Maryland's 3rd congressional district

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Maryland's 3rd congressional district
Current Representative John Sarbanes (DTowson)
Area 292.74 mi²
Distribution 98.4% urban, 1.3% rural
Population (2000) 662,062
Median income $52,906
Ethnicity 77.3% White, 16.3% Black, 3.2% Asian, 2.9% Hispanic, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% other
Occupation 15.7% blue collar, 71.7% white collar, 12.5% gray collar
Cook PVI D+7[1]

Maryland's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the state of Maryland. It comprises portions of Baltimore, Howard, Montgomery and Anne Arundel counties, as well as a significant part of the independent city of Baltimore. The seat is currently represented by John Sarbanes, a Democrat. Landmarks in the district include Fort McHenry and the Maryland Science Center.

The last three people to represent Maryland in the United States Senate were all former representatives of the 3rd district. Those include the two current Maryland senators, Ben Cardin and Barbara Mikulski, as well as retired senator Paul Sarbanes.

The district's odd shape is attributed to gerrymandering in order to favor Democratic candidates following the 2000[2] and 2010[3] censuses. In 2012 the district was found to be the third least compact congressional district in the United States.[4] However, the district was heavily Democratic even before then; a Republican hasn't held it since 1927.

The district from 2003 to 2013

Recent elections[edit]

Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2000
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (inc.) 169,347 75.66%
Republican Scott Conwell 53,827 24.05%
Libertarian Joe Pomykala 238 0.11%
Write-ins 406 0.18%
Totals 223,818 100.00%
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (inc.) 145,589 65.79%
Republican Scott Conwell 75,721 34.21%
Totals 221,310 100.00%
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (inc.) 182,066 63.44% -2.35
Republican Robert P. Duckworth 97,008 33.80% -0.41
Green Patsy Allen 7,895 2.75% +2.75
Totals 286,969 100.00%
Democratic hold
Marylands's 3rd Congressional District election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic John Sarbanes 150,142 64.03% +0.59
Republican John White 79,174 33.76% -0.04
Libertarian Charles Curtis McPeek, Sr. 4,941 2.11% +2.11
Write-ins 229 0.10% +0.10
Totals 234,486 100.00%
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic John Sarbanes (inc.) 203,711 69.66% +5.63
Republican Thomas E. Harris 87,971 30.08% -3.68
No party Write-ins 766 0.26%
Totals 292,448 100.00%
Democratic hold Swing
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic John Sarbanes (inc.) 147,448 61.07% -8.59
Republican Jim Wilhelm 86,947 36.01% +5.93
Libertarian Jerry McKinley 5,212 2.16% +2.16
Constitution Alain Lareau 1,634 0.68% +0.68
No party Write-ins 188 0.1%
Total votes 241,429 100.00%
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2012[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sarbanes (inc.) 213,747 66.8%
Republican Eric Delano Knowles 94,549 29.6%
Libertarian Paul R. Drgos, Jr. 11,028 3.4%
N/A Others (write-in) 535 0.2%
Totals 319,859 100%

Historical boundaries and composition[edit]

Maryland's 3rd district was one of the 50 or so districts that elected a representative to the 1st United States Congress. It also has the distinction of being one of the few congressional districts that once included areas not currently in the state they are in. The 3rd congressional district originally was composed of Prince George's County, Maryland and Anne Arundel County, Maryland.[6] At that point what is now Howard County, Maryland was in Anne Arundel County, and Prince George's County included the eastern half of the District of Columbia.

In 1792 the Maryland 3rd Congressional District was moved to include Montgomery County, Maryland and the eastern half of Frederick County, Maryland. The population was about 33,000.[7] However, the western portion of what is today Carroll County, Maryland was at this point in Frederick County, and the western half of the District of Columbia was in Montgomery County. This latter fact explains why the district lost population even though it in theory did not experience redistricting after the 1800 census. With the population of Georgetown, D. C. no longer in the district, its 1800 population was about 31,000.[8] At this point the 3rd was Maryland's least populous district, barely having half the population of the Baltimore City and County 5th district, which in 1800 had just above 59,000 inhabitants.[9]

The boundaries remained the same after the 1810, 1820 and 1830 censuses. While in 1820 the district had about 36,000 inhabitants its population had risen to 53,622 in 1830.[10] With the formation of Carroll County in the 1830s as well as Maryland falling from 8 to 6 congressional seats, the boundaries of the 3rd Congressional District were drastically redrawn. The only area that remained in the 3rd Congressional District was the part of Carroll County that had been in Frederick County. The 3rd also included Baltimore County and the western half of the city of Baltimore. Its new population was 69,923, 24.5% of whom were black.[11]

In 1853 the 3rd district was redrawn again. The new district consisted of Baltimore County except for the northern and western parts of the county and about the eastern third of the City of Baltimore. The district now had a population of 95,729.[12] In the redistricting following the 1860 census, Maryland was reduced to five congressional districts. The 3rd was moved so that it contained the part of Baltimore that had not been in the 3rd before 1863. It now a population of 130,040.[13] In 1873 the 3rd district was moved again, to be the east side of Baltimore. It now had a population of 120,978.[14]

List of representatives[edit]

Name Took office Left office Party Notes/Events
1 Benjamin Contee.jpg Benjamin Contee March 4, 1789 March 3, 1791 Anti-Administration
2 Williampinkney (1).jpg William Pinkney March 4, 1791 November, 1791 Pro-Administration resigned
3 John Francis Mercer.jpg John Francis Mercer February 5, 1792 March 3, 1793 Anti-Administration
4 Uriah Forrest.jpg Uriah Forrest March 4, 1793 November 8, 1794 Pro-Administration resigned
5 No image.svg Benjamin Edwards January 2, 1795 March 3, 1795 Pro-Administration
6 No image.svg Jeremiah Crabb March 4, 1795 June 1, 1796 Federalist resigned
7 No image.svg William Craik December 5, 1796 March 3, 1801 Federalist
8 No image.svg Thomas Plater March 4, 1801 March 3, 1805 Federalist
9 No image.svg Patrick Magruder March 4, 1805 March 3, 1807 Democratic-Republican
10 PBkey.jpg Philip Barton Key March 4, 1807 March 3, 1813 Federalist
11 Alexanderhanson.jpg Alexander Contee Hanson March 4, 1813 1816 Federalist resigned
12 No image.svg George Peter October 7, 1816 March 3, 1819 Federalist
13 No image.svg Henry Ridgely Warfield March 4, 1819 March 3, 1823 Federalist
March 4, 1823 March 3, 1825 Adams Federalist
14 No image.svg George Peter March 4, 1825 March 3, 1827 Jacksonian
15 No image.svg George Corbin Washington March 4, 1827 March 3, 1829 Adams
March 4, 1829 March 3, 1833 Anti-Jacksonian
17 No image.svg James Turner March 4, 1833 March 3, 1837 Jacksonian
18 No image.svg John Tolley Hood Worthington March 4, 1837 March 3, 1841 Democratic
19 No image.svg James Wray Williams March 4, 1841 December 2, 1842 Democratic died
20 No image.svg Charles S. Sewall January 2, 1843 March 3, 1843 Democratic
21 No image.svg John Wethered March 4, 1843 March 3, 1845 Whig
22 Thomas ligon maryland.jpg Thomas Watkins Ligon March 4, 1845 March 3, 1849 Democratic
23 No image.svg Edward Hammond March 4, 1849 March 3, 1853 Democratic
24 No image.svg Joshua Van Sant March 4, 1853 March 3, 1855 Democratic
25 No image.svg James Morrison Harris March 4, 1855 March 3, 1861 Know-Nothing
26 No image.svg Cornelius Lawrence Ludlow Leary March 4, 1861 March 3, 1863 Unionist
27 Henry Winter Davis.jpg Henry Winter Davis March 4, 1863 March 3, 1865 Unconditional Unionist
28 Hon. Charles E. Phelps, Maryland - NARA - 527033.jpg Charles Edward Phelps March 4, 1865 March 3, 1867 Unconditional Unionist
March 4, 1867 March 4, 1869 Conservative
29 Thomas Swann of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg Thomas Swann March 4, 1869 March 3, 1873 Democratic Redistricted to the 4th district
30 No image.svg William James O'Brien March 4, 1873 March 3, 1877 Democratic
31 William Kimmel of Maryland - photo portrait seated circa 1865 to 1880.jpg William Kimmel March 4, 1877 March 3, 1881 Democratic
32 No image.svg Fetter Schrier Hoblitzell March 4, 1881 March 3, 1885 Democratic
33 No image.svg William Hinson Cole March 4, 1885 July 8, 1886 Democratic died
34 No image.svg Harry Welles Rusk November 2, 1886 March 3, 1897 Democratic
35 No image.svg William Samuel Booze March 4, 1897 March 3, 1899 Republican
36 No image.svg Frank Charles Wachter March 4, 1899 March 3, 1907 Democratic
37 No image.svg Harry Benjamin Wolf March 4, 1907 March 3, 1909 Democratic
38 No image.svg John Kronmiller March 4, 1909 March 3, 1911 Republican
39 No image.svg George Konig March 4, 1911 May 31, 1913 Democratic died
40 No image.svg Charles Pearce Coady November 4, 1913 March 3, 1921 Democratic
41 No image.svg John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill March 4, 1921 March 3, 1927 Republican
42 No image.svg Vincent Palmisano March 4, 1927 January 3, 1939 Democratic
43 ThomasD'AlesandroJrOfficial.jpg Thomas D'Alesandro, Jr. January 3, 1939 May 16, 1947 Democratic resigned to become Mayor of Baltimore
44 No image.svg Edward Garmatz July 15, 1947 January 3, 1973 Democratic
45 Paul Sarbanes.jpg Paul Sarbanes January 3, 1973 January 3, 1977 Democratic Redistricted from the 4th district
46 Barbara Mikulski.jpg Barbara Mikulski January 3, 1977 January 3, 1987 Democratic
47 Ben Cardin, official Senate photo portrait.jpg Benjamin Cardin January 3, 1987 January 3, 2007 Democratic
48 John Sarbanes, official 110th Congress photo portrait 2.jpg John Sarbanes January 3, 2007 Incumbent Democratic

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008". The Cook Political Report. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  2. ^ "Politics Makes Strange Bedfellows, Even Stranger Congressional Boundaries". Maryland Newsline, University of Maryland. 20 February 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  3. ^ "Maryland Redistricting Plan Advances". The Washington Post. 
  4. ^ Lazarick, Len (3 October 2012). "Maryland has least compact congressional districts in nation". MarylandReporter.com. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Unofficial 2012 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. Retrieved Nov 12, 2012. 
  6. ^ Parson, Stanley B., William W. Beach and Dan Hermann. United States Congressional Districts, 1788-1841 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1978) p. 8-9
  7. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 42-43
  8. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 93-94
  9. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 94
  10. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts p. 234, 318
  11. ^ Parson, Stanley B., William W. Beach and Michael J. Durbin. United States Congressioal Districts, 1843-1883 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986) p. 16
  12. ^ Parsosns. Con. Dis. 1843-1883 p. 64
  13. ^ Parsons. Con. Dis. 1843-1883 p. 115
  14. ^ Parsons. Con. Dis. 1843-1883 p. 177

Coordinates: 39°09′N 76°36′W / 39.15°N 76.6°W / 39.15; -76.6