85th United States Congress

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85th United States Congress
USCapitol1956.jpg
United States Capitol (1956)

Duration: January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1959

Senate President: Richard Nixon
Senate Pres. pro tem: Carl Hayden
House Speaker: Sam Rayburn
Members: 96 Senators
435 Representatives
Senate Majority: Democratic Party
House Majority: Democratic Party

Sessions
1st: January 3, 1957 – August 30, 1957
2nd: January 7, 1958 – August 24, 1958
<84th 86th>

The Eighty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1957 to January 3, 1959, during the fifth and sixth years of Dwight Eisenhower's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventeenth Census of the United States in 1950. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

Contents

Major events[edit]

See also: 1957 and 1958
  • January 5, 1957: President Eisenhower announced the Eisenhower Doctrine in a special message to Congress
  • January 20, 1957: Inauguration of President Dwight Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon for a second term
  • August 21, 1957: President Eisenhower announced a 2-year suspension of nuclear testing
  • August 28, 1957: Senator Strom Thurmond set a record for the longest filibuster with his 24-hour, 18-minute speech against the Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • September 24, 1957: Little Rock Crisis: President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Arkansas to provide safe passage into Central High School for the Little Rock Nine.
  • October 4, 1957: The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth
  • October 21, 1957: The U.S. military sustained its first combat fatality in Vietnam
  • November 7, 1957: Gaither Report called for more American missiles and fallout shelters
  • November 25, 1957: President Eisenhower had a stroke
  • January 31, 1958: U.S. launched its first satellite, Explorer 1
  • October 1, 1958: NASA started operations

Major legislation[edit]

States admitted[edit]

  • January 3, 1959: Alaska was admitted as the 49th state.

Party summary[edit]

Senate[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Independent
(I)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 47 2 47 96 0
Begin 49 0 46 95 1
End 50 45 0
Final voting share 52.6% 0.0% 47.4%
Beginning of the next congress 64 0 34 98 0

House of Representatives[edit]

TOTAL: 435

Leadership[edit]

Senate[edit]

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Members[edit]

Senate[edit]

Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. Senators in each state are listed in order of seniority, except for replacements, who appear below the senator they replace.

House of Representatives[edit]

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate[edit]

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
New York
(3)
Vacant Javitz delayed taking seat to allow for the recently inaugurated Republican majority legislature of New York to appoint his successor as New York Attorney General Jacob K. Javits (R) January 9, 1957
Texas
(1)
Price Daniel (D) Resigned January 14, 1957 after being elected Governor of Texas William A. Blakley (D) January 15, 1957
Texas
(1)
William A. Blakley (D) Successor elected April 28, 1957 Ralph Yarborough (D) April 29, 1957
Wisconsin
(1)
Joseph McCarthy (R) Died May 2, 1957. William Proxmire (D) August 28, 1957
West Virginia
(2)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Died January 18, 1958 John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R) January 25, 1958
North Carolina
(2)
W. Kerr Scott (D) Died April 16, 1958 B. Everett Jordan (D) April 19, 1958
West Virginia
(2)
John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R) Successor elected November 4, 1958. Lost special election to fill the seat. Jennings Randolph (D) November 4, 1958
California
(1)
William F. Knowland (R) Resigned January 2, 1959. Vacant Not filled this term

House of Representatives[edit]

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
New Mexico At-large Vacant Rep. Antonio M. Fernández died during previous congress Joseph Montoya (D) April 9, 1957
New Jersey 2nd Vacant Rep. T. Millet Hand died during previous congress Milton W. Glenn (R) November 5, 1957
Illinois 7th James Bowler (D) Died July 18, 1957 Roland V. Libonati (D) December 31, 1957
Pennsylvania 13th Samuel K. McConnell, Jr. (R) Resigned September 1, 1957 after becoming Executive Director of the United Cerebral Palsy Associations John A. Lafore, Jr. (R) November 5, 1957
Georgia 7th Henderson L. Lanham (D) Died November 10, 1957 Harlan E. Mitchell (D) January 8, 1958
Pennsylvania 21st Augustine B. Kelley (D) Died November 20, 1957 John H. Dent (D) January 21, 1958
New York 37th W. Sterling Cole (R) Resigned December 1, 1957 after becoming Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency Howard W. Robison (R) January 14, 1958
Tennessee 8th Jere Cooper (D) Died December 18, 1957 Robert "Fats" Everett (D) February 1, 1958
Pennsylvania 4th Earl Chudoff (D) Resigned January 5, 1958 after being elected judge of the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas No. 1 Robert N.C. Nix, Sr. (D) May 20, 1958
New Jersey 14th Vincent J. Dellay (R) Changed political affiliation some time in 1958 Vincent J. Dellay (D)  ????, 1958
Illinois 14th Russell W. Keeney (R) Died January 11, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Minnesota 1st August H. Andresen (R) Died January 14, 1958 Al Quie (R) February 18, 1958
Wisconsin 1st Lawrence H. Smith (R) Died January 22, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
New Mexico At-large John J. Dempsey (D) Died March 11, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Louisiana 8th George S. Long (D) Died March 22, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Illinois 4th William E. McVey (R) Died August 10, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Pennsylvania 28th Herman P. Eberharter (D) Died September 9, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Illinois 20th Sid Simpson (R) Died October 26, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
Massachusetts 13th Richard B. Wigglesworth (R) Resigned November 13, 1958 Vacant Not filled this term
New York 4th Henry J. Latham (R) Resigned December 31, 1958 after becoming a judge of the New York Supreme Court Vacant Not filled this term

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]