Utica, New York

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Utica
City
Looking south on Utica's Genesee Street
Looking south on Utica's Genesee Street
Nickname(s): Handshake City, Renaissance City, Second Chance City, Capital of the Erie Canal[citation needed]
Utica is located in New York
Utica
Utica
Coordinates: 43°5′48″N 75°13′55″W / 43.09667°N 75.23194°W / 43.09667; -75.23194
Country United States
State New York
County Oneida
Incorporated 1832
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Robert M. Palmieri (D)
 • Common Council
Area
 • Total 16.6 sq mi (43.0 km2)
 • Land 16.3 sq mi (42.3 km2)
 • Water 0.3 sq mi (0.7 km2)
Elevation 456 ft (139 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 62,235
 • Density 3,818.1/sq mi (1,471.3/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 13500-13599
Area code(s) 315
FIPS code 36-76540
GNIS feature ID 0968324

Utica /ˈjtɨkə/ is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.[1] The population was 62,235 at the 2010 census, an increase of 2.6% from the 2000 census due largely to a large immigrant refugee influx.[2] Utica and the neighboring city of Rome are principal cities of the Utica–Rome, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Oneida and Herkimer counties.

The city's importance along the Erie Canal was marked by its industrial success in the textile and silverware industries and as a stopover city along the canal, being at the junction of the Erie and Chenango Canals. Like other rust belt cities, Utica is working to recover from urban decentralization to nearby suburbs and industrial decline from industry moving to Asian nations and the Southern United States. Currently, the city is home to the Utica Comets of the American Hockey League.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Utica is located at the shallowest spot along the Mohawk River which made it the best place for fording across, and an Iroquois Indian crossroads and fording location made trade exceedingly easy for local merchants. With a shallow spot on the river that was already inhabited by trading partners, the location was ideal for a settlement.[3]

Utica was first settled by Europeans in 1773, on the site of Fort Schuyler which was built in 1758. The fort was named Fort Schuyler after Col. Philip Schuyler, a hero of the French and Indian War. After the French and Indian War the fort was abandoned and then during the American Revolution the original settlement (Yunę́ʼnare·θ[4] in Tuscarora) was destroyed by Tories and Native Americans. The settlement eventually became known as Old Fort Schuyler when a military fort in nearby Fort Stanwix in Rome, New York was renamed Fort Schuyler during the American Revolution and evolved into a village.

In 1794, a state road was built east-southeast from Utica to Albany, New York. By 1797 the road was extended west to the Genesee River, which demarcates the "Genesee Country" of Western New York, and the entire road was thereafter called Genesee Road. The creation of the Seneca Turnpike was the first significant factor in the growth and development of Utica, as this small settlement became the resting and relocating area on the Mohawk River for goods and people moving into Western New York and past the Great Lakes.[5]

Moses Bagg, a blacksmith, built a small tavern near Old Fort Schuyler to accommodate weary travelers waiting for their horse's shoes to be repaired. After just a few years this small shanty tavern became a two story inn and pub known as Bagg's Hotel. The first bridge over the Mohawk River was erected in the summer of 1792 by a Long Island carpenter who had settled in Utica, Apollos Cooper, although local and regional architects that had seen the bridge were very skeptical to use it, and the bridge was soon destroyed in the spring floods.[6]

The perhaps apocryphal account of Utica's naming suggests that around a dozen citizens of the Old Fort Schuyler settlement met at the Bagg's Tavern to discuss the name of the emerging village. Unable to settle on one particular name, Erastus Clark's entrant of "Utica" was drawn from several suggestions, and the village thereafter became associated with Utica, Tunisia, the ancient Carthaginian city.[citation needed]

Utica was incorporated as a village in 1798. Utica expanded its borders in subsequent charters in 1805 and 1817.[7] Expansion and growth continued to occur in Utica; by 1817 the population had reached 2,860 people. Genesee Street was packed with shops and storefronts, a prosperous stagecoach line had expanded its business, a fully established bank was founded by Alexander Johnson, a newspaper company The Utica Observer established by William McLean, five churches as well as two hotels were all located within this center square of Utica.[3] Suffering from poor harvests in 1789 and 1802 and dreaming of land ownership, the initial settlement of five Welsh families soon attracted other agricultural migrants, settling Steuben, Utica and Remsen townships. Adapting their traditional agricultural methods, the Welsh became the first to introduce dairying into the region and Welsh butter became a valued commodity on the New York market. Drawing on the size of the local ethnic community and the printing industry of Utica became the cultural center of Welsh-American life by 1830. The Welsh-American publishing industry included 19 different publishers who published 240 Welsh language imprints, 4 denominational periodicals and the influential newspaper Y Drych.[citation needed]

However, the Welsh community in Utica was never very large and was often dwarfed by other ethnicities, most notably the Polish and Italians. The largest nationality group of the great migration to America between 1880 and 1920, Italians trace their presence in Utica to the arrival of Dr. John B. Marchisi in 1817. A prosperous pharmacist, he was the first of thousands of Italians to arrive in Oneida County over the next century.[citation needed]

Industrial era[edit]

1909 panorama

Utica's location on the Erie Canal stimulated its industrial development. The middle section of the Canal, from Rome to Salina, was the first portion to open in 1820. The Chenango Canal, connecting Utica and Binghamton, opened in 1836, and provided a further stimulus for economic development by providing water transportation of coal from Northeast Pennsylvania. Utica’s population with the creation of the canals began to skyrocket. The population began to increase threefold over a span of ten years since the first section of the canal opened in 1819. Utica was the virtual half-way point for canal travelers, thus making the town the perfect stop-over point. During the planning stage of the canal the cotton looms that would make Utica famous were in their infancy, and a vigorous real estate market in the town had ballooned lot prices tenfold since 1800.[citation needed] An anonymous traveler noted that by 1829, about five years after the canal's completion, Utica had become "a really beautiful place . . . [and Utica's State Street] in no respect inferior to Broadway in New York." Utica, along with other burgeoning towns such as Syracuse, would benefit from the fact that the Erie Canal ran directly through town.[8]

By the late 19th century, Utica had become a transportation hub and a commercial center of considerable note, but was not like the heavy industrial towns in New England. Utica, in particular, was limited in its capability to produce industrial goods because the Mohawk River did not run fast enough to turn the industrial machines. Upon investigating the New England style of steam production, they found how to use coal in their manufacturing. Now with the recently completed Chenango Canal that connected Utica to the coal field in Pennsylvania, there was a vast supply readily available. Because of the Embargo Act of 1807 that cut off the English textile production, the Northeast had a firm grasp on the textile industry. With investments from local entrepreneurs Utica’s textile industry began to take off.[9]

Bird's-eye view of Utica in 1855

The city still served as a Northeast crossroads, hosting the day's most celebrated personalities. Samuel Clemens lectured to a sold-out Utica crowd in 1870, where Clemens noted in personal correspondence that he brought down the house "like an avalanche."[10] It was during this time that Utica hosted the 1884 New York State Republican Convention, an event covered in great detail in Edmund Morris' Pulitzer Prize winning biography The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, in which Morris describes Utica at this time as "a shabby canal-town in the middle of the Mohawk Valley.".[11] Senator Roscoe Conkling, a leading GOP lawmaker of the Stalwart political faction, resided in the city at this time, and figured as the region's most historically significant politician until local native James Schoolcraft Sherman was elected the 27th Vice President of the United States, serving under President William Howard Taft.

Centered around the parishes of St. Mary of Mount Carmel and St. Anthony of Padua, Italian life and culture flourished, spreading throughout the county to cities, towns and small villages alike. While the immigrants arriving in the great migration usually found jobs in the local textile mills, brickyards, construction companies and unskilled manufacturing occupations, numerous entrepreneurs soon began small businesses running the spectrum of economic activity from push-cart peddlers and olive oil merchants to haberdashers, bankers and insurance agents. Italian language newspapers such as Il Pensiero Italiano, La Luce, and Il Messagero dell'Ordine, along with the humorous Il Pagliaccio and various organizational and cultural publications reflected the richness of Italian life in Oneida County.[citation needed]

The Italian community rapidly grew to political prominence, forming an important voting block in elections as early as 1888. By 1910 Italians were being regularly elected to office in Utica, while some historians credit the East Utica Italian community as the spark that ignited Franklin D. Roosevelt's campaign for governor of New York in 1928.[citation needed] From the early 1940s the Italian community has played a dominant role in Utica and area politics.

In the 1930s through the 1950s Utica became nationally if not internationally known as "Sin City" for the extent of its corruption and control by the political machine of Rufus P. Elefante.[12][13][14] Utica, from the turn of the 20th century, had an organized crime presence, largely made up of the Italian mafia. The mafia presence was largely eliminated in the 1990s by federal indictments and convictions.[15]

By the mid-20th century, virtually all of the textile mills closed and migrated to the American South[citation needed]. In the wake of the demise of the textile industry, Utica became a major player in the tool and die industry, which thrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, eventually declining in the late 20th century.[citation needed] In the early and mid-20th century, Utica had become a major manufacturing center for radios, manufactured by the General Electric company, which, at one time, employed some 8,000 workers there[citation needed], and was once known as "the radio capital of the world.[citation needed]" However, by the mid-1970s, General Electric had moved its radio manufacturing to the Far East. In the early 1990s, GE's Light Military Electronics operation in Utica was sold to Lockheed Martin and soon closed altogether[citation needed]. Like the textile industry before it, the machine tool industry largely abandoned Utica for the American South[citation needed], with one notable example being The Chicago Pneumatic Company, which shuttered its extensive manufacturing facility in Utica in 1997 and relocated to Rock Hill, South Carolina[citation needed].

Post-industrial era[edit]

Like many industrial towns and cities in the northeastern Rust Belt, Utica has experienced a major reduction in manufacturing activity in the past several decades, and is in serious financial trouble; many public services have been curtailed to save money.[citation needed] Suburban Utica, particularly the town of New Hartford and the village of Whitesboro, have begun to experience suburban sprawl; this is common in many New York cities.[citation needed] The city's economy is heavily dependent on commercial growth in its suburbs, a trend that is characterized by development of green sites in neighboring villages and does little to revitalize the city itself[citation needed]. Because of the decline of industry and employment in the post-World War II era, Utica became known as "The City that God Forgot.[citation needed]" In the 1980s and early 1990s, some of Utica's residents could be seen driving cars with bumper stickers that read "Last One Out of Utica, Please Turn Out The Lights," clearly taking a more humorous stand on their city's rapid population loss and continued economic struggles.[citation needed]

City leaders and local entrepreneurs tried to build on the city's losses. In 1997, the former GE-Lockheed facility was purchased by ConMed Corporation (founded by Utica local Eugene Corasanti) for use as a manufacturing facility and the company's worldwide headquarters, bringing 500 new jobs to the area.[16] The Boehlert Center at the newly restored, historic Union Station in downtown Utica is a regional transportation hub for Amtrak and the Adirondack Scenic Railway. Next door to Union Station is The Children's Museum of History, Science & Technology, a five-story building built in the 1890s.

Downtown Utica continues to be the focus of regional economic revitalization efforts. In 2010, Roefaro fulfilled a campaign promise and delivered the city's first comprehensive master plan in over 50 years.[17]

Geography and climate[edit]

The Erie Canal, the Mohawk River, and the New York State Thruway pass through the north part of the city. The city is adjacent to the border of Herkimer County, New York.

Utica is located in the Mohawk River Valley region of New York State.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles (43 km2), of which, 16.4 square miles (42 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) (1.57%) is water.

Climate[edit]

Utica has a humid continental climate, which is characterized by cold winters and moderate summers.

Daytime highs during the summer are generally between 75 °F (24 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C), with some days not reaching 70 °F (21 °C) being common. Summer nights usually bottom out somewhere between 50 °F (10 °C) and 60 °F (16 °C). The all-time highest recorded temperature for the city was 100 °F (38 °C), which occurred on July 19, 1953.

Winters in Utica are very cold and snowy, as the area is susceptible to Lake effect snow from the Great Lakes to the west. An example of typical wintertime snowfall amounts is presented below. Daytime highs during the wintertime are typically observed at or just above freezing (32 °F to 35 °F/0 °C to 2 °C), with some days not reaching 25 °F (-4 °C). Winter nights will see temperatures drop to settle between 10 °F (-12 °C) and 20 °F (-7 °C). Temperatures in the single digits or below zero are not uncommon for winter nights in Utica. The all time lowest recorded temperature in the city was -28 °F (-33 °C), which occurred once on February 18, 1979 and again on January 12, 1981.

Climate data for Rome-Griffiss Airfield
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F 35.9 37.1 54.7 62.3 73.5 80.5 85.3 81.6 75.9 66.7 54.2 40.8 85.3
Precipitation inches 2.04 2.53 3.11 3.79 4.22 5.09 4.54 3.55 4.46 5.00 3.55 3.59 42.6
Record high °C 2.2 2.8 12.6 16.8 23.1 26.9 29.6 27.6 24.4 19.3 12.3 4.9 29.6
Precipitation mm 51.8 64.3 79 96.3 107.2 129.3 115.3 90.2 113.3 127 90.2 91.2 1,082
Source: [18]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 1930 census, the population of the city was 101,740. By 2000 the population was down to 60,651. As of the 2010 census, the population has risen to 62,235. Thus the population gain since 2000 has represented a reversal of many decades of population decline.

As of the 2000 census, the population density was 3,710.0 people per square mile (1,432.3/km²). There were 29,186 housing units at an average density of 1,785.3 per square mile (689.2/km²). As of the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the city was 69.0% White, 15.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 7.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.5% of the population.

There were 25,100 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.3% were non-families. 37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,916, and the median income for a family was $33,818. Males had a median income of $27,126 versus $21,676 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,248. About 19.8% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.

The arrival of a large number of Bosnian immigrants over the past several years has stanched a population loss that had been steady for more than three decades.[19] Bosnian immigrants now constitute about 10% of the total population of Utica. Approximately 8,000 Bosnian Americans live in Utica.[20] Other recent immigrant groups have arrived from Somalia, Thailand, Burma, and Iraq. This influx of refugees from many war-torn nations and politically oppressive regimes has drawn mainstream national media attention, from The New York Times (see citation above) to Reader's Digest. Reader's Digest dubbed Utica the "Second Chance City" in an article chronicling the crucial role that immigrants have traditionally played in invigorating Utica's political, economic, and social life; the article argues that Utica now hosts thousands of immigrants that have taken advantage of the city's social services benefits, welfare, public and private sector affordable housing, and entry-level skilled manufacturing jobs to start a new life, a trend that began nearly thirty years ago.[21]

In a cover story in their 2005 REFUGEES Magazine, the United Nations High Commission on Refugees wrote an extensive article on refugees in Utica, titling the publication, "The Town That Loves Refugees".[22]

Economy[edit]

Utica's economy has been in decline in recent decades. This is primarily due to the outsourcing of jobs to other states and overseas and companies relocating in the 1980's. Back in the 1960s Utica was a business booming area because companies like General Electric and Lockheed Martin. Utica was known as: "The radio capital of the world", which were made by GE.[23] The city once had a population of 298, 500 [24] company like GE in the 1970's, employed over 8,000 workers in the area. The unemployment rate in Utica is currently 6.40% compared to the national's average of 6.30%. The job growth is -0.12% compared to the 1.18% of the national.[25] In the future, job growth is predicted to improve because the nanotechnology industry.

The largest private employer within the Utica-Rome metropolitan area is Turning Stone Resort & Casino in Verona, New York. Other large local employers within the city of Utica include ConMed and Faxton Saint Lukes Heath Care Medical Group. Construction jobs, such as those for the Utica Arterial project, continue to provide growth for the public sector job market.

The SUNY Polytechnic Institute in the nearby town of Marcy promises to bring higher paying jobs in nanotechnology through the construction of a semiconductor device fabrication plant slated to bring over 5,000 jobs for technicians, researchers, business men and women.[26]

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Union Station, Utica

City government[edit]

The city government consists of a mayor who is elected at large. The Common Council consists of nine members. Six are elected from single member wards. The other three are elected at large.

Transportation[edit]

Bus transpotion is provided through CENTRO. There is Amtrak service which runs to Union Station.

Arts and culture[edit]

Local inventions include the first color newspaper, "The Utica Saturday Globe"[27] and the Utica Crib, a device for restraining persons, named for the New York State Lunatic Asylum at Utica where it was heavily used in the 19th century to confine patients who refused to stay in their beds.[28]

Cuisine[edit]

The area's historic settlement by many different groups, including Dutch, Italian, German and Irish have led to many different types of cuisine in the city of Utica. Most notable, the Utica cuisine includes Utica riggies, spicy escarole, half-moon cookies, and tomato pie. Other dishes popular in the Utica area include pirogues, pasticciotti, or pusties,[citation needed] and sausage and peppers.[citation needed]

Festivals[edit]

The Boilermaker Road Race is run in association with the National Distance Running Hall of Fame, also located in Utica.

Tourism[edit]

The Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, constructed in 1960, features a permanent collection, rotating exhibitions and community art education. The Institute also hosts a two year art college through the Pratt Institute. The Stanley Theater is a fully restored 2,945 seat Mexican-baroque movie palace, built in 1928.

Other points of interest within the city include The Children's Museum of Utica, New York, Utica Public Library, and the Hotel Utica.

Sports teams[edit]

The Utica Comets, an affiliate of the National Hockey League's Vancouver Canucks, began playing in the American Hockey League in the 2013-14 AHL season, with home games at the Utica Memorial Auditorium.[29]

Utica has two women's roller derby leagues, Central New York Roller Derby and Utica Rollergirls. Central New York Roller Derby is a Women's Flat Track Derby Association League; they have three teams, all affiliated with CNYRD. The teams are the Utica Clubbers, and the Blue Collar Betties and the Rome Wreckers. The Utica Rollergirls are also a single team league which is affiliated with USA Roller Sports. Both leagues compete against teams from other leagues in the upstate NY area and surrounding states. In addition, Utica also has a men's roller derby team, as-yet unaffiliated Quadfathers.[30]

Utica has a rugby team called The Utica Klubs, which plays rugby matches all over the state and invites several teams to Utica for matches each year.[31]

Defunct teams[edit]

The Utica Devils were a member of the American Hockey League (AHL) from 1987-1993. The Utica Bulldogs 1993-1994 and The Utica Blizzard 1994–1997 were members of the United Hockey League (UHL), and another stint from 1998-2001 (January) in which the team was called the Mohawk Valley Prowlers.

Utica was also the home of the Utica Blue Jays/Blue Sox A-class baseball team, with their last affiliation being with the Florida Marlins until 2001.

Parks and recreation[edit]

View of Downtown Utica from the Utica Zoo

Frederick Law Olmsted, who designed Central Park and Delaware Park in Buffalo, also designed the Utica Parks and Parkway Historic District, a national historic district in Utica.[32]

TheUtica Zoo is located in one of these parks.

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

Utica has five broadcast television stations:

WTVH, the CBS affiliate in Syracuse, serves as the de facto CBS affiliate for the Utica TV market. Additionally, PBS affiliate WCNY-TV in Syracuse operates translator W22DO-D in the area, which broadcasts on analog channel 22 and digital channel 24. Some low-power television stations also broadcast in the area.

Cable television customers are served by the Syracuse offices of Time Warner Cable, which also offers a local news service, a local sports channel, and some public-access channels.

Dish Network and DirecTV also serve local satellite television customers with local broadcast channels.

Print[edit]

Utica's daily newspaper is the Utica Observer-Dispatch. An independent news magazine, The Utica Phoenix, is also printed. In 2014, the Mohawk Valley Voice began publishing a monthly hyper-local community paper.

Radio[edit]

Major radio station operators in the Utica area include Townsquare Media, Galaxy Communications, and Ken Roser.

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Utica's sole remaining public high school is Thomas R. Proctor High School, as its original public high school (Utica Free Academy, founded in 1814) shut down in 1990. Utica is also home to Notre Dame High School, a small parochial high school, founded in 1959 by the Xaverian Brothers.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Like the cities of Ithaca, New York and Syracuse, Utica is a center for education within Central New York. Within the city, Utica is home to Utica College, a four-year private liberal arts university home to over 2,500 students. Other colleges and universities within the city include St. Elizabeth's College of Nursing, Mohawk Valley Community College, Empire State College, and the Utica School of Commerce.

Outside of the city limits in the town of Marcy is the SUNY Polytechnic Institute, a four year public research university enrolling over 3,000 students.

Notable residents[edit]

Utica in popular culture and literature[edit]

  • Utica is mentioned in Allen Ginsberg's poem Howl ("I'm with you in Rockland / where you drink the tea of the / breasts of the spinsters of Utica" ).[33]
  • Portions of the 1977 film Slap Shot starring Paul Newman were filmed at the Utica Memorial Auditorium.[34]
  • The American television program The Simpsons makes occasional reference to Utica.
  • The American television program The Office makes occasional reference to Utica: The "Utica branch" is one of a handful of the fictional company Dunder-Mifflin's satellite offices, and has been mentioned sporadically throughout the show.
    • The Branch Wars episode is set partly in Utica. It was not filmed there, so the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce and other local groups donated objects to dress the set to look like an actual Utica-style office.[36][37]
    • The Lecture Circuit Pt. 1 episode is also partly set in Utica.[38][39]
  • Bobbi Anderson, the protagonist of Stephen King's novel The Tommyknockers, is from Utica.[40]
  • On The Honeymooners 1950s television show starring Jackie Gleason, Alice's Uncle is from Utica.
  • The protagonist of the 1997-1998 NBC sitcom Jenny, starring Jenny McCarthy, is from Utica and the series begins there.
  • The character Dr. Albert Hirsch from the Bourne film series is from Utica, NY as noted in documents reviewed by the character Pamela "Pam" Landy during the 2007 film The Bourne Utimatium.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ Hartman, Susan. "A New Life for Refugees, and the City They Adopted". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Clarke, T. W. (1952). Utica for a Century and a Half. Utica N.Y.: Widtman Press.
  4. ^ Rudes, B. Tuscarora English Dictionary Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999
  5. ^ Przybycien, F. E. (1976). Utica: A City Worth Saving. Utica : Dodge-Graphic Press, Inc.
  6. ^ Tomaino, F. (2008, May 29). "This Week in History: A bridge to Deerfield". Retrieved 2010-03-25, Observer-Dispatch
  7. ^ ["Utica." from The History of Oneida County; Oneida County Historical Society, 1977]
  8. ^ Wedding of the Waters, by Peter Bernstein, 2005.
  9. ^ Cookinham, H. J. (1912). History of Oneida County N.Y. Chicago: SJ Clarke Publishing Company
  10. ^ Mark Twain: A Life, by Ron Powers, 2005.
  11. ^ The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, by Edmund Morris, 1979
  12. ^ In Gotham's Shadow, Alexander R Thomas, State University of New York Press, 2003
  13. ^ "The Sin City Scandals" at Utica College
  14. ^ Guts and Glory, Tragedy and Triumph: The Rufus P. Elefante Story, Nancy Kobryn, Mohawk Valley Community College Library Collection[dead link]
  15. ^ The Mob Files - The Observer-Dispatch, Utica, New York
  16. ^ "ConMed creates jobs for Oneida County". CNY Business Journal. 1997. 
  17. ^ City of Utica Master Plan. Uticamasterplan.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  18. ^ "NOAA". National Weather Service. Retrieved September 28, 2014. 
  19. ^ Zielbauer, Paul (1999-05-07). "Looking to Prosper as a Melting Pot; Utica, Long in Decline, Welcomes an Influx of Refugees". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ Mayor Roefaro to speak at Bosnian commemoration event in Syracuse
  21. ^ "Second Chance City," Reader's Digest, August 2007, pp. 116-123.
  22. ^ Refugees Volume 1 Number 138 2005
  23. ^ "City of Utica History". museum4kids.net. 
  24. ^ "Utica, NY". http://www.forbes.com/. Forbes. 
  25. ^ "Best Place to Live in Utica, New York". http://www.bestplaces.net/. 
  26. ^ "Employment". http://sunyit.edu. 
  27. ^ Utica: then and Now, by Joseph Bottini and James Davis, Arcadia Publishing, 2007, p. 48
  28. ^ The Straightjacket and Utica Crib: Diagnostik: Medical Museum: University of Iowa Health Care[dead link]
  29. ^ "Utica Comets to join AHL in 2013-14". American Hockey League. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  30. ^ Roller Derby Worldwide
  31. ^ Utica Klubs website
  32. ^ New York Times. (1907, June 23). Gives Utica Four Parks. p. S5.
  33. ^ Allen Ginsberg. "HOWL". Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  34. ^ Fran Perritano (May 28, 2010). "'Hanson Brothers' will return to Utica Aud". Utica Observer-Dispatch. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  35. ^ "22 Short Films About Springfield". The Simpsons Archive. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  36. ^ Elizabeth Cooper (October 3, 2007). "'The Office' in a Utica state of mind". Utica Observer-Dispatch. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  37. ^ Dave Dellecese (November 1, 2007). "A peek at the Utica Branch of NBC's "The Office"". WKTV Utica. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  38. ^ Sepinwall, Alan (February 6, 2009). "The Office, "Lecture Circuit, Part One": The closure". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  39. ^ CastawayCayley (February 10, 2009). "The Office: ‘Lecture Circuit – Pt. 1′ Recap". TV Overmind. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  40. ^ Stephen King. "The Tommyknockers (extract)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  41. ^ The Film Pilgrim: The Bourne Ultimatum

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 43°05′48″N 75°13′55″W / 43.096569°N 75.231887°W / 43.096569; -75.231887