £35 road tax band and no London congestion charge.

In Europe it was sold under the names Chevrolet Matiz and Chevrolet Spark. In Italy there was an LPG version called Chevrolet Matiz Eco Logic. The Matiz Eco Logic was built from 2007 to 2010 in over 60,000 vehicles by BRC Gas Equipment in Cherasco, Cuneo (Italy).

In South Korea, where it was sold only with an 800 cc engine and following the introduction of M300 Matiz (Matiz Creative), the M200 Matiz was renamed to Matiz Classic.

It was sold in over 2.3 million units worldwide during the first 10 years of production.[16]

As of 2011, VIDAMCO of Vietnam produces the Matiz M200 as the Chevrolet Spark Lite in complete knock-down (CKD) form at its Hanoi production facility.[17]

In India, the local manufacturer GM India produced two special editions of this generation: the Chevrolet Spark LPG, a version equipped with a sequential injection-type LPG kit, unveiled on the World Environment Day in New Delhi, and the Chevrolet Spark Muzic, introduced in 2009.

The model remains in the Chevrolet's offering in Pakistan, India,[18] Vietnam,[19] and Colombia (as well as in several other South American countries),[20] where it is also produced.

Safety[edit]

Euro NCAP test results for a 5-door hatchback variant on a 2005 registration:

Test[21] Score Points
Overall: N/A N/A
Adult occupant: 2.5/5 stars 17
Child occupant: 3/5 stars 30
Pedestrian: 2/4 stars 13
Safety assist: N/A N/A

Engines[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque 0–100 km/h Top speed CO2 emissions Notes
0.8 I3 796 cc 52 PS (38 kW; 51 hp) 72 N·m (53 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm 18.2 s 145 km/h (90 mph) 123 g/km
1.0 I4 995 cc 66 PS (49 kW; 65 hp) 91 N·m (67 lb·ft) at 4,200 rpm 14.1 s 156 km/h (97 mph) 133 g/km

Third generation (2010–present)[edit]

Third generation (M300)
Chevrolet Spark 1.2 LS+ front-1 20100606.jpg
Overview
Also called Daewoo Matiz Creative (South Korea)
Chevrolet Spark (North America, Europe, Middle East, and South Korea)
Chevrolet Spark GT (Chile, Ecuador and Colombia)
Chevrolet Beat (India)
Holden Barina Spark (Australia and New Zealand)
Production 2010–present
Assembly Changwon, South Korea (GM Korea)
Talegaon, Maharashtra, India (GM India)
Asaka, Uzbekistan (GM Uzbekistan)
Bogotá, Colombia (GM Colombia)
Hanoi, Vietnam (GM Vietnam)
Designer Taewan Kim[22]
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door hatchback
Platform Global Small Vehicles
Powertrain
Engine 995 cc S-TEC II I4 (petrol)
1,199 cc Smartech II I4 (petrol)[nb 1]
1,206 cc S-TEC II I4 (petrol)
1,249 cc LL0 I4 (petrol)[nb 2]
936 cc XSDE I3 (diesel)[nb 1]
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,375 mm (93.5 in)
Length 2009–2011: 3,640 mm (143.3 in)
2012–present: 3,675 mm (144.7 in)
Width 1,597 mm (62.9 in)
Height 2009–2011: 1,551 mm (61.1 in)
2012–present: 1,549 mm (61.0 in)
Curb weight 1,070–1,090 kg (2,350–2,400 lb)

The redesigned Matiz (codenamed M300) was launched in 2009 and is based on the 2007 Chevrolet Beat concept car. Although sold globally as the Chevrolet Spark, in India this model retains the Beat name from the concept car, as the second generation Spark continues to be sold in this market. Prior to the 2011 elimination of the Daewoo marque in South Korea, the third generation Spark was marketed as the Daewoo Matiz Creative.[23]

Concept[edit]

Chevrolet Beat concept

The Chevrolet Beat was unveiled at the 2007 New York International Auto Show alongside two other concept vehicles, the Trax and the Groove. The Beat is a front-drive, three-door hatchback concept, derived from the Daewoo Kalos. It was built in India, and designed by GM Daewoo in South Korea. It is powered by a 1.2 L turbocharged gasoline engine mated to an automatic transmission.[24]

This version was featured in the Michael Bay movie Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen as Skids alongside the GM Trax mini-SUV. The Beat concept sports a Vertigo Green exterior paint job with the same hue carried over to parts of the interior. Its profile is high at the rear and tapering down evenly to the front of the grille. Headlights that appear to extend all the way from the base of the grille to the base of the windshield are LED-type. Oversize 17 inch wheels barely hide the matching green paint of disc brakes. Twin taillights that extend upward to the back-up lights are also LEDs.

In early 2007, GM conducted a poll testing the relative popularity of the Beat, Trax and Groove concepts on a Chevrolet website,[25] with the Beat receiving nearly 50% of the vote, which ultimately determined the car making it into production. This car was designed to appeal to young car buyers in urban markets, infusing the energy, diversity and excitement of urban life into a car that would deliver good-looking fun, fuel economy and value.

GM displayed a prototype woodie version of the forthcoming Chevrolet Spark for the 2010 Paris Motor Show.[26]

Production[edit]

Rear view

GM presented a pre-production version of the Chevrolet Beat carrying the Chevrolet Spark nameplate at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. The production version was announced at the 2009 North American International Auto Show, but only the Beat concept was shown at the time.[27] The production Chevrolet Spark was unveiled at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show.[28] It became available in Europe in the first quarter of 2010, followed by other markets worldwide, with US sales set to begin in early 2012. Commercial production of a 5-door Chevrolet Beat started from December 15, 2009, in Halol, Gujarat, India. It was launched in India on January 5, 2010, during Auto Expo New Delhi, India.

The GM Daewoo Matiz version was unveiled in Seoul Motor Show 2009.[29]

The Holden version, named Barina Spark, was revealed at the 2010 Australian International Motor Show in Sydney in October.

With M300, the original Suzuki platform was replaced by GM Global Small Vehicles platform, developed by GM Daewoo engineers.

In North America, the Spark was first delivered to GM dealerships in Mexico for the 2012 model year, but did not replace the Chevrolet Matiz (formerly Pontiac G2 Matiz) which is still sold (as of 2014). The United States version of the 2013 Chevrolet Spark went into production on April 16, 2012, and will be starting to arrive in dealerships beginning in August 2012. For 2014 in North America, the automatic transmission is a Jatco M4M-CVT7[30] Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) and the final drive ratio lowered to 3.75.[31][32] The CVT gives better fuel mileage overall than the previous 4 speed automatic, and changing the final drive ratio from its previous 4.145[33][34] reduces engine noise and increases fuel economy on the highway while increasing noise and reducing fuel mileage in the city.

Reported by Edmunds.com the 2013 Spark was the fastest selling car in the United States for July 2012, with just 6 days from when they arrived at dealers to when they were sold.[35]

Beat diesel[edit]

General Motors launched the diesel version of Chevrolet Beat in the Indian auto market on July 25, 2011.[36] The 3-cylinder, 936 cc turbodiesel engine produces 62.5 PS and 160.26 Nm of torque, resulting in good acceleration and pick up. The 1.0 L, 936 cc diesel engine enables the car to reach 100 kph in 16 seconds and a top speed of 143 kph. Chevrolet Beat Diesel offers mileage of 24 kpl (56 mpg) as per the ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) test reports. The engine is based on the Fiat Multijet diesel technology.[37]

Regional variations[edit]

A Holden Barina Spark at the 2010 Australian International Motor Show.
  • Europe: Engine choices include 1.0 and 1.2-litre I4 engines. In Italy there is an LPG version of the Spark called the Chevrolet Spark Eco Logic with BRC Gas Equipment as of the end of 2009. This bi-fuel version is available with the 1.0 and 1.2 engines (both with 16 valves) with 113 to 119 g of CO2 emissions respectively. While the LPG cars are still available in Italy, in France the LPG versions were only available from 2009 till 2012.
  • India: Production of the New Spark, badged as the Beat, has started at Halol Plant near Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India. Initially the car will be sold in India and Far Eastern countries. The second generation Spark is sold alongside. The car uses a 1.2 L S-TEC II engine capable of petrol and LPG, marketed as SMARTECH II. GM India was reported to build an electric version of Chevrolet Spark with Reva Electric Car Company.[38] However, after the acquisition of Reva Electric Car Company by Mahindra & Mahindra, GM India dropped the plans, and is working on its own electric version[39]
  • United States: marketed as the Chevrolet Spark, the car uses a special up-stroked version of the "S-TEC" engine (RPO code LL0).
  • South Korea: The Matiz version was renamed to Matiz Creative. The car has a 1.0 L S-TEC II engine with 4-speed automatic transmission. Sales began on 1 September 2009.[23] The Groove name used in one of the rejected concepts returned as a trim level.[40] In 2011, this car is renamed as Chevrolet Spark, as part of phasing out the Daewoo brand in South Korea, making way for the Chevrolet brand.
  • Australia: the Spark was released in October 2010 as the Holden Barina Spark. It comes in two guises; CD and CDX.
  • Uzbekistan: Chevrolet Spark was released on August 26, 2010. It comes in three trim levels: L (1.0L MT), LS (1.0L MT/AT) and LT (1.2L MT).

Safety[edit]

Euro NCAP test results
Chevrolet Spark (2009)
Test Points %
Overall: 4 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 29 81%
Child occupant: 38 78%
Pedestrian: 16 43%
Safety assist: 3 43%

Engines[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque 0–100 km/h Top speed CO2 emissions Notes
Petrol engines
1.0 I4 995 cc 68 PS (50 kW; 67 hp) at 6,400 rpm 93 N·m (69 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpm 15.5 s 96 mph (154 km/h) 119 g/km
1.2 I4 1,206 cc 81 PS (60 kW; 80 hp) at 6,400 rpm 111 N·m (82 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpm 12.1 s 102 mph (164 km/h) 119 g/km
1.2 I4 1,199 cc 80.5 PS (59.2 kW; 79.4 hp) at 6,200 rpm 108 N·m (80 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm India only
1.2 I4 1,249 cc 84 hp (62.5 kW) at 6400 rpm 112 N·m (83 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm 11.3 s North America
LPG engines
1.2 I4 1,199 cc 80.04 PS (58.87 kW; 78.95 hp) at 6,400 rpm 104 N·m (77 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm India only
Diesel engines
1.0 I3 936 cc 62.5 PS (46.0 kW; 61.6 hp) 150 N·m (111 lb·ft) at 1,750 rpm 16.0 s 145 km/h (90 mph) India only; introduced in 2011

Spark EV[edit]

Chevrolet Spark EV
2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 7862.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Chevrolet (General Motors)
Production 2013–present
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door hatchback
Powertrain
Electric motor 97 kW (130 bhp)[41]
Battery 21.3 kWh nanophosphate lithium-ion battery[42]
Electric range 82 mi (132 km) (EPA)[43]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,370 mm (93.5 in)[41]
Length 3,720 mm (146.5 in)[41]
Width 1,630 mm (64.0 in)[41]
Curb weight 2,989 lb (1,356 kg)[41]

Even initially, the Italdesign Lucciola project, resulting in car's original design, was being developed as a fully electric vehicle. Originally, sponsored directly by Gianni Agnelli (founder of FIAT), the vehicle would be powered by an AC drive train, developed by Miro Zorić (founder of AC drive train technology) and be produced by FIAT, as FIAT's first mass-produced electric vehicle. Due to contractual obligations, the project was halted and the design later acquired by Daewoo, as the Daewoo Matiz, and years later, finally an electric vehicle, the Chevrolet Spark EV.

In October 2011, General Motors announced the production of the Chevrolet Spark EV, an all-electric version of the third generation Chevrolet Spark, with availability limited to select U.S. and global markets. In October 2012, GM Korea announced it will start making and selling the Spark EV domestically in 2013.[44] The production version was unveiled at the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show.[45] Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy,[46] the Spark EV is the first all-electric passenger car marketed by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued in 1999.[1] The Spark EV was released in the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013.[2] Retail sales began in South Korea in October 2013.[47] GM also plans to sell the Spark EV in limited quantities in Canada and select European markets.[48][49]

Specifications[edit]

The electric car is powered by a nanophosphate lithium-ion battery pack supplied by A123 Systems,[1][50] and an electric motor with specs originally given as a peak power of 85 kW (114 hp) and sustained power of 56 kW (75 hp).[51] The production version features an 130 hp (97 kW) motor, providing 400 lb-ft of torque, powered by a 21.3 kWh lithium-ion battery pack.[42][52] The Spark EV can be fast-charged to 80% of capacity in 20 minutes using an optional connector, and charging time increases to about seven hours using a dedicated 240-volt

Global marketing and manufacture[edit]

Asia[edit]

In India, it was launched in 1999 as the Daewoo Matiz. In 2007, General Motors India launched the Chevrolet M3X concept based third generation, as the Chevrolet Spark. In Japan, the Matiz was sold under the GM Daewoo brand. In the Philippines, the Matiz was available during the years 1999–2000 through the grey market. In 2007, it was released under the name Chevrolet Spark. In Pakistan, the car was initially introduced as Chevrolet Exclusive in 2003. From 2005–2009 it was manufactured by Nexus Automotive under the name Chevrolet Joy, which has now been replaced by the newer M200 series and is currently sold as the Chevrolet Spark. In Taiwan, the Matiz was sold under the Formosa brand between 2001 and 2009.

Europe[edit]

From 1998 until 2004, the Matiz was sold in Europe under the Daewoo badge.[53] In 2004, it took the Chevrolet marque,[54] as well as the other South Korean models of General Motors, such as the Lacetti and Kalos. Since 2000, CKD kits have been supplied to UzDaewooAuto, FSO and Rodae, to be built and sold in Uzbekistan, Poland and Romania respectively. At the beginning of 2005, FSO began marketing the Matiz under their own brand. New models of the Chevrolet Matiz are sold as the Chevrolet Spark in the UK, due to a rename in 2010.[55][56]

The Americas[edit]

2013 Chevrolet Spark (US)

In Mexico, the Matiz was introduced to the market in 2003. The 2006 model was renamed to Pontiac Matiz G2. It was also sold as Pontiac Matiz and Pontiac G2. The Pontiac G2 was discontinued in Mexico after a short run of 2010 models as the brand was closed by General Motors. The new version was officially launched as the Chevrolet Spark in August 2010, and the Matiz continues to be sold alongside the Spark. An M300-based vehicle is currently in production in Brazil as a replacement for the Chevrolet Celta. In Colombia, the Matiz was imported by Daewoo distributors between 2002 and 2005 and then GM Colmotores began to assemble and sell it branded as Chevrolet Spark. In 2006, a taxi version called 7/24 was launched. In Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Uruguay and Venezuela, it is sold as the Chevrolet Spark. In Argentina, the first generation was sold as the Daewoo Matiz through Daewoo importers. The second generation was sold as Chevrolet Spark through Chevrolet dealers. Since 2011, the third generation is available. In Chile and Peru, the former version is sold as the Chevrolet Spark, and the latest version as the Chevrolet Spark GT. In Paraguay, it was initially sold as Daewoo Matiz, but from 2008, it is sold through Chevrolet dealers.

Africa[edit]

In South Africa, General Motors South Africa (GMSA) announced on 2 October 2010, plans to manufacture the new Chevrolet Spark at its Port Elizabeth plant. The second generation Spark is still sold, though branded as a 'Spark Lite'.

Middle East[edit]

In Iran, the Matiz was produced and known as Daewoo Matiz. In Israel, UMI (Universal Motors Israel) announced on 18 January 2011 the marketing commencement of the 1.2L Chevrolet Spark model.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Available in India only.
  2. ^ Available in the United States only.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jonathan Schultz (2011-01-12). "Chevrolet to Sell Purely Electric Spark Hatchback in U.S.". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  2. ^ a b John Voelcker (2013-06-20). "First 2014 Chevrolet Spark EVs Now At CA, Oregon Dealers". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  3. ^ "Badge engineering". AutoWeek.nl. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  4. ^ "UkrAVTO Corporation. FSO". Ukravto.ua. Archived from the original on 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  5. ^ "Formosa in Taiwan". car-cat.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  6. ^ "Daewoo Matiz: ambizioni mondiali con design italiano e cuore asiatico". Corriere.it. 1998-04-21. Retrieved 2011-08-06. 
  7. ^ a b "Daewoo Matiz specifications". Auto Types. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Best Selling Cars – Matt's blog » Europe". Best Selling Cars. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  9. ^ "Daewoo Matiz - caracteristici tehnice". Daewoo Automobile România. Archived from the original on 26 November 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "China to Foreign Automakers: Drop Dead". Frank Williams. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 
  11. ^ "China Chinese Chery QQ – a carbon copy of the Daewoo Matiz". MotorAuthority.com 6 July 2006. 
  12. ^ "China's quest to sell cars in the U.S.". International Herald Tribune, Chris Buckley, 7 January 2005. 
  13. ^ "Chinese carmaker ambitious, controversial". Detroit News, Christine Tierney. 
  14. ^ a b "Chevrolet Lechi to Be Sold Under Baojun Brand in China". GM Media: China (News release). General Motors. 2012-08-15. 
  15. ^ "Daewoo Matiz | Euro NCAP - For safer cars crash test safety rating". Euro NCAP. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  16. ^ "10 years of Daewoo Matiz". Car-action.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  17. ^ Ellison, Edd (2010-11-15). "Vietnam Gearing Up for Rapid Auto Industry Growth". Ward's Auto. Penton Media. Archived from the original on 2011-08-18. 
  18. ^ http://www.chevrolet.co.in/spark-low-maintenance-car.html
  19. ^ http://en.chevrolet.com.vn/cars/spark-van/model-overview.html
  20. ^ http://www.chevrolet.com.co/spark-city-car.html
  21. ^ "Chevrolet Matiz | Euro NCAP - For safer cars crash test safety rating". Euro NCAP. Retrieved 2013-01-06. 
  22. ^ "Chevrolet Spark: the design". Car Body Design, 4 December 2011. 
  23. ^ a b "GM Daewoo Introduces New Matiz Creative Global Mini-Car". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  24. ^ "Chevrolet Beat, Groove, Trax concepts debut". Leftlane. 2007-04-04. 
  25. ^ "Chevrolet Rolls Out Beat, Groove and Trax Minicar Concepts". Edmunds. 2007-04-04. 
  26. ^ "Cowabunga, Europe: The Chevy Spark Woodie Wagon". Jalopnik, Matt Hardigree, August 5, 2010. 
  27. ^ Filipponio, Frank (2009-01-13). "Detroit 2009: Chevy Spark playing to a familiar Beat". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  28. ^ Nunez, Alex (2009-02-10). "Geneva Preview: 2010 Chevy Spark finally, fully revealed". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  29. ^ "Seoul Motor Show 2009 Photo Spread I". Koreaittimes.com. 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  30. ^ "Jatco CVT7". jatco.co.jp. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  31. ^ "2014 CHEVROLET SPARK SPECIFICATIONS". gm.com. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "2014 CHEVROLET SPARK SPECIFICATIONS". gm.ca. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  33. ^ "2013 CHEVROLET SPARK SPECIFICATIONS". gm.com. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
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