St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
|St. Patrick's Cathedral|
|Location||New York City, New York|
|Website||St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York|
|Dedication||October 5, 1910|
|Earlier dedication||May 25, 1879|
|Architect(s)||James Renwick, Jr.|
|Number of spires||2|
|Spire height||330 feet (100 m)|
|Bells||19 (29,122.73 lbs)|
|Archdiocese||Archdiocese of New York|
|Archbishop||Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan|
|Rector||Rev. Msgr. Robert T. Ritchie|
|Organist/Director of music||Dr. Jennifer Pascual|
|RCIA coordinator||Sueanne Nilsen|
The Cathedral of St. Patrick (commonly called St. Patrick's Cathedral) is a decorated Neo-Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral church in the United States and a prominent landmark of New York City. It is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, and a parish church, located on the east side of Fifth Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets in midtown Manhattan, New York City, New York, directly across the street from Rockefeller Center and specifically facing the Atlas statue.
According to Catholic News Service (CNS) and the Catholic News Agency (CNA), Cardinal Timothy Michael Dolan, the incumbent Archbishop of New York, announced before reviewing the city's parade on St. Patrick's Day 2012 that the Cathedral would undergo a massive five-year, three-phase, $175 million renovation because of crumbling bricks, faulty heating, and acid rain and pollution that has eaten away at the Tuckahoe marble of the 135-year-old church. Early donors and grants from the Archdiocese and the Trustees of the Cathedral have already raised $45 million for the first phase, which began in late March. This involves repairing, restoring, and cleaning the soot-covered exterior, and an extensive cleaning of the outside and inside surfaces of the stained glass windows. The Cathedral will remain open during the renovations and work will pause during Masses, according to the Cathedral's rector, Monsignor Robert T. Ritchie. As of December 2014, the entire renovation was about two-thirds complete.
- 1 History
- 2 Architectural features
- 3 Music
- 4 Burials and funeral Masses
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Purchase of the property
The land on which the present cathedral sits was purchased in 1810. The Jesuit community built a college on the site, three miles north of the city. It contained a "fine old house," which was fitted with a chapel of St. Ignatius. The school closed in 1814 and the Jesuits sold the lot to the diocese. In 1813, the diocese gave use of the property to Dom Augustin LeStrange, abbot of a community of Trappists (from the original monastery of La Trappe) who came to America fleeing persecution by French authorities. In addition to a small monastic community, they also looked after some thirty-three orphans. With the downfall of Napoleon in that year, the Trappists returned to France in 1815, abandoning the property. The property at this point was designated for a future cemetery. The neighboring orphanage was maintained by the diocese into the late nineteenth century. Some of the Trappists resettled to Canada and eventually founded St. Joseph's Abbey in Spencer, Massachusetts.
Bishop DuBois reopened the chapel in 1840 for Catholics employed at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum and in the general neighborhood. A modest frame church was built for the parish of St. John the Evangelist and dedicated May 9, 1841 by the Rev. John Hughes, administrator of the diocese. Tickets were sold to the dedication to ease the parish's debt level, managed by a lay Board of Trustees, but to no avail and the property mortgage was finally foreclosed on and the church sold at auction in 1844. The stress is said to have contributed to the death that year of the church's pastor, the Rev. Felix Larkin. The experience was blamed on the management of the trustees and this incident is said to have played a significant role in the abolishment of the lay trusteeship, which occurred shortly thereafter. The young and energetic Rev. Michael A. Curran was appointed to raise funds for the devastated parish, and shortly fitted up an old college hall as a temporary church. Fr. Curran continued raising funds to buy back the church during the Great Famine in Ireland, eventually succeeding and taking the deed in his own name. "The site of St. Patrick's Cathedral, hence, came to the Church through the labors of this young priest and the self-denial of his countrymen and not by the gift of the city." The debt was finally all paid for by 1853 when it was clear a large church was needed and the site was selected as appropriate for the new cathedral.
Construction of the cathedral
The Diocese of New York, created in 1808, was made an archdiocese by Pope Pius IX on July 19, 1850. In 1853, Archbishop John Joseph Hughes announced his intention to erect a new cathedral to replace the Old Saint Patrick's Cathedral in downtown Manhattan. The new cathedral was designed by James Renwick, Jr. in the Gothic Revival style. On August 15, 1858, the cornerstone was laid, just south of the diocese's orphanage. At that time, present-day midtown Manhattan was far north of the populous areas of New York City.
Work was begun in 1858 but was halted during the Civil War and resumed in 1865. The cathedral was completed in 1878 and dedicated on May 25, 1879, its huge proportions dominating the midtown of that time. The archbishop's house and rectory were added from 1882 to 1884, and an adjacent school (no longer in existence) opened in 1882. The spires were added in 1888, and an addition on the east, including a Lady chapel, designed by Charles T. Mathews, was begun in 1900. The Lady Chapel's stained-glass windows were made between 1912 and 1930 by English stained glass artist and designer Paul Vincent Woodroffe. In 1927 and 1931, the cathedral was renovated, which included enlarging the sanctuary and installing the great organ. The cathedral and associated buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.
An extensive restoration of the cathedral was begun in 2012 and is planned to last 3 years at a cost of $177 million.
The cathedral, which can accommodate 3,000 people, is built of brick clad in marble, quarried in Massachusetts and New York. It takes up a whole city block, between 50th and 51st streets, Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue. At the transepts it is 174 feet wide and 332 feet long. The spires rise 330 feet (100 meters) from street level. The slate for the roof came from Monson, Maine.
The Roman artist Paolo Medici designed the Saint Elizabeth altar. The Saint John Baptist de la Salle altar, one of the few original side-chapel altars, was sculpted by Dominic Borgia. The Papal bull is featured in the adjoining stained-glass window. Tiffany & Co. designed the Saint Louis and the Saint Michael altar.
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, there was a renovation of the cathedral's main altar area under the guidance of Archbishop Francis Spellman, then cardinal. The previous high altar and reredos were removed and are now located at Spellman's alma mater, Fordham University, in the University Church. The new items include the sanctuary bronze baldachin and the rose stained glass window. The altar was further renovated in the 1980s, under the direction of Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor. To be more visible to the congregation, a stone altar was built from sections of the side altars and added to the middle of the sanctuary. However, this altar was removed in 2013.
The Pietà, sculpted by William Ordway Partridge, is three times larger than Michelangelo's Pietà. The cathedral's Stations of the Cross won an 1893 artistry prize at Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition. Commemorating his visit to the city in 1979, Pope John Paul II bust is located in the rear of the cathedral.
St. Patrick’s Cathedral has two pipe organs. The Gallery Organ is located in the Choir Gallery below the Rose Window over the Fifth Avenue entrance and in the Triforium, near the South Transept. The Chancell Organ is located in the North Ambulatory next to the Chapel of St. Joseph.
The first organ in the Cathedral was built by George Jardine & Son, one of New York's most distinguished organ builders, and installed in 1879. It was composed of 4 manuals with 51 stops and 56 ranks.
In 1880, J.H. & C.S. Odell, then also from New York City, installed an organ in the chancel. It was composed of 2 manuals with 20 stops and 23 ranks.
With the addition to the music staff of Pietro Yon in 1927, plans were initiated to replace the organs. The firm of George Kilgen & Son of St. Louis, Missouri was engaged to build two new instruments according to designs which were heavily influenced by the Cathedral's world renowned organist.
During the building period it was determined that the Gallery would need to be extended to accommodate the new Gallery Organ. In the late 1920s, a concrete reinforced extension to the original Gallery was constructed.
The Chancel Organ was dedicated on January 30, 1928. It is encased in a carved oak screen ornamented with Gothic elements of design and symbolism. It had 1,480 pipes; located on the opposite side of the Ambulatory, diagonally across from the console.
The Gallery Organ, dedicated on February 11, 1930, required three years to build at a cost of $250,000. It has one of the nation's most glorious wood facades. It was designed by Robert J. Reiley, consulting architect of the Cathedral, and is adorned with angels and Latin inscriptions. It contained 7,855 pipes ranging in length from thirty-two feet to one-half inch. The longest pipes run horizontally across the North and South Triforia.
In the 1940s and 1950s tonal changes were made. In the 1970s and 1980s additional renovations were made by Jack Steinkampf of Yonkers, New York, particularly in the revoicing of flutes and reeds, and the addition of the Trumpette en Chamade.
In 1993, it was decided that the organs need to undergo major restoration. The first and most essential part of the restoration project was to acquire new consoles for both the Gallery and Chancel Organs to replace the original ones which had deteriorated beyond repair. Twin five-manual consoles were constructed by Robert Turner of Hacienda Heights, California. Solid State Logic, Ltd. of England designed and engineered the combination action. The use of fiber-optic wiring enables both consoles to control the Gallery, Chancel and Nave Organs at the same time. Installation of the Gallery console was finished in time for Christmas Midnight Mass in 1993. The Chancel console was installed in early 1994.
For six weeks in January and February 1994, scaffolding filled the Gallery to provide access for wood craftsmen to begin the arduous process of cleaning, repairing, and oiling the hand-carved organ facade. Meanwhile the Peragallo Pipe Organ Company of Paterson, New Jersey had been awarded the contract to clean and restore all of the pipework as well as the chests and wind systems. Their first task was to remove all the facade pipes for cleaning and refinishing. It was decided to return the pipework to its original zinc finish, only adding a protective coating to avoid oxidation in the future. After completing work on the facade, Peragallo moved to the interior of the instrument for the purpose of restoring the Great, Choir, Swell, Solo, String and Pedal divisions. The entire Chancel Organ was restored in 1995. Finally, the Echo Organ, situated in the triforium near the center crossing, underwent tonal modifications, making it more useful as the Nave Organ. The organ work was finished in 1997.
The Organs were blessed on September 15, 2007 celebrating the 10th anniversary of their renovations and inaugurating the Bicentennial Concert Series with a performance James E. Goettsche, the Vatican Organist.
The Organs consist of more than 9,000 pipes, 206 stops, 150 ranks and 10 divisions.
Organists & Music Directors
|William F. Pecher||Organist (and Director of Music)||1879-1904|
|Jacques C. Ungerer||Assistant Organist & Director of Chancel Choir
Organist (and Director of Music)
|Pietro A. Yon||Assistant Organist
Director of Music
|Msgr. Joseph I. Rostagno||Vice-Director of Music||1929-1935|
|Paolo Giaquinto||First Assistant Organist||1930-1933|
|Edward Rivetti||Assistant Organist||1933-1972|
|Dr. Charles M. Courboin||Director of Music||1943-1970|
|John Grady||Director of Music & Organist||1970-1990|
|Donald Dumler||Associate Organist
Principal Organist Emeritus
|John-Michael Caprio||Director of Music||1990-1997|
|Alan Davis||Associate Organist||1991-1995|
|Stephen J. Tharp||Associate Organist||1995-1996|
|Stanley H. Cox||Associate Organist||1997-2007|
|Robert Long||Director of Music||1999-2001|
|Don Stefano Concordia||Director of Music||2001|
|Johannes Somary||Director of Music||2001-2003|
|Jennifer Pascual||Director of Music||2003–present|
|Christopher Berry||Assistant Organist||2006-2007|
|Daniel Brondel||Assistant Organist
Associate Director of Music
|Stephen Fraser||Assistant Organist||2008-2011|
|Stephen Rapp||Assistant Organist||2012–present|
Burials and funeral Masses
The eight past deceased Archbishops of New York:
- John Joseph Hughes (interred 1883)
- John Cardinal McCloskey (interred 1885)
- Michael Augustine Corrigan (interred 1902)
- John Murphy Cardinal Farley (interred 1918)
- Patrick Joseph Cardinal Hayes (interred 1938)
- Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman (interred 1967)
- Terence James Cardinal Cooke (interred 1983)
- John Joseph Cardinal O'Connor (interred 2000)
- Michael J. Lavelle (Cathedral Rector and Vicar General; interred 1939)
- Joseph F. Flannelly (Auxiliary Bishop, 1948–1969; interred 1973)
- Fulton J. Sheen (Auxiliary Bishop, 1951–1965, later bishop of Rochester; interred 1979)
- John Maguire (Coadjutor Archbishop, 1965–1980; interred 1989)
- Pierre Toussaint (interred 1990)
In the above list, Cardinal O'Connor declared Pierre Toussaint and Cardinal Cooke to be servants of God, a step in process of being declared a saint of the Catholic Church. Toussaint was declared venerable in 1996 by Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Sheen was declared venerable by Pope Benedict XVI on June 28, 2012.
Four of the Cardinals' galeros (those of Cardinals McCloskey, Farley, Hayes, and Spellman) are located high above the crypt at the back of the sanctuary. Cardinal Spellman's galero was also worn by Pope Pius XII (as Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli) until the latter's election to the papacy at the 1939 Papal conclave. In 1965, the ceremony of the consistory was revised by Pope Paul VI and therefore no galero was presented to Cardinal Cooke or any of his successors.
Some notable people whose Requiem Masses were said at the cathedral include New York Yankees greats Babe Ruth, Roger Maris, and Billy Martin; legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, singer Celia Cruz, entertainer and host Ed Sullivan, former Attorney General and U.S. Senator from New York Robert F. Kennedy, New York Giants owner Wellington Mara, and former Governor of New York Hugh Carey. Special memorial Masses were also held at the cathedral following the deaths of artist Andy Warhol, baseball player Joe DiMaggio, and noted author William F. Buckley, Jr.
In popular culture
- Nelson DeMille's novel, Cathedral, (1981) concerns a fictional seizure and threatened destruction of Saint Patrick's Cathedral by members of the Irish Republican Army. Much of the novel is set in and around the cathedral and details of the cathedral's structure contribute important elements to the plot.
- In the Giannina Braschi's novel, Empire of Dreams (1994), the ringing of the church bells at the cathedral marks a pastoral revolution in New York City.
- The cathedral is also featured in the film Gremlins 2: The New Batch (1990) where Murray and Sheila are touring New York City, but they were attacked by the Bat Gremlin. Murray managed to ward off the Bat Gremlin, and dunk him in wet cement. The Bat Gremlin flew away, but got stuck atop Saint Patrick's Cathedral where the cement quickly hardened, transforming the Gremlin into a living gargoyle, frozen in time.
- The underground ruins were the setting for the climax of Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970) where Taylor destroyed Earth with the Alpha-Omega bomb. Centuries earlier, mutant humans surviving a nuclear holocaust founded a religion on the bomb (later depicted in Battle for the Planet of the Apes), reconsecrated the cathedral to their new religion, and installed the bomb in front of the organ pipes in place of the crucifix. This was spoofed in a scene from the TV show Futurama where Fry, Leela, et al. are visiting the sewer mutants beneath the ruins of Old New York. Fry sticks his head in the cathedral, sees the bomb, and says, "So you guys worship an unexploded atomic bomb?" A mutant replies, "Not really, it's mostly a Christmas and Easter thing."
- Restoring St. Patrick's Cathedral to cost $175 million, take five years. Catholic News Service. March 19, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012
- Cardinals launch drive to restore St. Patrick’s Cathedral. Catholic News Service. March 20, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Pitts, Carolyn. "St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
- Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. p. 304.
- Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. p. 276.
- Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. pp. 339-340.
- Farley, John M. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Society for the Propagation of the Faith.
- Farley, John Murphy. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral Society for the propagation of the faith. pp. 49, 111, 115, 122.
- Farley, John Murphy. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral Society for the propagation of the faith. pp. 127–128, 130, 151.
- Farley, John Murphy. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral Society for the propagation of the faith. pp. 140, 163.
- St. Patrick’s Cathedral (RC). New York City Architecture. Retrieve 4 September 2012.
- Cathedral of Saint Patrick. The NYC Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Retrieve 4 September 2012.
- St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory and Cardinal's Residence. National Historic Landmark summary listing, September 18, 2007. National Park Service.
- St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence. National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
- St. Patrick’s Cathedral Set To Undergo $177 Million Restoration. CBS News New York. July 7, 2012.
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