Rutul language

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Rutul
мыхӀабишды чӀел myxʼabišdy čʼel[needs IPA]
Native to Southern Dagestan, Russia; Azerbaijan
Ethnicity Rutul
Native speakers
30,000 in Russia  (2010 census)[1]
17,000 in Azerbaijan (no date)[2]
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Dagestan (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 rut
Glottolog rutu1240[3]
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Rutul in the Caucasus

Rutul is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan. It is spoken by 30,000 people in Dagestan (2010 census)[4] and 17,000 (no date) in Azerbaijan.[2] The word Rutul derives from the name of a Dagestani village where speakers of this language make up the majority.[5][broken citation]

Rutul is endangered in Russia[6] and classified as "definitely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[7]

Classification[edit]

Rutul belongs to the Lezgic group of the Northeast Caucasian language family. The Rutuls call their language myxʼabišdy čʼel.

History[edit]

The term Rutul was first used in the 15th century to designate Lezgic-speaking people in what is now southern Dagestan and Azerbaijan's Shaki Rayon. It has been in official use since after 1917. Rutul was not a written language until the writing system for it (based on Cyrillic) was developed in 1990. Speakers are often bilingual or multilingual, having a good command of the Azeri, Lezgian and/or Russian languages. There are 8 dialects and 2 subdialects of Rutul. The literary version of the language remains in the process of development. In the Rutul-populated regions of southern Russia, Rutul is taught in primary schools (grades 1 to 4).[5][broken citation]

Related languages[edit]

Among the languages of the Lezgic group, Tsakhur appears to be the closest relative of Rutul.[8][broken citation] Other than these two, there are seven more languages in the Lezgic group, namely: Lezgian, Tabasaran, Aghul, Budukh, Kryts, Udi and Archi.

Rutul alphabeth

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rutul at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b Rutul language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Rutul". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года
  5. ^ a b (Russian) ETHEO: Rutul Language
  6. ^ Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
  7. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  8. ^ (Russian) The Tsakhur language. The ETHEO Project. Last updated 11 October 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2006

External links[edit]