Censorship in Turkey
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Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation, the latter taking precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 ("Ratification of International Treaties") of the Constitution (so amended in 2004). Despite the protections presented in article 90, Turkey ranked 138 in the Reporters Without Borders' 2010 Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index. In 2011-2012 Turkey ranked 148 out of 169 countries in the Reporters Without Borders list. Within the framework of negotiations with the European Union, the EU has requested that Turkey issue various legal reforms in order to improve freedom of expression and press.
- 1 History
- 2 Legislation
- 3 Self-censorship of major media outlets
- 4 Internet censorship
- 5 Broadcast media
- 6 Particular incidents
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Regional censorship predates the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. On 15 February 1857, the Ottoman Empire issued law governing printing houses ("Basmahane Nizamnamesi"); books first had to be shown to the governor, who forwarded them to commission for education ("Maarif Meclisi") and the police. If no objection was made, the Sultanate would then inspect them. Without censure from the Sultan books could not be legally issued. On 24 July 1908, at the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era, censorship was lifted; however, newspapers publishing stories that were deemed a danger to interior or exterior State security were closed. Between 1909 and 1913 four journalists were killed—Hasan Fehmi, Ahmet Samim, Zeki Bey, and Hasan Tahsin (Silahçı).
Following the Turkish War of Independence, the Sheikh Said rebellion was used as pretext for implementing martial law ("Takrir-i Sükun Yasası") on March 4, 1925; newspapers, including Tevhid-i Efkar, Sebül Reşat, Aydınlık, Resimli Ay, and Vatan, were closed and several journalists arrested and tried at the Independence Courts.
During World War II (1939–1945) many newspapers were ordered shut, including the dailies Cumhuriyet (5 times, for 5 months and 9 days), Tan (7 times, for 2 months and 13 days), and Vatan (9 times, for 7 months and 24 day).
When the Democratic Party under Adnan Menderes came to power in 1950, censorship entered a new phase. The Press Law changed, sentences and fines were increased. Several newspapers were ordered shut, including the dailies Ulus (unlimited ban), Hürriyet, Tercüman, and Hergün (two weeks each). In April 1960, a so-called investigation commission ("Tahkikat Komisyonu") was established by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It was given the power to confiscate publications, close papers and printing houses. Anyone not following the decisions of the commission were subject to imprisonment, between one and three years.
Freedom of speech was heavily restricted after the 1980 military coup headed by General Kenan Evren. During the 1980s and 1990s, broaching the topics of secularism, minority rights (in particular the Kurdish issue), and the role of the military in politics risked reprisal.
Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law (Law 3713), slightly amended in 1995 and later repealed, imposed three-year prison sentences for "separatist propaganda." Despite its name, the Anti-Terror Law punished many non-violent offences. Pacifists have been imprisoned under Article 8. For example, publisher Fatih Tas was prosecuted in 2002 under Article 8 at Istanbul State Security Court for translating and publishing writings by Noam Chomsky, summarizing the history of human rights violations in southeast Turkey; he was acquitted, however, in February 2002. Prominent female publisher Ayse Nur Zarakolu, who was described by the New York Times as "[o]ne of the most relentless challengers to Turkey's press laws", was imprisoned under Article 8 four times.
Since 2011, the AKP government has increased restrictions on freedom of speech, freedom of the press and internet use, and television content, as well as the right to free assembly. It has also developed links with media groups, and used administrative and legal measures (including, in one case, a $2.5 billion tax fine) against critical media groups and critical journalists: "over the last decade the AKP has built an informal, powerful, coalition of party-affiliated businessmen and media outlets whose livelihoods depend on the political order that Erdogan is constructing. Those who resist do so at their own risk."
Turkey’s Journalists Union estimated that at least "72 journalists had been fired or forced to take leave or had resigned in the past six weeks since the start of the unrest" in late May 2013 due to pressure from the AKP government. Kemal Kilicdaroglu, head of the Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (CHP) party, said 64 journalists have been imprisoned and “We are now facing a new period where the media is controlled by the government and the police and where most media bosses take orders from political authorities.” The government says most of the imprisoned journalists have been detained for serious crimes, like membership in an armed terrorist group, that are not related to journalism.
Expressions of non-violent opinion are safeguarded by Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ratified by Turkey in 1954, and various provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, signed by Turkey in 2000. Many Turkish citizens convicted under the laws mentioned below have applied to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and won their cases.
Beside the Article 301, amended in 2008, and Article 312, more than 300 provisions constrained freedom of expression, religion, and association, according to the Turkish Human Rights Association (2002). Many of the repressive provisions found in the Press Law, the Political Parties Law, the Trade Union Law, the Law on Associations, and other legislation were imposed by the military junta after its coup in 1980.
Article 301 is a provision in the Turkish penal code that, between June 2005 and April 2008, made it a punishable offense to insult Turkishness or various official Turkish institutions. It was amended on 30 April 2008, including changing "Turkishness" into "the Turkish nation" and making it obligatory to get the approval of the Minister of Justice before filing a case. Before the article was amended, charges were brought in more than 60 cases, some of which were high-profile.
Novelist Orhan Pamuk, at the time a Nobel Prize candidate, was prosecuted under Article 301 for discussing the Armenian Genocide; Pamuk subsequently won the prize. Perihan Mağden, a columnist for the newspaper Radikal, was tried under the article for provocation, and acquitted on July 27, 2006; Mağden had broached the topic of conscientious objection to mandatory military service as an abuse of human rights.
Article 312 of the criminal code imposes three-year prison sentences for incitement to commit an offence and incitement to religious or racial hatred. In 1999 the mayor of Istanbul and current prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan was sentenced to 10 months' imprisonment under Article 312 for reading a few lines from a poem that had been authorized by the Ministry of Education for use in schools, and consequently had to resign. In 2000 the chairman of the Human Rights Association, Akin Birdal, was imprisoned under Article 312 for a speech in which he called for "peace and understanding" between Kurds and Turks, and thereafter forced to resign, as the Law on Associations forbids persons who breach this and several other laws from serving as association officials. On February 6, 2002, a "mini-democracy package" was voted by Parliament, altering wording of Art. 312. Under the revised text, incitement can only be punished if it presents "a possible threat to public order." The package also reduced the prison sentences for Article 159 of the criminal code from a maximum of six years to three years. None of the other laws had been amended or repealed as of 2002.
Article 81 of the Political Parties Law (imposed by the military junta in 1982) forbids parties from using any language other than Turkish in their written material or at any formal or public meetings. This law is strictly enforced.[better source needed] Kurdish deputy Leyla Zana was jailed in 1994, ostensibly for membership to the PKK.
Constitutional amendments adopted in October 2001 removed mention of "language forbidden by law" from legal provisions concerning free expression. Thereafter, university students began a campaign for optional courses in Kurdish to be put on the university curriculum, triggering more than 1,000 detentions throughout Turkey during December and January 2002. Actions have also been taken against the Laz minority. According to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey only recognizes the language rights of the Jewish, Greek and Armenian minorities. The government ignores Article 39(4) of the Treaty of Lausanne, which states that: "[n]o restrictions shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the press or in publications of any kind or at public meetings."[better source needed]
In 1991, laws outlawing communist (Articles 141 and 142 of the criminal code) and Islamic fundamentalist ideas (Article 163 of the criminal code) were repealed. This package of legal changes substantially freed up expression of leftist thought, but simultaneously created a new offence of "separatist propaganda" under Article 8 of the Anti-Terror Law. Prosecutors also began to use Article 312 of the criminal code (on religious or racial hatred) in place of Article 163.
Pressured by the EU, Turkey has promised to review the Broadcasting Law. State agency RTÜK continues to impose a large number of closure orders on TV and radio stations on the grounds that they have made separatist broadcasts. In August 2001, RTÜK banned the BBC World Service and the Deutsche Welle on the grounds that their broadcasts "threatened national security." A ban on broadcasting in Kurdish was lifted with certain qualifications in 2001 and 2002. Other legal changes in August 2002 allowed for the teaching of languages, including Kurdish. However, limitations on Kurdish broadcasting continue to be strong: according to the EU Commission (2006), "time restrictions apply, with the exception of films and music programmes.[better source needed] All broadcasts, except songs, must be subtitled or translated in Turkish, which makes live broadcasts technically cumbersome. Educational programmes teaching the Kurdish language are not allowed. The Turkish Public Television (TRT) has continued broadcasting in five languages including Kurdish. However, the duration and scope of TRT's national broadcasts in five languages is very limited. No private broadcaster at national level has applied for broadcasting in languages other than Turkish since the enactment of the 2004 legislation."[better source needed] TRT broadcasts in Kurdish (as well as in Arab and Circassian dialect) are symbolic,[better source needed] compared to satellite broadcasts by channels such as controversial Roj TV, based in Denmark.
Self-censorship of major media outlets
Major media outlets in Turkey belong to certain group of influential businessman or holdings. In nearly all cases, these holding companies earn only a small fraction of their revenue from their media outlets, with the bulk of profits coming from other interests, such as construction, mining, finance, or energy. Therefore, media groups usually practice self-censorship to protect their wider business interests.
In addition to the censorship practiced by pro-government media such as Sabah, Yeni Şafak, and Star, the majority of other newspapers, such as Sözcü, Zaman, Milliyet, and Radikal have been reported as practicing self-censorship to protect their business interests and using the market share (65% of the total newspapers sold daily in Turkey as opposed to pro-government media) to avoid retaliatory action by the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The Turkish government has implemented legal and institutional reforms driven by the country’s ambitions to become a European Union member state, while at the same time demonstrating its high sensitivity to defamation and other "inappropriate" online content, which has resulted in the closure of a number of local and international Web sites. All Internet traffic passes through Turk Telecom’s infrastructure, allowing centralized control over online content and facilitating the implementation of shutdown decisions.
In December 2010 the OpenNet Initiative, a non-partisan organization based in Canada and the United States that investigates, analyzes, and exposes Internet filtering and surveillance practices, classified Internet censorship in Turkey as selective (third lowest of four classifications) in the political, social, and Internet tools areas and found no evidence of censorship in the conflict/security area.
In 2010 Reporters Without Borders, an international censorship watchdog organization, added Turkey to its list of 16 countries "under surveillance" (the less serious of two Internet censorship lists that it maintains), saying:
- The year 2010 was marked by the widely covered deblocking of the video-sharing website YouTube which, unfortunately, did not equate to a lifting of online censorship in Turkey. In a country where taboo topics abound, several thousand websites are still inaccessible and legal proceedings against online journalists persist.
In July 2010 the Alternative Informatics Association organized one of the first and largest street protests against Internet censorship in Istanbul. A second protest took place in May 2011 with demonstrations in 30 cities in Turkey.
In its Freedom on the Net 2013 report, Freedom House gave Turkey a "freedom on the net status" of "partly free" (the middle of three categories: "free", "partly free", and "not free"), saying that:
- government censorship of the Internet is relatively common and has increased steadily over recent years;
- authorities added several thousand websites to its blocking list, increasing the total to almost 30,000;
- the European Court of Human Rights found Turkey in violation of Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights for blocking access to the hosting platform Google Sites; and
- several users received fines, prison time, or suspended sentences for comments made on social media sites.
On 20 March 2014, access to Twitter was blocked when a court ordered that "protection measures" be applied to the service. This followed earlier remarks by Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan who vowed to "wipe out Twitter" following damaging allegations of corruption in his inner circle.
- allows the telecommunications authority (TIB) to block any website within 4 hours without first seeking a court ruling; and
- requires Internet providers to store all data on web users' activities for two years and make it available to the authorities upon request.
Crimes committed via the Internet are regulated by the older law, number 5651.
Beside the older media control and censorship association, RTÜK, a new governmental association, Telecommunication and Transmission Authority, can impose bans on Internet sites without prior judicial approval, (i) if the offending Web site hosts content that is illegal under Turkish law and is hosted outside Turkey, or (ii) a Web site contains sexual abuse of children or obscenity and its host resides in Turkey. The law prohibits:
- crimes against Atatürk (Article 8/b),
- offering or promoting prostitution,
- providing place and opportunity for gambling,
- unauthorized online gambling and betting,
- sexual abuse of children,
- encouraging suicide,
- supplying drugs that are dangerous for health, and
- facilitation of the abuse of drugs.
Web sites are also blocked for the following reasons:
- downloading of MP3 and movies in violation of copyright laws,
- insults against state organs and private persons
- crimes related to terrorism
- violation of trademark regulations
- unfair trade regulated under the Turkish Commercial Code
- violation of Articles 24, 25, 26, and 28 of the Constitution (freedoms of religion, expression, thought, and freedom of press).
The Turkish Telecommute Foundation has a website for public reports. Decisions to block a web site can be appealed, but usually only after a site has been blocked. Nevertheless, due to the public profile of the major websites banned and the lack of juridical, technical, or ethical arguments to justify the censorship, the blocked sites are often available using proxies or by changing DNS servers.
Blocking of Internet sites
Web sites are blocked for intellectual property infringement, particularly file-sharing and streaming sites; for providing access to material that shows or promotes the sexual exploitation and abuse of children, obscenity, prostitution, or gambling; for insults to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founding father of modern Turkey; for reporting news on southeastern Turkey and Kurdish issues; or which defame individuals. In addition to widespread filtering, state authorities are proactive in requesting the deletion or removal of content online.
- On 7 March 2007, Turkish courts imposed a ban on YouTube.com due to a speculative video that intentionally insulted Atatürk, a hero of WWI and the founder of modern Turkey. Before the judgement, the court asked YouTube to remove the video completely, but they refused, saying they could only make it invisible for the Turkish people. a violation of article 8, dating back to 1951. Two days later the ban was briefly lifted, then reinstated.
- By August 2008 hundreds of sites are temporarily blocked on similar grounds. According to an August 2008 Milliyet article, 11494 complaints (mostly on grounds of indecency) have resulted in 853 motions to block.
- By mid-2008 growing discontent with the blocks resulted in a grass roots protest campaign organized by the Web site elmaaltshift.com, which encouraged Web sites to replace their home page with an interstitial webpage titled "Access To This Site Is Denied By Its Own Decision."
- An October 2008 article in Radikal raised the number of blocked sites to 1112. YouTube's parent, Google, decided to selectively prevent access to the offending videos to users in Turkey in order to prevent the entire site from being blocked. Turkish prosecutors, not content, demanded a global block in order not to offend Turkish users abroad. Google did not comply.
- In September 2008, Richard Dawkins' site, richarddawkins.net, was banned in Turkey as a result of complaints by Islamic creationist Adnan Oktar that his book Atlas of Creation, which contests the theory of evolution, had been defamed on Dawkins' website.
- In October 2008 the Turkish Minister of Transport Binali Yıldırım defended the bans, saying "Practices are needed to protect young people and the public at large from harmful material online." The newspaper Taraf said that the persistent banning of Web sites can be attributed to judges inexperience in dealing with the Internet.
- In October 2008, the courts banned the Blogger (service), including the Blogspot.com domain after Lig TV (whose parent company is Digiturk) complained of copyright violation. This ban was lifted after a few hours.
- In November 2008, the courts banned the "Rojname - Kurdish news search engine", including the www.rojname.com domain
- As of December 2008, after prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan encouraged people to work around the YouTube block, its number of visitors doubled making it the fifth-most visited Web site, according to Alexa.com.
- As of June 2010, beside YouTube, more than 8000 major and minor websites were banned, most of them pornographic and mp3 sharing sites. Other prominent websites banned include Youporn, Mrstiff, The Pirate Bay, Megaupload, Deezer, Tagged, Slide and ShoutCast. The Internet Movie Database has escaped being censored due to a misspelling of its domain, resulting in a futile ban on .
- In 2010, the video sharing site Metacafe was banned by the Telecommunications Communication Presidency (TİB) of Turkey after the posting of an alleged scandalous video of the former CHP leader Deniz Baykal.
- During June 2010 Turkey's president Abdullah Gül used his Twitter account to express disapproval of the country's ban on YouTube and Google services. Gül said he had instructed officials to find legal ways of allowing access.
- Between July 2010 and October 2010, Turkey's ban of YouTube was expanded to a range of IP addresses offering services by YouTube's parent Google, including those of Google Docs, Google Translate, Google Books, Google Analytics, and Google Tools.
- Since September 2010, Kliptube has been blocked.
- In early September 2010, the online music search engine Grooveshark was banned by Turkish courts due to copyright violations.
- In October 2010, the ban of YouTube was lifted. But a range of IP addresses used by Google remained blocked, thus access to Google Apps hosted sites, including all Google App Engine powered sites and some of the Google services, remained blocked.
- On January 1, 2011[verification needed], Turkish courts banned Wix.com, a popular site builder owned by an Israeli company. The ban was later lifted at least from Turk Telekunikasyon A.S.
- On January 28, 2011, the popular imageboard 4chan was blocked.
- Beginning 2 March 2011 access to Blogspot was blocked, following a request by satellite television provider Digiturk; Digiturk alleged Blogger was being used to distribute material it holds the broadcast rights to.
- On 27 May 2011, popular file sharing services Rapidshare.com and Fileserve.com were blocked.
- On 22 August 2011, under new regulations announced on 22 February 2011, the Information Technologies Board (BTK), an offshoot of the prime minister’s office, will allow all ISP users to select one of four levels of content filtering (family, children, domestic, or standard). However having no content filter chosen exactly equals to standard filter in terms of websites blocked.
- On 21 October 2011, the media streaming service Livestream was blocked by the Turkish Republic. Later in June 2012 or earlier, the block was lifted.[verification needed]
- Between January and June 2012 the number of content removal requests that Google received from Turkey increased by 1,013 percent compared to the previous six-month reporting period, according to the company's transparency reports.
- On 9 March 2012, Pastebin began being blocked by the Turkish Republic. Later in June 2012 or earlier, the block was lifted but then reinstated.[verification needed]
- In October 2012 sport streaming website http://atdhe.tw was blocked in Turkey.
- In the spring of 2013, there was an ongoing block of http://wikileaks.org/.
- In January 2014, IP blocks of Level 3 Communications' Content delivery network were blocked, resulting in up to 20% of all requests to that CDN failing.
- On 24 January 2014, access to SoundCloud website became forbidden by the Turkish government. A user named "haramzadeler" ("illegal ones" in Turkish) uploaded a total of 7 illegally recorded phone call tapes which claim to reveal private conversations between Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (the Turkish Prime Minister) and others, including: Erdoğan Bayraktar, local politicians, some businessmen, PM's daughter Sümeyye Erdoğan and his son Bilal Erdoğan.
- On 20 March 2014, access to Twitter was blocked when a court ordered that "protection measures" be applied to the service. This followed earlier remarks by Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan who vowed to "wipe out Twitter" following damaging allegations of corruption in his inner circle. Google Public DNS was also blocked after it was prominently used to bypass the ban.
- On 27 March 2014, access to YouTube was blocked country-wide a day after it carried a leaked National Security meeting conversation that seemingly revealed Head of Turkish Intelligence Hakan Fidan, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, and others, plotting "false flag" operations in Syria. Erdoğan described the leak as "villainous"; Davutoğlu called it "a cyber attack against the Turkish Republic" and "a declaration of war against the Turkish state and our nation". YouTube was unblocked on June 3, 2014 after a court ruling.
- On November 2014, it was found out that Turkish Wikipedia entries for Vagina, Human penis, Scrotum and Vulva have been censored only by main service provider TTNET.
In television broadcasts, scenes displaying nudity, consumption of alcohol, smoking, drug usage and violence are commonly censored by blurring out respective areas. TV channels also practice self-censorship of subtitles in order to avoid heavy RTÜK fines. For example, CNBC-e channel usually translates the word “gay” as “marginal.
Censorship during Gezi protests
Foreign media noted that, particularly in the early days (31 May – 2 June), the protests attracted relatively little mainstream media coverage in Turkey, due to either government pressure on media groups' business interests or simply ideological sympathy by media outlets. The BBC noted that while some outlets are aligned with the AKP or are personally close to Erdoğan, "most mainstream media outlets – such as TV news channels HaberTurk and NTV, and the major centrist daily Milliyet – are loathe to irritate the government because their owners' business interests at times rely on government support. All of these have tended to steer clear of covering the demonstrations." Ulusal Kanal and Halk TV provided extensive live coverage from Gezi park.
Leaked phone calls between Erdoğan and media executives
During the period before the Turkish local elections of 2014, a number of phone calls between prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and media executives were leaked to the internet. Most of the recordings were between Edoğan and Habertürk newspaper & TV channel executive Fatih Saraç. In those recordings, it can be heard that Erdoğan was calling Fatih Saraç when he was unhappy about a news item published in the newspaper or broadcast on TV. He was demanding Fatih Saraç to be careful next time or censor any particular topics he is not happy about. At another leaked call, Erdoğan gets very upset and angry over a news published at Milliyet newspaper and reacts harshly to Erdoğan Demirören, owner of the newspaper. Later, it can be heard that Demirören is reduced to tears. During a call between Erdoğan and editor-in-chief of Star daily Mustafa Karaalioğlu, Erdoğan lashes out at Karaalioğlu for allowing Mehmet Altan to continue writing such critical opinions about a recent speech the prime minister had delivered recently. In the second conversation, Erdoğan is heard grilling Karaalioğlu over his insistence on keeping Hidayet Şefkatli Tuksal, a female columnist in the paper despite her critical expressions about him. Later, both Altan and Tuksal got fired from Star newspaper. Erdoğan acknowledged that he called media executives.
The headquarters of Nokta, an investigative magazine which has since been closed because of military pressures, were searched by police in April 2007, following the publication of articles examining alleged links between the Office of the Chief of Staff and some NGOs, and questioning the military's connection to officially civilian anti-government rallies. The magazine also gave details on military blacklistings of journalists, as well as two plans for a military coup, by retired generals, aiming to overthrow the AK Party government in 2004. Nokta had also revealed military accreditations for press organs, deciding to whom the military should provide information.
Alper Görmüş, editor of Nokta, was charged with insult and libel (under articles 267 and 125 of the Turkish Penal Code, TPC), and faced a possible prison sentence of over six years, for publishing the excerpts of the alleged journal of Naval Commander Örnek in the magazine’s March 29, 2007 issue. Nokta journalist Ahmet Şık and defense expert journalist Lale Sarıibrahimoğlu were also indicted on May 7, 2007 under Article 301 for "insulting the armed forces" in connection with an interview Şık conducted with Sarıibrahimoğlu.
Valley of the Wolves: Terror
Early in 2007, the Turkish government banned a popular television series called Valley of the Wolves, citing the show's violent themes. The TV show inspired a Turkish-made movie by the same name, which included American actor Gary Busey. Busey played an American doctor who removed organs from Iraqi prisoners at the infamous Abu Ghraib prison and sold the harvested organs on the black market. The movie was pulled from theaters in the United States after the Anti-Defamation League complained to the Turkish ambassador to the U.S. about the movie's portrayal of Jews.
In June 2006, police seized a collage by British artist Michael Dickinson — which showed the Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan as a dog being given a  rosette by President Bush — and told him he would be prosecuted. Charles Thomson, leader of the Stuckism movement, of which Dickinson is a member, wrote to then UK prime minister, Tony Blair in protest. The Times commented: "The case could greatly embarrass Turkey and Britain, for it raises questions about Turkey’s human rights record as it seeks EU membership, with Tony Blair’s backing." The prosecutor declined to present a case, until Dickinson then displayed another similar collage outside the court. He was then held for ten days and told he would be prosecuted for "insulting the Prime Minister's dignity". In September 2008, he was acquitted, the judge ruling that "insulting elements" were "within the limits of criticism". Dickinson said, "I am lucky to be acquitted. There are still artists in Turkey facing prosecution and being sentenced for their opinions."
Editor of Taraf (2009)
In January 2009 Adnan Demir, editor of the provocative newspaper Taraf, was charged with divulging secret military information, under Article 336 of the Turkish Criminal Code. He was accused of having published an article in October 2008 that alleged police and military had been warned of an imminent PKK attack that same month, an attack which resulted in the death of 13 soldiers. Demir faces up to 5 years of prison. On 29 December 2009 İstanbul Heavy Penal Court No. 13 acquitted Adnan Demir.
Media Markt advertisement scandal in Eskişehir
Eskişehir’s Turkish Union Association motivated suspension of an advertisement campaign by Media Markt that the group claimed “insult Turkishness” by depicting consumers with animal heads goose -a cow, a carp and a sheep, each chosen for its implication of foolishness- that purchased overpriced merchandise. In the advertisements they used sentences such as "Am I a sheep?" "Am I bird-brained?" (Common insults in Turkish).
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There are currently 853 Web sites banned in Turkey...
- "İnternet kararıyor!". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- "Vatan'ın internet sitesine sansür". Türkiye. Radikal. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- Rozen, Jeffrey (2008-11-28). "Google’s Gatekeepers". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- Gledhill, Ruth (2008-09-19). "Dawkins website banned in Turkey". The Times (London). Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- "Websites to continue to be banned in Turkey-transportation minister". Hurriyet English. 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
- Uzpeder, Banu (2008-10-25). "Telefonları da toplasaydınız". Taraf (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-26.
Bu tuhaflığın nedeni hakimlerin internet konusundaki deneyimsizliği.
- "Sansür hız kesmiyor: Blogger.com’a mahkeme engeli". Türkiye. Radikal. 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
- "İnternet yasağında Digiturk parmağı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 2008-10-26. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- http://engelliweb.com/url/rojname-com. Missing or empty
- Turkkan, Ender (2008-12-16). "Başbakan’ın önerisi YouTube’u ‘patlattı’". Politika. Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- "Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Akdeniz, Yaman and Altıparmak, Kerem (25 November 2008). Internet: Restricted Access: A Critical Assessment of Internet Content Regulation and Censorship in Turkey. p. 41.
- "Turkish president uses Twitter to condemn YouTube ban". The Guardian. Associated Press, Ankara office. June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Özgür Öğret (June 4, 2010). "Google new target of Turkish censors". Hürriyet Daily News.
- Önderoglu, Erol (2008-09-02). "Youtube, Kliptube ve Geocities Kapalı, Dailymotion Açıldı". Bianet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- "The latest victim of web censorship: Grooveshark", Erkan's Field Diary, 4 September 2010
- "Can not use six.com in Turkey | Wix Flash". Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "wix.com « Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [wix.com « Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "4chan.org « Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [4chan.org « Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Blogger becomes latest victim of Turkish Internet bans", Hürriyet Daily News & Economic Review, 2 March 2011
- "Turkey Bans RapidShare and FileServe", Enigmax, TorrentFreak News Bits, 30 May 2011, accessed: 30 May 2011, archived by WebCite®
- "Government agency wants to install filtering software on every computer", Reporters Without Borders, 6 May 2011
- "livestream.com « Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [livestream.com « Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- On holiday at Turkey[full citation needed][verification needed]
- "pastebin.com « Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [pastebin.com « Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "atdhe.tw « Erişime Engellenen Siteler" [atdhe.tw « Blocked Websites] (in Turkish). Engelli Web. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Radar Country Report Demo".
- Marc Hogan. "Has Turkey Banned SoundCloud?". Spin. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Soundcloud.com'a erişim engellendi". Sözcü Newspaper (in Turkish). Sözcü. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Oray Egin. "Loose Lips Threaten Turkey's Powerful". Vocativ. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Dorian Jones. "Turkey: Is a Dark Net Rising?". Eurasianet.org. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- KAMİL ARLI, SUAT ÖZÇELİK (23 March 2014). "Turkey becomes first country ever to ban Google DNS". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Turkey says Syria security leak 'villainous' as YouTube blocked", Today's Zaman (Reuters), 27 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "The Anatomy of Vagina Censorship in Turkey". Bianet. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Finkel, Andrew. "Turkey's New Restrictions on Alcohol". The New York times. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Egin, Oray. "Turkey Censors The Simpsons". Newsweek. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- BBC, 4 June 2013, Turks deprived of TV turn to Twitter for protest news
- Deutsche Welle, 1 June 2013, Solidarity with Istanbul protesters grows in Turkey and abroad
- "Opposition claims Erdogan may be media owner". Al Monitor. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "PM Erdoğan asks his man in Habertürk to censor Sarıgül". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "New leaked tape reveals PM Erdoğan reducing media boss to tears over report". Hürriyer Daily News.
- "Recordings show Erdoğan’s control over media". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Turkish PM acknowledges phone call to media executive". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Turkey: Human Rights Concerns in the Lead up to July Parliamentary Elections ; The Implications for Human Rights of Military Influence in the Political Arena, Human Rights Watch, July 2007
- Nokta magazine raided by police, Turkish Daily News, April 14, 2007 (English)
- Magazine that revealed ‘coups’ ends publication, Today's Zaman, 21 April 2007
- E. Bariş Altintaş, Ercan Yavuz, New military media scandal exposed, Today's Zaman, 9 March 2007
- "First Banned in U.S., 'Wolves' Now Banned in Turkey", Banned Magazine, February 17, 2007
- "http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay".[dead link]
- Alberge, Dalya and Erdem, Suna (2006). Satire that could land British artist in a Turkish jail, The Times, 17 June 2006. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
- Dickinson, Michael. "A prison diary: Watching the guards", CounterPunch, 4 November 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- Duff, Oliver. "Stuck in legal limbo", The Independent, 15 May 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- Birch, Nicholas. "Briton charged over 'insult' to Turkish PM", The Guardian, 13 September 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
- Tait, Robert. "Turkish court acquits British artist over portraying PM as US poodle", The Guardian, 26 September 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- Reporters Without Borders, Editor of Taraf facing up to five years in prison, 7 January 2009
- The Democratic Turkey Forum quoting an article in the daily Zaman of 29 December 2009
- foreignpolicyblogs.com, 11 March 2013, Turkey’s Press Freedom Crisis
- Akdeniz, Yaman; Altiparmak, Kerem (November 2008). İnternet: Girilmesi Tehlikeli ve Yasaktır (PDF) (in Turkish). İmaj Yayınevi. ISBN 978-975-8752-65-2.
- Akdeniz, Yaman; Altiparmak, Kerem (25 November 2008). Internet: Restricted Access (PDF) (in Turkish). İmaj Yayınevi. ISBN 978-975-8752-65-2.
- Salih Sarıkaya (2 July 2014). "Social Media Ban In Turkey: What Does It Mean?".
- Censorship in Turkey, International Freedom of Expression Exchange
- Turkey Press Freedom Website covering the press freedom situation in Turkey by South East Europe Media Organisation (SEEMO)
- "Censorship to censorship" (Turkish) (English translation); A grassroots protest site
- Freedom of the Press in Turkey: The Sultan Likes His Press Meek, Qantara.de, 5 March 2009
- engelliweb.com (Disabled Web); lists 15,000+ banned websites in Turkey as of September 2011
- Turkey's Internet Censorship Problem, The Media Association 
- Marc Pierini with Markus Mayr, January 2013, Press Freedom in Turkey, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Dilek Kurban, Ceren Sözeri, June 2012, Caught in the Wheels of Power: The Political, Legal and Economic Constraints on Independent Media and Freedom of the Press in Turkey, Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation. ISBN 978-605-5332-18-1