Kangar union, Kazakh: Қaңғar Odaғy (Kanghar Odaghü) was a Turkic state in the territory of the entire modern Kazakhstan without Zhetysu. The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the Kangly people, who are now part of the Kazakh, Uzbek, and Karakalpak nations. The Kangly (Qangly, Kang, Kangar, Kengeres, Kangdy, Kangarlyk, Kankalis) were a Turkic tribe known from the 2nd century BCE to past the 12th century CE. The Western Branch of Kangars after a defeat from Kypchaks of the Kimek Kaganate attacked and defeated the Bulgars, establishing the Kangar state in Eastern Europe (840-990 CE). The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains.
A modern interpretation of the etymology is that ethnonym Kangar consists of two roots, Kang/Kang (Qang/Qang), a Turkic for "father, primogenitor", and ar "people, men", Avesta called population of ancient Khwarezm with the ethnonym Kang, adding a Persian plural affix -haKangha. An alternate etymology is that the word kangly in Old Turkic meant "wagon, vehicle", and is homonymous with the name of the Kangly tribe. This etymology is suggested by Turkic translations of Sanskrit texts, where Sanskrit words for "vehicle" and "chariot" were always translated with a word qanγli.
At the end of the 7th century the Syr Darya cities rebelled and formed an alliance with the Sogdiana. The revolt was successful, but the MoslemArab armies attacked Sogdiana from the south. The revolt has waned, and Kangars consented to the continued autonomy of the Syr Darya cities.
At the beginning of the 8th century the Oghuz confederation and the city of Tashkent seceded from the Kangar union. The Arabs continued raiding Sygnakh, Khojent (Jend, Jent), Iasi, and other rich Kangar cities.
After the Arabs captured Sogdiana, they attacked the Kangar cities along the Syr Darya. The Arabs captured the southern Kazakhstan, and the Oguz confederation took control over the other Kangar cities along the Syr Darya. The Oguzes formed an alliance with the Kimak Kaganate. The Kangar Union dissolved. The western branch of the Kangars, known in the west under the name of their allied tribe of Pechenegs, captured the lands of the Khazar Kaganate, and created a Kangar successor state in the Eastern Europe.
Gumilev L.N., History of Hun People, Moscow, 'Science', (In Russian) Ch.11.
Kadyrbaev A.Sh. Chinese sources of Mongolian epoch about foreign political relations of Kazakhstan Türkic nomads (Kypchaks-Kangly) with peoples of Central Asia and Far East//Society and state in China. Moscow, 1982, (In Russian)
Zuev Yu.A., Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology, Almaty, Daik-Press, 2002, (In Russian), ISBN 9985-4-4152-9