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For other uses, see Amol (disambiguation).
آمل (Persian)
Ancient names: Amard, Amardi, Amardian, Amui, Haft Shahr, Tabaristan, Amele, Amol
Amol is located in Iran
Coordinates: 36°28′11″N 52°21′03″E / 36.46972°N 52.35083°E / 36.46972; 52.35083Coordinates: 36°28′11″N 52°21′03″E / 36.46972°N 52.35083°E / 36.46972; 52.35083
Country  Iran
Province Mazandaran
County Amol
Bakhsh Central
Incorporated (city) 1923[1]
 • Mayor Amir Soleimani[1]
 • City 21 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation 76 m (249 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 224,160
 • Density 11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 364,692
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
Postal code 46131-46391[2]
Area code(s) (+98) 11

Amol (Persian: آمل‎‎ – [ɒˈmol]; About this sound pronunciation ; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul)[3] is a city in and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, the population of the city was 197,470, in 55,183 families.[4]

Amol is located on the Haraz river bank. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the Caspian sea and less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the Alborz mountains. It is 180 kilometres (110 mi) from Tehran, and 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of the provincial capital, Sari.[3] Amol is a historic city, with its foundation dating back to the Amard.

Etymology and History[edit]


Pishdadian and Amard[edit]

Some historians in the past have associated this ancient city with the periods of the first Persian mythological dynasties of Aryan people, the Pishdadians and the Kianians. Amol is an old city, with a history dating back to the Amards. Amards were the people inhabiting the area before the arrival of Aryans, who had migrated to and settled on the Iranian Plateau from the late 2nd millennium BCE to early 1st millennium BCE. Many scholars believe that the city's name is rooted in the word Amard (Amui in Pahlavi). According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran, at least in the period starting from Sassanid Empire to the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. Though they are a Median tribe, Herodotus names a tribe called Mardians as one of the ten to fifteen Persian tribes in Persis. It is now known that the only distinction between the Median Amardians and the Persian Mardians is the "A" in the beginning of Amardians, which would mean they are two different tribes.

Parthian Empire[edit]

During the age of the Parthian Empire, Amol was one of the centers of Iran.


According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran during the period starting from the 3rd century CE under Sassanian Empire to the 13/14th century CE under the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire.


Amol, in the era of Alid dynasties of northern Iran and Marashis dynasty was the capital of Mazandaran. The inhabitants of Amol embraced Islam during the reign of Mahdi (775–785 CE), the Abbasid Caliph, after which Islamic structures came into focus. After the Mongol invasion, the region was subject to devastation and it was during this time that Sari was declared as capital. In the beginning of the 7th century AH (14th century CE), Hessam-edin Ardeshir changed the capital from Sari to Amol, and constructed his palace there. But in 795 AH (1392/1393 AD), the cities of Amol and Sary were plundered by Amir Teimoor Gurkani, and thereafter Amol suffered a setback. Today, Amol is a thriving modern metropolis.


In time of the Safavid rulers of Mazandaran, Amol experienced a period of growth. Amol was the favorite dwelling of Abbas II of Persia, who often frequented it. At the time Amol was considered "the capital of the inhabited world" and acclaimed for its grandeur. Several bridges were built in the area, across the Haraz river, at this time.

20th century[edit]

Several leaders of the Iranian constitutional revolutions of 1905 and 1911 hailed from Amol. Molla Ali Kani, one Amoli reformist who led the people, had a great role in achievement to the goals of Iran's constitutional revolution.

The "Jungle Uprising" In 1982 of the Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran) mobilized its forces to jungles around Amol and started some wars against the Iranian government in those jungles. It finally organized a famous uprising in 25 January 1982. This uprising was a failure and most of the UIC leaders were hanged but the uprising itself became very famous and is well respected between some Iranian Leftist organizations.

21st century[edit]

Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of the Bazaar and of the Imam Reza street, as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. A lot of different construction projects are currently underway, which intend to modernize the city's infrastructure. In the last few years, many towers and boulevards were built in Amol.

Field 17 Shahrivar

In literature[edit]

The Battle History Of Mazandaran

The name "Amol" has come up 16 times in Shahnameh. In the Persian epic, Shahnameh, Mazandaran is mentioned in two different sections. The first mention is implicit, when Fereydun sets its capital in a city called Amol:

The statue of "Arash the Archer"

Arash story of the Shahnameh:


Amol is located on the banks of the Haraz River (26 25'N 52 21'E) at an altitude of 76 m above sea. It is about 18 km from the Caspian Sea and about 10 km from the northern Alborz mountains. It is 180 km from the Iranian capital, Tehran, with a picturesque drive through Haraz Road. Sari, the capital of Mazandaran is 70 km east of Amol. Mount Damavand (5610 m), the highest peak in the Middle East, is located south of Amol.

Excavation sites[edit]

In recent years, on the excavation hill Qaleh Kesh, some ancient jewelry was discovered. Radiocarbon analysis revealed the background of the jewelery and objects to date from the 1st millennium BC, Bronze Age.

Events bitter Historical[edit]

  • The war between the Sassanid dynasty and Iran's owners in Amol and Amol Gullies were completely destroyed.
  • Flooding in Mount Dryouk, and the destruction of entire city.
  • Dangerous diseases that plague the year 1198 AH
  • Mongol invasion of Genghis Khan and his descendants to Tabarestan
  • Amir Masoud attack in Amol
  • Samanids attack on royan and Amol with Espahbodan
  • Amir Timur war with the kings Marashis and killing people
  • Shah Ismail and Shah Abbas Safavid wars attack the Amol and killing people
  • Mohammad Khan Qajar attacked the larijan and Amol, killing people and destroy the city


The population history of the city proper is as follows. All figures are official census figures from the Iranian Statistics Institute.[5]

1956 1966 1976 1986 1991 1996 2006 2012
22,251 40,076 68,963 118,242 139,923 159,092 197,470 224,160

Breakdown of 2006 census:[4]

Total Male Female Family
197,470 98,337 99,133 55,183

Language, Religion, Timeline[edit]

Most Amoli people speak the Mazandarani language Tabari as a mother tongue; however, Persian is the most common language spoken in Iran and the lingua franca. At present, the majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. Amol, Mazandaran has its own calendar months in addition to the official Tabari calendar of the moon , used in the era of Yazdgerd.


Amol is the economic center of Mazandaran province, with Agriculture and Tourism being the base of the Amoli economy. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland. Mineral water, meat, dairy, wood and ingots are the main manufacturing industry.

Davazdah Cheshmeh Bridge


Amol is a center for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Wool, felting, felt hat production and mat weaving are part of the Amoli culture. Barf Chal, Lochu Wrestling, Palm and Tiregān (Damavand national day) are local events held each year.

Amol old city[edit]

Old district of Amol[edit]

The main body of the old city of Amol is located in the old bazaar Amol.

Older neighborhoods[edit]

Historical and natural attractions[edit]

Moalagh Bridge
  • Shekel Shah (Relief Naser al-Din Shah Qajar)
  • Jame Mosque
  • Agha Abbas Mosque
  • Yakhi Waterfall
  • Waterfall Deryouk
  • Shah Abbasi baths
  • The Sasanian Road
  • Tomb of Sultan Shahabuddin
  • Village forest Blairan
  • Village forest Alimastan
  • Gol-e Zard Cave
  • Ashraf Bath [10]
  • Inn Kemboja
  • House Manouchehri
  • House Shafahi
  • Heshtl Tower
  • Sangi Bridge Polour
  • Imam Hassan Askari Mosque
  • Imamzadeh Qasem Shrine
  • Imamzadeh Abdollah Shrine [11]
  • Mohammad Taher Shrine[12]
  • Ab ask Thermal Springs [13]
  • Lake Sahon
  • Ab Murad Waterfall
  • Sang Darka Waterfall
  • Dehkadeh Talaei Park
  • Ghadamgah Khezr Nabi
  • Amoloo Mineral Water Spring
  • Forest Park Mirza Kuchik Khan Haraz
  • Forest Park Halumsar
  • Saghanefar Hendoukola
  • Saghanefar Zarrin Kola
  • Castle Kahrud
  • Abegarm Rineh
  • Hosseinieh of Amol
  • Mir-Safi baths
  • Tomb Darvish Sheikh Ismail
  • Robat Sangi Polur
  • Prairie anemone of Polur
  • Ziaru Jungle
  • Haj Ali Arbab House
  • Do Berar Peak
  • Ancient Hill Qaleh Kesh
  • Larijan Thermal Spring
  • Kolakchal Mountain
  • Ghoredagh Mountain
  • Municipal House
  • Tekyeh Firuz Kola
  • Pol-e Mun Castle
  • Tekyeh Oji Abad


Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean (Csa).[14]

Climate data for Amol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.7
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 96
Source:, altitude: 96m[14]



  • Kateh
  • Kabab torsh
  • Tah Chin
  • Halva
  • Peshte zik
  • Alu Mosema
  • Morq-e Torsh
  • Shami Goosht
  • Ash-e-Doogh
  • Khoresh Aloo
  • Mahi Shekam Por (Stuffed Fish)
  • Morgh Shekam Por (Stuffed Chicken)
  • Ordak Shekam Por (Stuffed Duck)
  • Ispina-Saek


  • Road77.png

Haraz Road (Road 77) is the most important road from Tehran to northern Iran (province of Mazandaran) besidesKaraj-Chaloos. This road passes from the valley of Haraz river and therefore is also known as Haraz Road between Amol and Rudehen. Haraz road is the nearest road to Mount Damavand, the highest peak in Iran and Middle East. Lar National Park is accessible via this road. The road is the shortest route from Tehran to the north (180 km). In recent years, some parts of the road have been widened and safety has been improved.

Notable people[edit]


In the 11th century AD, Nizam al-Mulk, in his famous book named "Seer-ul-moluok", recommended creation of modern institutions by the name of "nezamiyehs" with academic status in the large cities of the Islamic world, such as Balkh, Baghdad, Damascus, Neishabour, and Bukhara; the name of Amol was also included among them.

Higher education[edit]

Shomal University.jpg

Amol has three universities:

Major corporations[edit]

  • DESA (company) Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company DESA.
  • Kalleh Company[24]
  • FZ.CO Iran[25]
  • Iranian Money Printing T A K A B[26]
  • Broiler Production Integration[27]
  • Abeskoon[28]
  • NASAJI Babakan[29]
  • Tanbaco Khazar[30]
  • Polur Mineral Water Mazandaran[31]
  • Nestle IRAN of the Amol[32]
  • Garma Electric Garma Electric is a Persian E.P.C company.

As the administrative center of Amol county[edit]

Amol is the administrative center of Amol county.

Map District City / RD*
(Rural District)
Emamzadeh abdollah District Emamzadeh abdollah City (c)
Bala Khiyaban-e Litkuh RD Derazan, Haloomesar, Oskoo Mahalleh (c), Ziarood, ...
Chelav Rural District RD Lahash, SangeChal, Neshel, ...
Central Amol City (c)
Pain Khiyaban-e Litkuh RD Hali Koti, Kelaksar, Marandeh (c), ...
Harazpey-ye Jonubi RD Ahangar Kola, Aski Mahalleh, Kamangar Kola, Pasha Kola, Qadi Mahalleh (c), Qoroq, ...
Dashtesare Sofla RD Ahangar Kola, Aski Mahalleh, Kamangar Kola, Pasha Kola, Qadi Mahalleh (c), Qoroq, ...
Larijan Rineh City (c)
Gazanak City
Bala Larijan RD Ab Ask, Abgarm, Akha, Amir Abad, Dinan, Enheh, Garna, Gazaneh, Gilas, Ira, Kenar Anjam, Kondeloo, Lasem, Lazirak, Malar, Nava, Niak, Polemoon, Poloor, Shahandasht, Shams Abad, Vana, Ziar, ...
Larijan-e Sofla RD Baijan (c), Haji Dela, Namar, Panjab, ...
Dashtesar Dashtesare gharbi RD Baliran,Darzi Kola, Firooz Kola, Pasha Kola, ...
Dashtesare sharghi RD Ejbar Kola(c), Tir kola, Tamesk,...
Dabudasht Dabudasht City (c)
Dabuy-ye Jonubi RD Darzi Kola, , Espahi Kola, Raees Abad (c), Espiari, ...
Dabuy-ye Miani RD Vaskas, Kabood Kola, Kachap, ...


Kalleh is a volleyball club based in Amol, Asian champions, currently competing in the highest tier of the Iranian volleyball classification, the Iranian Volleyball Super League. Kaleh also has a basketball team named Kalleh Basketball.

Wrestling and volleyball[edit]

Amol is the birthplace of many popular Wrestlers and Volleyball athletes.

Notable wrestlers from Amol include Ghasem Rezaei (Olympic gold medalist), Ali Akbari, Mohsen Hajipour, Nahavandian and in volleyball, Behroz Ataei, Alireza Jadidi, Reza Ghara, Khowrasani, Adel Gholami, Khosro Ghobadi, Shah Gholam and Heshmat Omidi.


  • Municipality Hotel (Hotel Shahr)
  • Space Hotel
  • Niloofar Hotel

Sister cities[edit]


  1. ^ a b Official website
  2. ^ Iran Post Website. (2011-07-11). Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  3. ^ a b Amol can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3053090" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. 
  5. ^ "Iran Statistics Institute". Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ [2][dead link]
  8. ^ [3][dead link]
  9. ^ [4]
  10. ^ [5]
  11. ^ [6]
  12. ^ [7][dead link]
  13. ^ [8]
  14. ^ a b "Climate: Amol - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ موسسه آموزش عالی آمل – صفحه اصلی. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  17. ^ دانشگاه علمي كاربردي واحد 5 مازندارن – آمل. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  18. ^ موسسه آموزش عالی سبز. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  19. ^ "دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز آمل". Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  20. ^ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی – آموزشکده فنی و حرفه ای سما واحد آیت اله آملی. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Institut pasteur d'Iran. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  23. ^ "موسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی سمنگان". Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  24. ^ About Us. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  25. ^ شرکت فولادین ذوب آمل – فذا. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  26. ^ "كارخانه توليد كاغذ اسناد بهادار". Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  27. ^ "Zarbal". Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  28. ^ "صنایع آلومینیوم آبسکون". Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ POLUR. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  32. ^ "Home Nestlé Iran". Retrieved 2012-03-01. 

External links[edit]