Baguio

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Baguio
Bagiw
Highly-Urbanized City
City of Baguio
(From top, left to right): Panagbenga Park, Wright Park, Baguio City Hall, SM City Baguio, Baguio Cathedral, Session Road, Burnham Park Lake
(From top, left to right): Panagbenga Park, Wright Park, Baguio City Hall, SM City Baguio, Baguio Cathedral, Session Road, Burnham Park Lake
Flag of Baguio
Flag
Official seal of Baguio
Seal
Nickname(s): Summer Capital of the Philippines
City of Pines
Benguet Province map locating Baguio
Benguet Province map locating Baguio
Baguio is located in Philippines
Baguio
Baguio
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 16°25′N 120°36′E / 16.417°N 120.600°E / 16.417; 120.600Coordinates: 16°25′N 120°36′E / 16.417°N 120.600°E / 16.417; 120.600
Country  Philippines
Region Cordillera Administrative Region
Province Benguet (geographically only)
Congr. districts Lone district of Baguio City
Founded 1900
Incorporated September 1, 1909 (city)
Barangays 129
Government
 • Congressman Nicasio Aliping, Jr. (Independent)
 • Mayor Mauricio Domogan (UNA)
 • Vice Mayor Daniel Fariñas (NP)
Area[1]
 • Total 57.51 km2 (22.20 sq mi)
Elevation 1,540 m (5,050 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 318,676
 • Density 5,500/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
Demonym Baguiotes
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2600
Dialing code (+63) 74
Indigenous languages Ibaloi, Kankana-ey
Website www.baguio.gov.ph

Baguio, officially the City of Baguio (Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio; Ilokano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Ibaloi: Ciudad ni Bagiw) and often referred to as Baguio City, is a highly urbanized city located in the province of Benguet in northern Luzon island of the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entire Northern Luzon thereby becoming the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region (C.A.R.).[3] According to the 2010 census, Baguio City has a population of 318,676.[2]

Baguio City was established by the Americans as a hill station in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It was the United States' only hill station in Asia.[4] The name of the city is derived from the Ibaloi word bagiw meaning 'moss.' The Ibaloi is the indigenous language in the Benguet Region,. The city is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,540 meters (5,050 feet) in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive for the growth of mossy plants and orchids.[5]

Because of its cool climate, Baguio City was designated by the Philippine Commission as the "Summer Capital" of the Philippines on June 1, 1903 wherein the government was transferred to city to escape the lowland heat during summer. It was incorporated as a chartered city by the Philippine Assembly on September 1, 1909, as authored by former Philippines Supreme Court Justice George A. Malcolm. The City of Baguio celebrated its Centennial on September 1, 2009.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Ibalois. In the nearby town of La Trinidad, Benguet, Spaniards established a zeus or military garrison, but Kafagway, as the city was once known was barely touched. The history begins with that of the Eastern Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The state of Garðaríki ("the realm of towns"), which was centered in Novgorod and included the entire areas inhabited by Ilmen Slavs, Veps, and Votes, was established by the Varangian chieftain Rurik in 862 (the traditional beginning of Russian history). Kievan Rus', the first united East Slavic state, was founded by Rurik's successor Oleg of Novgorod in 882. The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237–1240 and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[citation needed] During that time, a number of regional magnates, in particular Novgorod and Pskov, fought to inherit the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'.

After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center. By the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had become the huge Russian Empire, stretching from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth eastward to the Pacific Ocean. Expansion in the western direction sharpened Russia's awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered the isolation in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred. Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with a combination of halfhearted reform and repression. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. Between the abolition of serfdom and the beginning of World War I in 1914, the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, and State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and politics of Russia but the tsars were still not willing to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power.

The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system of government, and it first brought a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists to power, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the Communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is essentially the history of the Soviet Union, effectively an ideologically based state which was roughly conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The approach to the building of socialism, however, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918. However, by the mid 1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the fall of the Soviet Union. The history of the Russian Federation officially starts in January 1992. The Russian Federation was the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage. However, Russia has lost its superpower status after facing serious challenges in its efforts to forge a new post-Soviet political and economic system. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the Soviet era, Russia attempted to build an economy based on market capitalism, often with painful results. Since the new millennium Vladimir Putin, has been its dominant leader. Even today Russia shares many continuities of political culture and social structure with its tsarist and Soviet past.

American colonial period[edit]

When the Americans took possession of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War, Baguio was selected to become the summer capital of the Philippine Islands. Governor-General William Taft on his first visit in 1901, noted the "air as bracing as Adirondacks or Murray Bay...temperature this hottest month in the Philippines on my cottage porch at three in the afternoon sixty-eight."[6]:317–319

The history is one of the longest continuous histories in the world, with archaeological findings showing hominid settlements as far back as around half a million years ago and a cultural history of around 20,000 years.[1] Ancient Vietnam was home to some of the world's earliest civilizations and societies—making them one of the world's first people who practiced agriculture.[2][3] The Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. The need to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, to cooperate in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and to fight invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states approximately 2879 BC.[4][5][6] Another truly influential part of history in Vietnam occurred during the late Bronze Age, when the Đông Sơn culture dramatically advanced the civilization. Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Vietnam under the Hùng kings was for so long an independent and self-contained state. The Xích Tỵs and Qins were among the earliest foreign aggressors of Vietnam, but the ancient Vietnamese managed to regain control of the country soon after the invasions.

Once Vietnam did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 1,100 years, Vietnam had been successively governed by a series of Chinese dynasties, beginning with the Han expansion into Bách Việt territory: the Han, Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han; leading to the loss of native cultural heritage, language, and much of national identity. At certain periods during these 1,100 years, Vietnam was independently governed under the Triệus, Trưng Sisters, Anterior Lýs, Khúcs and Dương Đình Nghệ—although their triumphs and reigns were brief.

During the foreign domination of North Vietnam, several civilizations flourished in what is today central and south Vietnam, particularly the Funanese and Cham. The founders and rulers of these governments, however, were not native to Vietnam. From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations.

When Ngô Quyền (King of Vietnam, 939–944) restoring sovereign power in the country, the next millennium was advanced by the accomplishments of successive dynasties: Ngôs, Đinhs, Prior Lês, Lýs, Trầns, Hồs, Posterior Trầns, Later Lês, Mạcs, Trịnhs, Nguyễns, Tây Sơns and again Nguyễns. At various points during these 1,000 years of imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and repeatedly attacked by the Songs, Mongol Yuans, Chams, Mings, Dutch, Manchus, French, and the Americans. The Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire. Political upheaval and Communist insurrection put an end to the monarchy after World War II, and the country was proclaimed a republic. In 1903, Filipino, Japanese and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Baguio with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road, and it was largely a horse trail at higher elevations.

The Americans declared Baguio the "Summer Capital of the Philippines" on July 1, 1903. Every year between March and June, the entire American government transferred operations Baguio to escape Manila's summer heat, a practise abolished in 1913 when Governor-General Francis B. Harrison took office. Mansion House was built to become the residence of the Governor-General, while in 1904 the rest of the city was planned out by the American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city, the second after the City of Manila, and the period after saw further development of Baguio with the construction of Wright Park in honor of Governor-General Luke E. Wright, Burnham Park in honour of Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.

World War II[edit]

On April 26, 1945, Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL 66th Infantry Regiment and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th Infantry Division of the United States Army entered Baguio City and fought against the Japanese Imperial Army forces led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita which started the Battle for the Liberation of Baguio City during World War II.

Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioner's Residence (now the United States Ambassador's Residence) in Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.

1990 earthquake[edit]

The very strong 1990 Luzon earthquake (Ms = 7.8) destroyed much of the city of Baguio on July 16, 1990.[7] A significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged; major highways were temporarily severed; and a number of houses were leveled or severely-shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines. Baguio City was rebuilt with the aid from the national government and various international donors such as Japan, Singapore and other countries.

Heritage zone[edit]

Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone was circulated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petition calls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005, the Heritage Conservation Society(HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed Special Heritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is being opposed by a group of businessmen[citation needed].

Geography[edit]

Mountains surrounding Baguio

Baguio City is located some 5,050 feet above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguet. It covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometres (22.2 sq mi). Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham plotted the plans for the city, he made the City Hall as a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) from east to west and 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from north to2 south. It is the highest major Philippine city in terms of elevation. Andy Chen wrote about the Geography of Baguio in 1910.

Climate[edit]

Temperature[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Baguio City features a subtropical highland climate (Cwb)[8] that closely borders a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city is known for its mild climate owing to its high elevation. The temperature in the city is usually about 8 degrees Celsius lower compared to the average temperature in the lowland area.[9] Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 °C (59 to 73 °F) with the lowest temperatures between November to February. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) on January 18, 1961 and in contrast, the all-time high of 30.4 °C (86.7 °F) was recorded on March 15, 1988 during the 1988 El Niño season.[10] The temperature seldom exceeds 26 °C (79 °F) even during the warmest part of the year.

Climate data for Baguio
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26
(79)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
28
(82)
Average high °C (°F) 22
(72)
22
(72)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22.6
(72.7)
Average low °C (°F) 11
(52)
13
(55)
14
(57)
15
(59)
16
(61)
16
(61)
16
(61)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
13
(55)
14.5
(58.1)
Record low °C (°F) 6
(43)
8
(46)
11
(52)
10
(50)
13
(55)
11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
13
(55)
11
(52)
9
(48)
7
(45)
6
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
40
(1.57)
100
(3.94)
400
(15.75)
430
(16.93)
1,070
(42.13)
1,160
(45.67)
710
(27.95)
380
(14.96)
120
(4.72)
50
(1.97)
4,500
(177.17)
Source: Weatherbase[11]

Precipitation[edit]

Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio receive noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy season with the months of July and August having, on average, more than 700 mm (28 in) of rain. The city averages over 3,100 mm (122 in) of precipitation annually.

Baguio has four seasons: a cool and dry winter, unstable and wet spring, hot and humid summer, and warm and pleasant autumn. Hong Kong is affected by both cool northeast monsoons and warm maritime airstreams. Most of the rainfall occurs from May to September, which is the rainy season.

Winter starts sunny in November and becomes cloudier towards February. In the winter, the weather is generally cool, with temperatures hovering between 15-19 °C. However, northeast winter monsoons bring frequent cold spells, which can cause the temperature to dip below 10 degrees in urban areas, despite Hong Kong's coastal location just below the Tropic of Cancer. The lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.0 °C in 1893, and subzero temperatures have been recorded in the northern New Territories and on high ground. Conversely, warm maritime airstreams also commonly raise the temperature above 20 °C. Temperatures as high as 28 °C have been recorded in February. The coldest months (December and January) is cool with temperatures ranging from about 14-18 degrees.

Spring brings warmer and more humid weather. It is cooler than autumn, but it is the most humid time of the year. There is a sharp increase in rainfall around April. Temperatures are also noticeably rising with an average temperature of 19 degrees in March to about 26 degrees in May, from mild to warm. Spring weather is very unstable; it could be very warm on one day, and cool on the next. The average minimum temperature of the whole season is 20 degrees. March starts off as cold as December, but gradually warms up to become mild at the end of the month. The average temperature range is about 17-21 degrees, but there are significant temperature variations throughout the month, ranging from below 10 degrees to above 25 degrees at times. April is warm with temperatures ranging from about 20-25 degrees. The average rainfall is about 175mm, about 90mm more than March. May is hot with temperatures ranging from about 24-28 degrees. Spring is the cloudiest time of the year, with March and April both averaging only around 100 hours of bright sunshine.

Summer weather is hot, humid and unstable. Thunderstorms and brief showers are common, as well as sunny conditions. June has the highest average rainfall of any month. Temperatures usually exceed 30 °C during the day, which, coupled with a high humidity, can result in an extreme heat index. Extreme heat indices are also caused by continuous sunshine and low breeze, usually last long around July and August, is a result in subtropical high pressure areas. This also occurs before typhoons hitting Hong Kong or nearby regions in the northeast, e.g. Taiwan or Eastern Coast of China, such outbound airstream bring even hotter weather, in addition to dirtier air. Nights are also warm with an average minimum temperature of 26 °C. Hong Kong is frequently hit by typhoons in summer.

Autumn is generally considered as the most pleasant season. Temperatures are still high (22–27 °C) while humidity and rainfall are considerably lower. Moreover, autumn is the sunniest season in Hong Kong, with October and November both averaging close to 200 hours of bright sunshine. There is a big decrease in rainfall around October while temperatures are gradually decreasing from hot to warm, from about 28 degrees at September to a pleasant 21.8 degrees at November. Late October to early December is considered the best time to visit. September is hot with temperatures ranging from about 26-30 degrees. It is also slightly drier than August with an average humidity of 78%. October is warm with temperatures ranging from about 23-28 degrees. November is mild-warm with temperatures ranging from about 19-24 degrees.


Month Average Temperature Jan 16.5-22.6°C (61.7-72.7°F) Feb 17.0-22.9°C (62.6-73.2°F) Mar 19.2-24.4°C (66.6-72.3°F) Apr 21.8-27.0°C (71.2-80.6°F) May 24.1-28.9°C (75.4-84.0°F) June 26.2-32.2°C (79.2-90.0°F) July 26.8-32.4°C (80.2-90.3°F) Aug 26.8-32.1°C (80.2-89.8°F) Sep 25.8-31.1°C (78.4-88.0°F) Oct 22.7-29.8°C (72.9-85.6°F) Nov 19.8-24.1°C (67.6-75.4°F) Dec 16.9-23.2°C (62.4-73.8°F) Statistics[edit] [hide]Climate data for Hong Kong (Hong Kong Observatory) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 26.9 (80.4) 28.3 (82.9) 30.1 (86.2) 33.4 (92.1) 35.5 (95.9) 35.6 (96.1) 35.7 (96.3) 36.1 (97) 35.2 (95.4) 34.3 (93.7) 31.8 (89.2) 28.7 (83.7) 36.1 (97) Average high °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 18.9 (66) 21.4 (70.5) 25.0 (77) 28.4 (83.1) 30.2 (86.4) 31.4 (88.5) 31.1 (88) 30.1 (86.2) 27.8 (82) 24.1 (75.4) 20.2 (68.4) 25.6 (78.1) Daily mean °C (°F) 16.3 (61.3) 16.8 (62.2) 19.1 (66.4) 22.6 (72.7) 25.9 (78.6) 27.9 (82.2) 28.8 (83.8) 28.6 (83.5) 27.7 (81.9) 25.5 (77.9) 21.8 (71.2) 17.9 (64.2) 23.24 (73.83) Average low °C (°F) 14.5 (58.1) 15.0 (59) 17.2 (63) 20.8 (69.4) 24.1 (75.4) 26.2 (79.2) 26.8 (80.2) 26.6 (79.9) 25.8 (78.4) 23.7 (74.7) 19.8 (67.6) 15.9 (60.6) 21.4 (70.5) Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 2.4 (36.3) 4.8 (40.6) 9.9 (49.8) 15.4 (59.7) 19.2 (66.6) 21.7 (71.1) 21.6 (70.9) 18.4 (65.1) 13.5 (56.3) 6.5 (43.7) 4.3 (39.7) 0.0 (32) Rainfall mm (inches) 24.7 (0.972) 54.4 (2.142) 82.2 (3.236) 174.7 (6.878) 304.7 (11.996) 456.1 (17.957) 376.5 (14.823) 432.2 (17.016) 327.6 (12.898) 100.9 (3.972) 37.6 (1.48) 26.8 (1.055) 2,398.4 (94.425) Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.37 9.07 10.90 12.00 14.67 19.07 17.60 16.93 14.67 7.43 5.47 4.47 137.65

% humidity 74      80      82      83      83      82      81      81      78      73      71      69      78.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 143.0 94.2 90.8 101.7 140.4 146.1 212.0 188.9 172.3 193.9 180.1 172.2 1,835.6 Percent possible sunshine 42 29 24 27 34 36 51 47 47 54 54 51 42 Source: Hong Kong Observatory (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1884–1939 and 1947–present)[1][2] Climate of the past years[edit] 1997. The year 1997 was the wettest year since records began in 1884. Rainfall at the Hong Kong Observatory amounted to 3,343.0 millimetres (131.61 in), 51 per cent above normal and exceeding the previous record set in 1982.

1998. It was the warmest year since records began in 1884. The annual mean temperature was 24.0 °C (75.2 °F), 0.2 °C (0.4 °F) higher than the previous record set in 1966. The annual mean daily minimum temperature of 22.1 °C (71.8 °F) was also the highest on record.

1999. With an annual mean temperature of 23.8 °C (74.8 °F), 1999 was the third warmest year on record. The monthly mean temperatures for all months except May, August and December were above their respective normal figures.

2000. The year 2000 was warmer and wetter than usual. The mean temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) was the tenth highest on record and the mean minimum temperature of 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) was the sixth highest. The annual total rainfall of 2,752.3 millimetres (108.36 in) was 24 per cent above normal.

2001. The year 2001 was warmer and wetter than usual. The mean temperature of 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) was 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) above normal, ranking the sixth highest on record. The mean minimum temperature of 21.8 °C (71.2 °F) was the second highest on record. The annual total rainfall of 3,091.8 millimetres (121.72 in) also ranked the fourth highest.

2002. The year 2002 was the second warmest year on record. The mean temperature of 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) was 0.9 °C (1.6 °F) above normal.

2003. The year 2003 was the sixth warmest year since records began in 1884. The mean temperature, 23.6 °C (74.5 °F), was 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) above normal.

2004. Globally, the year 2004 was the fourth warmest year since instrumental temperature record began in 1861. In Hong Kong, 2004 was the ninth warmest year on record. The annual mean temperature was 23.4 °C (74.1 °F), 0.4 °C (0.7 °F) above normal.

2005. Locally in Hong Kong, 2005 was the third wettest year on record. The total rainfall of 3,214.5 millimetres (126.56 in) was 45.2 percent above normal.

2006. Globally, the year 2006 is the sixth warmest year on record. In Hong Kong, it was the eighth warmest year since record began in 1884. The annual mean temperature of 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) was 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) higher than normal.

2008. On the morning of 7 June Hong Kong was lashed by a torrential storm, which dumped up to 300 mm (11.8 in) of rain including 145.5 mm (5.73 in) between 8 am and 9 am killing 3 people. The storm also caused traffic delays and dozens of flight delays.

2009. The year 2009 was warmer than usual with an annual temperature of 23.5 degrees. The average temperature in February reached a record high of 20.5 degrees, 4.2 degrees above the climatological normal. Also, prolonged hot weather extended from summer into late September, with altogether 30 days having daily maximum temperatures of 33 degrees or above, the highest since 1963. The Very Hot Weather Warning was in effect for a total of 40 days, the highest number since the warning started operation in 2000. The year 2009 was also drier than usual. The annual rainfall of 2182.3 millimetres was about 8 percent below normal.

2010. Year 2010 started off with three notably warm months with monthly mean temperatures 0.7 to 1.6 degree above normal. This anomaly was mostly offset by the well below normal monthly mean temperatures in April and June, the former due to frequent passage of late season cold fronts and the latter due to gloomy weather. With insignificant anomalies of monthly mean temperatures in the second half of the year, the annual mean temperature in 2010 ended up to 23.2 degrees, close to the normal figure of 23.1 degrees. During the year, there were 13 very hot days (daily maximum temperature at 33.0 degrees or above) and 21 cold days (daily minimum temperature at 12.0 degrees or below), 3 days and 2 days more than normal respectively.

2011. The first month of 2011 was the coldest January since 1977. The temperature did not go above 20 degrees, and the daily mean temperature of the month was only 13.7 degrees. The mean temperature of 2011 was 23.0 degrees. 0.1 degrees below the normal figure of 23.1 degrees. The year 2011 was also an exceptionally dry year. With well below normal rainfall in the first nine months, the annual rainfall of 1476.7 millimetres was about 38 per cent below normal, the lowest since 1963.

2012. In Hong Kong, 2012 started with significantly colder than normal weather in January and February which is mainly due to the stronger northeast monsoon over southern China usually in the presence of La Nina. However, with La Nina fading out in spring, the below-normal temperature was compensated by the exceptionally warm weather in April, May and August in 2012. Overall, the average temperature of 2012 was 23.4 degrees, 0.1 degrees above the 1981-2010 normal figure of 23.3 degrees

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Baguio
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 183,142 —    
1995 226,883 +4.09%
2000 252,386 +2.31%
2007 301,926 +2.50%
2010 318,676 +1.98%
Source: National Statistics Office[12]

Religion[edit]

The majority of the people are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups include are the Episcopal Church, Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP),Jesus Is Lord Church (JIL), Jesus Miracle Crusade (JMC), The United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Churches, Baptist and Bible Fundamental churches. There is a significant number of Muslims consisting of different ethnicities and nationalities. The largest Masjid (Mosque) in the locality is Masjid Al-Maarif. It is well known for being one of the centers of Islamic Studies in the Philippines.

Local government[edit]

The Mansion, the official summer residence of the President of the Philippines.
The City Hall of Baguio.

Like most Philippine cities, Baguio is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, and twelve (12) councilors. However, being a highly urbanized city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of Benguet province, of which it was formerly a part.

The current mayor of Baguio is Mauricio Domogan, and the lone congressional district is currently represented by Congressman Nicasio Aliping, Jr. They were elected in May 2013

Baguio City is politically subdivided into 129 barangays.[2]

  • Abanao-Zandueta-Kayong-Chugum
  • Alfonso Tabora
  • Ambiong
  • Andres Bonifacio
  • Apugan-Loakan
  • Asin Road
  • Atok Trail
  • Aurora Hill Proper
  • Aurora Hill, North Central
  • Aurora Hill, South Central
  • Bagong Lipunan (Market Area)
  • Bakakeng Central
  • Bakakeng North
  • Bal-Marcoville (Marcoville)
  • Balsigan
  • Bayan Park East
  • Bayan Park Village
  • Bayan Park West (Bayan Park)
  • BGH Compound
  • Bonifacio-Caguioa-Rimando
  • Brookside
  • Brookspoint
  • Cabinet Hill-Teacher’s Camp
  • Camdas Subdivision
  • Camp 7
  • Camp 8
  • Camp Allen
  • Campo Filipino
  • City Camp Central
  • City Camp Proper
  • Country Club Village
  • Cresencia Village Barangay
  • Dagsian, Lower
  • Dagsian, Upper
  • Department of Public Services(DPS) Compound
  • Dizon Subdivision
  • Dominican Hill Mirador
  • Dontogan
  • Engineers' Hill
  • Fairview Village
  • Ferdinand (Happy Homes-Campo)
  • Fort del Pilar
  • Gabriela Silang
  • General Emilio F. Aguinaldo
  • General Luna, Lower
  • General Luna, Upper
  • Gibraltar
  • Greenwater Village
  • Guisad Central
  • Guisad Sorong
  • Happy Hollow
  • Happy Homes (Happy Homes-Lucban)
  • Harrison-Claudio Carantes
  • Hillside
  • Holy Ghost Extension
  • Holy Ghost Proper
  • Honeymoon (Honeymoon-Holy Ghost)
  • Imelda R. Marcos (La Salle)
  • Imelda Village
  • Irisan
  • Kabayanihan
  • Kagitingan
  • Kayang Extension
  • Kayang-Hilltop
  • Kias
  • Legarda-Burnham-Kisad
  • Liwanag-Loakan
  • Loakan Proper
  • Lopez Jaena
  • Lourdes Subdivision Extension
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
  • Lualhati
  • Lucnab
  • Magsaysay Private Road
  • Magsaysay, Lower
  • Magsaysay, Upper
  • Malcolm Square-Perfecto
  • Manuel A. Roxas
  • Market Subdivision, Upper
  • Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision
  • Military Cut-off
  • Mines View Park
  • Modern Site, East
  • Modern Site, West
  • MRR-Queen Of Peace
  • New Lucban
  • Outlook Drive
  • Pacdal
  • Padre Burgos
  • Padre Zamora
  • Palma-Urbano (Cari?o-Palma)
  • Phil-Am
  • Pinget
  • Pinsao Pilot Project
  • Pinsao Proper
  • Pucsusan
  • Puliwes
  • Quezon Hill Proper
  • Quezon Hill, Upper
  • Quirino Hill, East
  • Quirino Hill, Lower
  • Quirino Hill, Middle
  • Quirino Hill, West
  • Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper
  • Rizal Monument Area
  • Rock Quarry, Lower
  • Rock Quarry, Middle
  • Rock Quarry, Upper
  • Saint Joseph Village
  • Salud Mitra
  • San Antonio Village
  • San Luis Village
  • San Roque Village
  • San Vicente
  • Sanitary Camp South
  • Sanitary Camp, North
  • Santa Escolastica
  • Santo Rosario Valley
  • Santo Tomas Proper
  • Santo Tomas School Area
  • Scout Barrio
  • Session Road Area
  • Slaughter House Area
  • SLU-SVP Housing Village
  • South Drive
  • Teodora Alonzo
  • Trancoville
  • Victoria Village

Economy[edit]

Brooms with price tags being sold in market

The economy of Baguio is centered on tourism and its educational institutions, of which it has at least eight colleges and universities, as well as a plethora of trade and technical schools. Based on the latest census done in 2007, almost half of the city's population are students, many of whom come from nearby provinces, with numerous foreign students to add to the diversity.

Another key source of income for Baguio is its position as the commercial hub for the province of Benguet. Many of the agricultural and mining goods produced in Benguet pass through Baguio for processing, sale or further distribution to the "lowlands."

Commercial[edit]

The city is also a major retail center for the Cordilleras and Ilocos provinces, with shoppers coming to the city to take advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products on sale, many of which would otherwise only be available in Manila. The city is also popular with bargain hunters—some of the most popular bargaining areas include Baguio Market and Maharlika Livelihood Center. Despite the city's relatively small size, it boasts numerous shopping centers and malls catering to increasing commercial and tourist activity in Baguio: these include SM City Baguio, Baguio Center Mall, Cooyeesan Hotel Plaza, Abanao Square, The Maharlika Livelihood Center, Porta Vaga Mall and The Bonchic Bargain Center.

Various food and retail businesses run by local residents proliferate, forming a key part of Baguio's interesting cultural landscape. Some of these include Tiong San chain of department stores and supermarkets, Sunshine Supermarket, Star Cafe, Country Mart, the famous Rose Bowl Restaurant, Good Taste Restaurant, the new Fortune Restaurant, Marosan's Cafe, Patao's, eateries along Bonifacio St., Session Road, near Teacher's Camp, Baguio Fastfood Center near the market and many others.

The areas of Session Road, Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city. It is in these areas where commercial and business structures abound. First-class cinemas, hotels, restaurants, department stores, and shopping centers are to be found in this area. Shopping at the famous City Market offers one a wide array of locally sourced goods and products: everything from colorful woven fabrics and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers, strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate. (Strawberries and string beans—referred to as 'Baguio beans' across the Philippines—are shipped to major urban markets across the archipelago.)

Industrial[edit]

Baguio is home to one of the country's most profitable and best investment areas, a Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) accredited business and industrial park called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ). Located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay Country Club and Philippine Military Academy in Barangay Loakan. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instruments Philippines, which happens to be the second largest exporter in the country,[13] Other companies headquartered inside the economic zone are Moog Philippines, Inc., Linde Philippines, Inc., LTX Philippines Corporation and Sitel Philippines, Baguio.

Outsourcing[edit]

Outsourcing also contributes to the city's economy and employment. There are many call centers present in the city. PeopleSupport Baguio is headquartered in the SM Baguio Cyberzone. Other call centers in downtown are Optimum Transsource, Sterling Global and Global Translogic. While others like Convergys and Teletech have call centers in Camp John Hay away from the city proper. Tech-Synergy operates a large transcription and backoffice operation near Wright park. ThoughtFocus Technologies, a leading US provider of Software and KPO services decided to set up its KPO operation center in City of Baguio.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its weather and history. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during summer, especially during Holy Week, tourists from all over the country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city doubles.[14] To accommodate all these people there are more than 80 hotels and inns available.[15] Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attract both local and foreign tourists. Baguio City is the lone Philippine destination in the 2011 TripAdvisor Traveler's Choice Destinations Awards, Asia category, with the city being among the top 25 destinations in Asia.[16]

Transportation[edit]

By air[edit]

The Loakan Airport runway.

Loakan Airport is the lone airport serving the general area of Baguio. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of not only this airport but also of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports. It is about 10 minutes by car from the city center going south. Due to the limited length of the runway which is 1,802 meters or 5,912 feet, it is restricted to commuter size aircraft. This perhaps contributed to the city's declining competitiveness against other medium-sized cities around the country. The airport is used primarily by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on rare occasion light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.

On land[edit]

The three main access roads leading to Baguio from the lowlands are Kennon Road, Aspiras-Palispis Highway (previously known as Marcos Highway)[17] and Naguilian Road, also known as Quirino Highway. Kennon Road starts at Rosario, La Union and winds upwards through a narrow, steep valley. This is often the fastest route to Baguio but it is particularly perilous, with landslides during the rainy season and sharp dropoffs, some without guardrails. The Aspiras Highway, which starts in Agoo, La Union and connects to Palispis Highway, at the boundary of Benguet and La Union Provinces, and Naguilian Road, which starts in Bauang, La Union, are both longer routes but are much safer than Kennon Road especially during rainy season, and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses, lorries (trucks) and by more conservative car drivers.

It takes about six hours to travel the approximately 250 km (155 mi) distance between Manila and Baguio City by way of Kennon Road. It is about fifteen to thirty minutes longer through the Aspiras-Palispis Highway, and could take three more hours if going up from Manila via Naguilian Road—which is the usual route for travelers from the Northern areas of Luzon such as Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur and northern La Union province.[citation needed]

There is another access to Baguio from Aritao in the province of Nueva Vizcaya passing through Itogon, Benguet but this is less traveled, the road is not well maintained, and public transportation through this route is not as regular. It is particularly difficult during rainy periods. Another road, Halsema Highway (also known as "Mountain Trail") leads North through the mountainous portion of the Cordillera Autonomous Region. It starts at the northern border of Baguio City, in the Municipality of La Trinidad (Trinidad Valley). This highway offers some extraordinary scenery, coupled with some sheer drops of hundreds of feet in some sparsely populated areas. Drivers should be well-versed in Cordillera-style mountainous driving, as this road has, on very rare occasions, experienced sleet / freezing rain conditions as one proceeds North toward Sagada, Mountain Province.

There are several bus lines linking Baguio with Manila and Central Luzon, and provinces such as Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Quezon, La Union, and those in the Ilocos regions. Most transportation companies also offer express and air-conditioned buses at a higher fare, although some "aircon" minibuses offer cheaper fares. Bus services that operate in Baguio include Victory Liner, Partas, GV Florida Transport, Philippine Rabbit, Viron Transit, Dangwa Tranco, Genesis Transport, Saulog Transit Inc., Dagupan Bus Co., Amianan Bus Line, Baguio Bus Line, Eso Nice Transport Corporation and many smaller feeder mini-buses.

There are also hundreds of Taxi and jeepney operators who provide public transportation in Baguio City.For example, coming from Agoo, La Union, San Fernando City, La Union and Rosario, La Union.

Education[edit]

Baguio is a university town with 141,088 students out of the 301,926 population count done on the year 2007.[2] It is the center of education in the entire North Luzon. There are eight major institutions of higher education in Baguio City.

Saint Louis University, Baguio City (S.L.U.) - established in 1911 by the CICM missionaries whose aim is to educate the locals through Christian Education. Since then, it has become the largest and one of the top performing universities in the country.

University of the Philippines Baguio (U.P. Baguio) - the national university of the Philippines, U.P. System's flag-bearer in Northern Luzon, internationally known for its excellent record in ethnic and multidisciplinary research and Cordillera Studies. Identified as a National Center of Excellence/Development in the areas of Biology, Mathematics and Physics.

Philippine Military Academy - the national training school for future officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines

University of Baguio - founded by Dr. Fernando G. Bautista and Mrs. Rosa C. Bautista in 1948.

University of the Cordilleras - formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation, established on June 19, 1946.

Baguio Central University- formerly Lyceum of Baguio. First opened in 1945.

Pines City Colleges - formerly Pines City Doctors' Hospital School of Nursing and Pines City Educational Center. First opened as a Nursing school in 1969. The oldest school of Nursing in Baguio City (since the closing of the Baguio General Hospital School of Nursing).

Easter College - formerly Easter School. It is one of the oldest schools in the Cordilleras. The school was established by the Protestant Episcopalian missionary Rt. Rev. Charles Henry Brent in 1906.[18]

Other higher educational institutions[edit]

  • PINES CITY COLLEGES(Pines City Doctors'Hospital School of Nursing since 1969)
  • STI College, Baguio
  • Data Center College of the Philippines, Baguio
  • Remnant International College
  • BSBT College
  • Baguio College of Technology
  • Informatics Philippines Baguio Center
  • AMA Computer College
  • Baguio School of Business and Technology
  • Philippine Public Safety College
  • Philippine Women's University
  • Meridian Paramedical & Tech Institute
  • NIIT Baguio
  • Women's Vocational Institute
  • San Pablo Major Seminary
  • Philippine Baptist Theological Seminary (PBTS) is the flagship Southern Baptist ministerial training center established in 1952, offering undergraduate, graduate and post graduate degree programs.
  • Asia Baptist Graduate Theological Seminary (ABGTS) is the adjunct ministerial center established by the Philippine Baptist Theological Seminary in 1960 that offers post-graduate studies.
  • Asia Pacific Theological Seminary founded in 1964 in Manila and transferred to the Baguio area in 1986, is the foremost seminary for the Asia-Pacific region of the Assembles of God.
  • Lutheran Theological Seminary was established in 1955 in Manila with the Rev. Lorenz Nieting as head. The campus was moved to Baguio in 1961 offering a five-year divinity degree program leading to ordination to Lutheran diaconate on the third year and the priesthood.
  • Al-Maarif Educational Center
  • University of the Cordilleras
  • Colegio Nacional

International Schools (elementary and secondary levels)[edit]

  • Shalom International School
  • Brent International School was founded the same year as the city. It was originally established as a boarding school for the sons of American families stationed in the Philippines.
  • Union School International
  • Monticello International School
  • Educare International School
  • Remnant International College
  • Yeun Soo-Saint Jude International School
  • Daily International School
  • Baguio International Academy

Festivals[edit]

Panagbenga Festival (English: Flower Festival) is a month-long annual flower festival occurring in Baguio, the summer capital of the Philippines. The term is of Malayo-Polynesian origin, meaning "season of blooming". The festival, held during the month of February, was created as a tribute to the city's flowers and as a way to rise up from the devastation of the 1990 Luzon earthquake. The festival includes floats that are decorated with flowers unlike those used in Pasadena's Rose Parade. The festival also includes street dancing, presented by dancers clad in flower-inspired costumes, that is inspired by the Bendian, an Ibaloi dance of celebration that came from the Cordillera region.

Chinese New Year is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. In China, it is known as "Spring Festival," the literal translation of the Chinese name 春節 (Pinyin: Chūnjié), since the spring season in Chinese calendar starts with lichun, the first solar term in a Chinese calendar year. It marks the end of the winter season, analogous to the Western Carnival. The festival begins on the first day of the first month (Chinese: 正月; pinyin: Zhēngyuè) in the traditional Chinese calendar and ends with Lantern Festival which is on the 15th day. Chinese New Year's Eve, a day where Chinese families gather for their annual reunion dinner, is known as Chúxī (除夕) or "Eve of the Passing Year." Because the Chinese calendar is lunisolar, the Chinese New Year is often referred to as the "Lunar New Year".

Culture[edit]

The city is home to many immigrants from other parts of the country. A significant population of foreigners also contributed to the diversity of the city's colorful culture. The languages commonly spoken in Baguio are Kankana-ey, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, English, Chinese. Several establishments were founded to accommodate their needs. Posters and signages are sometimes printed with Korean translation. Several restaurants also serve different types of local and foreign cuisine.

Baguio's youth majority in the population has given it a distinct flavor different from those of other cities in the Philippines. Although Baguio is very modern nowadays, Panagbenga Festival, the annual Flower Festival, is celebrated each February to showcase Baguio's rich cultural heritage, its appreciation of the environment, and inclination towards the arts.

The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s-1990s. Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago Bose and filmmaker Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the city. Even today, artists like painters and sculptors from all over the country are drawn to the Baguio Arts Festival which is held annually.[9]

Many Baguio artists used the context of cultural diversity of the Cordillera Region to establish their work. Other notable Baguio artists include Narda Capuyan (weaving), Kawayan de Guia (painting), Kigao (sculpture), Willy Magtibay, Peter Pinder (fiber glass sculpture, painting, mixed media), Art Tibaldo (mixed media-visual arts) and Franklin Cimatu (poetry.) The active student population in Baguio has also spawned various interests in animation and digital arts, with several local artists doing work for large production and advertising agencies in the Philippines and abroad.

Sports[edit]

Baguio City hosted the 1978 World Chess Championship match between Anatoly Karpov and Viktor Korchnoi.

Communication and mass media[edit]

Television networks

AM Stations

  • DZWT: Radyo Totoo 540
  • DWUN: UNTV Radio La Verdad 1350(Live Streaming- http://www.untvradio.com/)
  • DWSP: DZRH Baguio 612
  • DWVB: Radyo Kidlat 648
  • DZCR: Radyo Cordillera 684
  • DZEQ: Radyo ng Bayan 999
  • DZWX: Bombo Radyo 1035
  • DZBS: Radyo Ronda 1368

FM Radio Stations

  • DZKB: 88.7 Kilig FM
  • DWIM: 89.5 Star FM
  • DWDJ: RJ 91.1
  • DZYS: Easy Rock 91.9
  • DWRA: Barangay 92.7 (formerly Campus Radio Baguio)
  • DWBU: Edge Radio 94.7
  • DWMB: Love Radio 95.1
  • DWBG: Big Sound FM 95.9
  • DWSK: K-Lite 96.7
  • DWLY: Power Hits 97.5
  • DWUB: Z Radio 98.7 (recently incorporated AM/FM formats)
  • DZRP: Pinoy 99.1
  • DZWR: Country 99.9
  • DWAB: Astig 101.5
  • DZRR: MOR 103.1
  • DWHB: iFM 103.9
  • DZBM: Crossover 105.1
  • DZLL: Smooth FM 107.1
  • DCFM: Care FM 107.9

News Program

  • TV Patrol Northern Luzon (ABS-CBN TV-3 Baguio)
  • Balitang Amianan (GMA TV-10 Baguio, GMA TV-10 Dagupan, GMA TV-10 Olongapo, GMA TV-5 Baler and GMA TV-5 Mountain Province)
  • Aksyon Northern Luzon (TV5 TV-28 Baguio, TV5 TV-13 Tuguegarao, TV5 TV-25 Santiago, TV5 TV-4 Ilagan, Isabela)
  • Good Morning Kuya (UNTV News, Ito ang Balita)

Sister Cities[edit]

Local[edit]

Sister city Province
Butuan Agusan del Norte
Tagaytay Cavite
Cagayan de Oro Misamis Oriental
Lucena Quezon
Siniloan Laguna

International[edit]

Sister city Country
Cusco  Peru
Hangzhou  China
Hanyū, Saitama  Japan
Kislovodsk  Russia
Taebaek  South Korea
Union City, California  United States
Vallejo, California[19]  United States
Vaughan  Canada
Wakkanai, Hokkaido  Japan

Picture Gallery[edit]

Notable People & Places of Baguio City[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Province: Benguet". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  3. ^ (2009-08-27)."Business". Official Website of Baguio City. Retrieved on 2011-12-24.
  4. ^ Estoque, Ronald C.; Yuji Murayama (February 2013). "City Profile: Baguio". Cities 30: 240–251. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2011.05.002. 
  5. ^ "Southeastern Asia: Island of Luzon in the Philippines". WWF. Retrieved August 16, 2014. 
  6. ^ Kane, S.E., 1933, Life and Death in Luzon or Thirty Years with the Philippine Head-Hunters, New York: Grosset & Dunlap
  7. ^ http://earthquake.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/update_SOEPD/Earthquake/1990LuzonEQ_Monograph/pp001/pp001.html[dead link]
  8. ^ "Climate: Baguio - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  9. ^ a b "Baguio City Travel Information, Philippines". Asia Travel. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  10. ^ Basilan, Jacquelyn; Khristine Love Vicente (17 December 2008). "Baguio wakes up to coldest morn in 2008". Breaking News / Regions (Philippine Daily Inquirer). Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  11. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Baguio, Philippines". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  12. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  13. ^ Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (13 February 2007). "Baguio export zone to get P6.7 B in new investments". Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  14. ^ http://www.nscb.gov.ph/rucar/stat_trsm_bgo.htm
  15. ^ Complete list of Baguio Hotels
  16. ^ Best Destinations in Asia - Travelers' Choice Awards - TripAdvisor
  17. ^ R.A. 8971
  18. ^ Basoyang, Marianne K. "History of Easter College". Easter College. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  19. ^ "Vallejo Sister City". Vallejo Sister City Association. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  20. ^ Heritage Conservation Society Website - Article
  21. ^ "Teacher's Camp". http://www.cityofpines.com/. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 

External links[edit]