||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: needs copyediting. (August 2012)|
|• MLA||Komati Reddy Venkat Reddy|
|• MP||Gutha Sukender Reddy|
|Elevation||421 m (1,381 ft)|
|• Official||Telugu, Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 8682|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Nalgonda Lok Sabha|
Nalgonda pronunciation (help·info)) is a town and a municipality in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Telangana. Its name is derived from two Telugu words Nalla (Black) and Konda (hill). Nalgonda in the past is referred to as Nilagiri. During the period of Bahamani kingdom, it had been renamed as Nallagonda. Later in Nizam rule, during the later kings rule the name has been transformed into Nalgonda (for official uses). This is also the district headquarters. Recently A.P. govt. has changed its name to Nalgonda for convenience.
Nalgonda is located at  It has an average elevation of 420 metres (1,380 ft)..
As of 2011[update] India census, Nalgonda had a population of 135,163 . Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nalgonda has an average literacy rate of 87.08%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 92.23%, and female literacy is 81.92%. In Nalgonda, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Nalgonda or Nilagiri is a place of residence from ancient times. In old city center, there is an Ashoka Pillar. The panagal village was actually the city center in Kakatiya period where exquisite and highly artful temple of emerald someswara, chaya someswara temple, and a Venkateswara temple are found. The sculpture of emerald someswara temple is par excellence and highly skillfully carved pillars demonstrate the artisans mastery as well as devotion. It is said that the temple is called as emerald someswara temple, as it was endowed with an emerald which filled the entire temple with light reflected from it in day and night. Its structure follows trikuta architecture style with Main sanctum of Siva, and sanctum of Parvati placed opposite, and sanctorum of skanda placed on the right of main sanctum. The temple for some time was in ruins with many villagers pilfering some of the stone carvings carting away to their huts / residences. Archeological society of India, however, later on tried to protect the Temple by a fence, and the Temple stands in its glory with its pillars in-tact.
Similarly the Chaya someswara temple is an architectural wonder, where any time in day or night a column of shadow is seen exactly on the deity siva without any change throughout the year. Also, the temple main deity is always rests in water skillfully drawn from a nearby lake called panagal cheruvu. The whole construction and water circulating arrangement is as thought the deity is endowed with cool environs. The lake is also said to be very old with a silasashana giving its origin. Main interesting feature of the stone carvings is that the script on it is Brahmi script indicating its very ancient origin.
Nilagiri is also endowed with two hills, where on one ill there is a fort, and another hill of huge rock of gnaite where a temple is seen. This hill on its one side has a huge rock of smooth surface embellished with rectangular indentures for help walking on it to reach the temple. Another interesting feature of this hill is there is large reservoir of water inside a hollow of the rock on another side with small opening to be seen as if water is stored by some-one in a pot of giant size. At all times of the year it is filled to the brim.
The hill with the fort is called as kapurala ( family residential ) gutta indicating that the families of the rulers were kept safe as this hill is very steep on all sides. This fort also has a very deep well as if to supply water for the residents for a long time.
However, the govt and local administration has shown little interest in developing and maintaining these historical places which have huge tourist potential as well as cultural importance. There is also no interest in recording the history about these places and bringout awareness with many people even from the district unaware of the importance of such great historical monuments. It is time that Govt wakes up and develops and maintains and bring to light such monuments.
During this period, people fashioned tools and weapons by chipping hard stones of convenient size and shape. This feature is testified by the findings of uni facial Paleolithic implements of the Sloan type at Yellowhammer.
Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other objects of interest were unearthed. The existence of Megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of innumerable burials at various places like Tipparti, Nakrekal, Nalgonda etc.
Mauryas and Satavahanas (230 BCE – 218 BCE)
The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas. Mauryas, during the reign of Ashoka the Great held their sway over this region. Later the region came under the overlordship of the Satavahanas who ruled between 230 BCE - 218 BCE. It was during this period the region established trade contacts with the Roman empire.
The Ikshvakus attained control over the region and ruled with their capital Vijayapuri. During this period Sakas and tled in this region. Buddhism flourished during this period. Iksvaku's are one of the greatest Andhra dynasties ever ruled.
Pallavas and Vishnukundinis
After the Ikshvakus, Pallavas and Yadavas fought for supremacy over the region. Luck favoured the Vishnukundins in the form of Samudragupta's invasion of the South. Vishnukundins ruled from first quarter of the 5th century to the first decade of the 7th century. His capital is indrapala nagaram (v), ramanna pet (m), nalgonda (d).
A major portion of the district appears to have passed from the Chalukyas of Badami to the Rashtrakutas. Rashtrakutas fell in 973 and gave room to the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The sway of the Chalukyas continued until the end of the 12th century.
The district passed under the control of the Kakatiyas from the western Chalukyas. During Prataparudra's time the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq empire in 1323. During Muhammad bin Tughluq's period, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah. During Ahmad Shah I's period the region was annexed to Bahmani kingdom. Jalal Khan in 1455 declared himself king at Nalgonda, but it was a short-lived affair. The region was brought back to the Bahmani kingdom.
During the time of the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of Telangana region of present-day Andhra Pradesh. From him the region was taken by his son Jamshid. Later the district remained under the control of Qutub Shahis until 1687.
Modern period: Mughals and Asaf Jahis
Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf Jah I) defeated Mubasiz Khan at Shaker Khere in Berar and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity. This district, like the other districts of Telangana, passed under the Asaf Jahis and remained under them for a period of nearly two hundred and twenty five years.
Nalgonda district is major producer of Cement in Telangana due to the availability of lime stone across the borders of Nalgonda district and neighboring Guntur district. there are large number of Cement industries. Nalgonda has record number of legal and illegal chit fund companies which lend money at high interest rates. People from nearby villages and local residents approach these lenders to fulfill their urgent needs. Many families rely on salaries and income from small business. Due to the IT boom in India, Nalgonda too reaped fruits from it.
Poverty and unemployment is a major problem in the town as well as district. Measures taken by government bodies has thus far failed to create enough jobs in this area. In Nalgonda district town called Miryalaguda is famous for rice mills, most of the economy growing through rice business
Excess fluoride has turned the ground water into a slow poison especially in rural areas of nalgonda dist. 885 villages and 600,000 people are affected and 10,000 people are totally crippled. Plans to bring clean water from the river Krishna are under way at a cost of 12 billion rupees.
Nalgonda is a major railway station on the Guntur-Secunderabad line. It falls under the Guntur division of South Central Railway. 10 pairs of express trains halt here which connect the town to Howrah, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Vishakapatnam, Tirupati, Quilon, Vijayawada, Guntur, Tenali, Repalle-Palnaadu, Bhavnagar, Kakinada and Hyderabad.
And There is Local train Facility 2 times From Kachiguda (Secundrabad)←->Nalgonda←->Miryalguda The place is well connected to state capital by road as well as rail. Many buses operate between the town and Hyderabad daily run by state govt. National Highway 65 passes through Nalgonda dist from Hyderabad to Vijayawada via Choutuppal, Chityal, Narketpally, Nakrekal, Suryapet and Kodad.
Places of interest
- Two Hills in the Town (due to which the name Nalgonda) have got enormous potential to trekking adventures.
- Lateef Saheb Dargah is located over the hill. Every year Exhibition (Mela) locally called as 'Urus' takes place. One more hill Kapurala gutta is also present within the Town.
- Yadagiri Gutta: Yadagiri Gutta, which is the most devotional place in Nalgonda is located near Bhuvanagiri Town. It is close to Hyderabad, the capital city and the APSRTC runs many buses to the temple town from Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station. The temple draws huge crowds, especially during vacations and on weekends. This is the Place of worship of Lord Laxmi Narasimha Swami.
- Nagarjuna Sagar: World's largest masonry dam This is famous Dam in south India with 26 gates and a Hydroelectric plant. The place also hosts waterfalls called 'Ethipothala' and Gowthama Buddha Museum.
- Bhuvanangiri Fort: Bhuvanangiri Fort was built by Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI on an isolated rock. The Bala Hisar or citadel on the top of the hill gives a bird's eye view of the neighbouring area. The fort is associated with the herioc queen Rudramadevi and her grandson Prataparudra's rule.
- Mattapalli: One of the famous devotional places in A.P is also in Nalgonda dist.
- Kolanupaka Temple: The Jain Shrine at Kolanupaka village, near Aler town is more than 2000 years old. This holy temple has three holy idols of Lord Adinath, Lord Neminath and Lord Mahaveera and 21 other "Theerthankaras". It is very recently renovated by more than 150 artisans from Gujarat and Rajasthan.
- Nandikonda: A small village on the banks of the Krishna River where several Buddhist structures like monasteries and pillared halls were unearthed and preserved in a museum of the Central Archeological Department.
- Panagal or Panagallu: A village near Nalgonda. There are several ancient temples built under the reign of the Kakatiya, Reddy and Velama kings. There is an archeological museum which has several interesting artifacts.
- Vaadapalli: This is famous for its bridge and also called 'Triveni sangamam'(Confluence) where three rivers Godavari, Krishna and Musi meet.
- Nagulapahad ( Narayanagudem/Dubbagudem ): This village is about 18 km South of Suryapet, on banks of the Musi river, famous for its temples. There are two Ancient temples (Trilingeswara Aalayam (Shivalayam) and Veerabhadreswara Aalayam) in this village, founded by the "Reddy Rajas" in the Kakatiya's era...They got the amazing art and beautiful sculptures carved on the black stone....These two temples are similar to the Warangal's "Thousand pillar temple"...and Pillalamarri Temple. These templeas are famous for Every year SHIVARATHRI 'Jatara' too.
As being district headquarters Nalgonda serves as a hub for primary and secondary education for surrounding villages . Nalgonda has many primary and upper primary schools which offers in Telugu Urdu and English as medium of instruction, St. Alphonsus's High School being one among them. Many schools operate with basic amenities. Recent awareness in parents is forcing the school managements to improve their infrastructure.
Some schools in old city area like, Millat High School, Rahmat-e-Allam,Dar-ul-uloom Meer Bagh Colony,Fatima niswaan do offer Urdu as medium of instruction for existing Muslim community. Kendriya Vidyalaya recently established.
Nalgonda district has Engineering and Medical colleges and vocational colleges.
Mahatma Gandhi University is the only university in Nalgonda. There are also professional colleges for engineering, pharmacy and science providing education in different fields.
Engineering and Pharmacy colleges
- Mona Engineering College (Muslim minority college)
- Venkateshwara Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Nalanda College of Pharmacy
- Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Nalgonda Engineering College
- Ramananda Tirtha Engineering College
- Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Science and Technology
Kamineni Medical college and hispital.
There are many schools and colleges in the city which has state government operated education institutions naely
- Govt.High School,DVK Road Nalgonda
- Govt. Junior College for Girls, Nalgonda
- Govt. Boys Junior college / Komati Reddy Pratheek Memorial Government Junior College For Boys, Nalgonda
- Govt Polytechnic College, Nalgonda
- Nagarguna Degree college.
- Govt college for women, Ramgiri, accredited with B++ by NAC.
- "District Codes". Government of Telangana Transport Department. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- [dead link]
- "Hyderabad State - Ghulam Yazdani - Google Books". Books.google.co.in. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. 1923. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
- "Nalgonda". fallingrain.com. Fallingrain. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
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