|Ancient names: Amard, Amardi, Amardian, Amui, Haft Shahr, Tabaristan, Amele, Amol|
|• Mayor||Amir soleimani|
|• city||21 km2 (8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||76 m (249 ft)|
|• Density||11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|Area code(s)||(+98) 11|
Amol (Persian: آمل – [ɒˈmol]; pronunciation (help·info); also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city in and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, the population of the city proper was 197,470, in 55,183 families.
Amol is located on the Haraz river bank. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the Caspian sea and less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the Alborz mountains. It is 180 kilometres (110 mi) from Tehran, and 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of the provincial administrative center, Sari. Amol is a historical city, with its age dating back to the Amard.
- 1 Etymology and History
- 2 In literature
- 3 Geography
- 4 Excavation sites
- 5 Events bitter Historical
- 6 Population
- 7 Language, Religion, Timeline
- 8 Economy
- 9 Culture
- 10 Amol old city
- 11 Historical and Tourist and Natural Attractions
- 12 Climate
- 13 Souvenir
- 14 Transportation
- 15 Notable people
- 16 Science
- 17 Some famous companies
- 18 As the administrative center of Amol county
- 19 Sport
- 20 Hotels
- 21 Sister cities
- 22 References
- 23 External links
Etymology and History
Pishdadian and Amard
Some historians in the past have associated this ancient city with the periods of the first Persian mythological dynasties of Aryan people, the Pishdadians and the Kianians. Amol is an old city, with a history dating back to the Amards. Amards were the people inhabiting the area before the arrival of Aryans, who had migrated to and settled on the Iranian Plateau from the late 2nd millennium BCE to early 1st millennium BCE. Many scholars believe that the city's name is rooted in the word Amard (Amui in Pahlavi). According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran, at least in the period starting from Sassanid Empire to the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. Though they are a Median tribe, Herodotus names a tribe called Mardians as one of the ten to fifteen Persian tribes in Persis. It is now known that the only distinction between the Median Amardians and the Persian Mardians is the "A" in the beginning of Amardians, which would mean they are two different tribes.
During the age of the Parthian Empire, Amol was one of the centers of Iran.
According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran, at least in the period starting from the 3rd century CE under Sassanian Empire to the 13/14th century CE under the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire.
Amol In era Alid dynasties of northern Iran Iran and Marashis capital of Mazandaran was. The inhabitants of Amol embraced Islam during the reign of Mahdi (775–785 CE), the Abbasi Caliph, after which Islamic structures came into focus here. After the Mongol invasion, the region was subject to devastation and it was during this time that Sary was declared as capital. In the beginning of the 7th century AH (14th century CE), Hessam-edin Ardeshir, shifted the capital from Sary to Amol, and constructed his palace there. But in 795 AH (1392/1393 AD), the cities of Amol and Sary were plundered by Amir Teimoor Gurkani, and thereafter Amol suffered a setback. Today, Amol is a thriving modern metropolis.
In time of the Safavid rulers of Mazandaran, Amol experienced a period of growth. Amol was the favorite dwelling of Abbas II of Persia, who often frequented it. At the time Amol was considered "the capital of the inhabited world" and acclaimed for its grandeur. Several bridges were built in the area, across the Haraz river, at this time.
Amol figures in the Safavid and Qajar has been the and of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution movements between 1905 and 1911, which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran. Molla Ali Kani, one Amoli reformists, who led people's had a great role in achievement to the goals of Iran's constitutional revolution.
The Jungle Uprising In 1982 Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran) mobilized its forces to jungles around Amol and started some wars against Islamic Republic from there. It finally organized a famous uprising in 25 January 1982. This uprising led to a big failure and most of UIC (S) leaders were hanged but the uprising itself became very famous and is well respected between some Iranian Leftist organizations.
Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of the Bazaar and of the Imam Reza street, as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. A lot of different construction projects is currently underway, which is going to modernize the City's infrastructure. In the last few years, many towers and boulevard was built in Amol.
Name Amol has come up 16 times in Shahnameh. In the Persian epic, Shahnameh, Mazandaran is mentioned in two different sections. The first mention is implicit, when Fereydun sets its capital in a city called Amol:
بیاراست گیتی بسان بهشت
Arash story of the Shahnameh:
از آن خوانند آرش را کمانگیر
Amol is located on the banks of Haraz River 26 25'N 52 21'E. at an altitude of 76 m above sea. It is about 18 km from the Caspian sea and about 10 km from the northern Alborz mountains. It is 180 km from the Iranian capital, Tehran, with a picturesque drive through Haraz Road. Sari, the capital of Mazandaran is 70 km east of Amol. Mount Damavand, 5610 m, the highest peak in the Middle East, is located south of Amol.
In recent years, excavation hill Qaleh Kesh, an ancient was revealed Radiocarbon analysis by Archaeologists has shown the background of the Jewelery and objects grave to be more than 1st millennium BC, Bronze Age.
Events bitter Historical
- The war between the Sassanid dynasty and Iran's owners in Amol and Amol Gullies were completely destroyed.
- Flooding in Mount Dryouk, and the destruction of entire city.
- Dangerous diseases that plague the year 1198 AH
- Mongol invasion of Genghis Khan and his descendants to Tabarestan
- Amir Masoud attack in Amol
- Samanids attack on royan and Amol with Espahbodan
- Amir Timur war with the kings Marashis and killing people
- Shah Ismail and Shah Abbas Safavid wars attack the Amol and killing people
- Mohammad Khan Qajar attacked the larijan and Amol, killing people and destroy the city
The population history of the city proper is as follows. All figures are official census figures from the Iranian Statistics Institute.
Breakdown of 2006 census:
Language, Religion, Timeline
Most Amoli people speak the Mazandarani language Tabari as a mother tongue. Persian is the most common language spoken in Iran. At present, the majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. Amol, Mazandaran, which has its own calendar months in addition to the official calendar of the moon Tabari used in the Yazdgerd started.
Amol is the economic center of Mazandaran province. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and silk, are produced in the lowland the. Industry Mineral water, meat, dairy, Wood and ingots the main production industrial are. Agriculture and Tourism are the basis economy Amol economic base is in its provincial products. Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Amol.
Amol is a center for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Similar scholars political and philosopher. wool, felting, felt hat and mat weaving industry Cultural Amol is. Barf Chal, Lochu Wrestling, Palm and Tiregān (Damavand national day) The local event will be Which is held each year.
Amol old city
Old district of Amol
The main body Amol old city is located in the old bazaar Amol.
Historical and Tourist and Natural Attractions
- Damavand Mountain is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East. It has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore.
- Tomb of Mir Bozorg (Qavam al-Din Marashi Mausoleum
- Lar Dam
- Lar National Park
- Fire temple Sasanian
- Naser-Ol-Hagh Kabir Mausoleum (Hasan al-Utrush Tomb tower)
- Sayyid Haydar Amoli (Seyyed Setan Tomb tower)
- Moalagh Bridge
- Davazdah Cheshmeh Bridge
- Waterfall Shahandasht
- Amol Bazaar 
- Museum of History
- Imamzadeh Ibrahim
- Malek Bahman Castle Shrine
- Shekel Shah (Relief Naser al-Din Shah Qajar)
- Jame Mosque
- Agha Abbas Mosque
- Yakhi Waterfall
- Waterfall Deryouk
- Bath Shah Abbasi
- The Sasanian Road
- Tomb of Sultan Shahabuddin
- Village forest Blairan
- Village forest Alimastan
- Gol-e Zard Cave
- Ashraf Bath 
- Inn Kemboja
- House Manouchehri
- House Shafahi
- Heshtl Tower
- Sangi Bridge Polour
- Imam Hassan Askari Mosque
- Imamzadeh Qasem Shrine
- Imamzadeh Abdollah Shrine 
- Mohammad Taher Shrine
- Ab ask Thermal Springs 
- Lake Sahon
- Ab Murad Waterfall
- Sang Darka Waterfall
- Dehkadeh Talaei Park
- Ghadamgah Khezr Nabi
- Amoloo Mineral Water Spring
- Forest Park Mirza Kuchik Khan Haraz
- Forest Park Halumsar
- Saghanefar Hendoukola
- Saghanefar Zarrin Kola
- Castle Kahrud
- Abegarm Rineh
- Hosseinieh of Amol
- Bathroom Mir-Safi
- Tomb Darvish Sheikh Ismail
- Robat Sangi Polur
- Prairie anemone of Polur
- Ziaru Jungle
- Haj Ali Arbab House
- Do Berar Peak
- Ancient Hill Qaleh Kesh
- Larijan Thermal Spring
- Kolakchal Mount
- Ghore dagh Mount
- Municipal House
- Tekyeh Firuz Kola
- Pol-e Mun Castle
- Tekyeh Oji Abad
|Climate data for Amol|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.7
|Average low °C (°F)||4.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||96
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 96m|
- Rice (Berenj)
- Tursu (Torshi)
- Vegetable (Sabzi)
- Kilim (Gelim)
- Pottery (Sofalgari)
- Juglans (Gerdoo)
- Orange (Porteghal)
- Cherry (Gilas)
- Apple (Sib)
- Wood carving (Monabat Kari)
- Honey (Asal)
- Felt (Namad)
- Fruit preserves (Murraba)
- Local Bread (Nan Mahali)
- Pastry Ab dandan
- Pastry Āqooz kenna
- Pastry Saghe aroos
- Naz Khatoon
- Robb e Narenj
- Kabab torsh
- Tah Chin
- Peshte zik
- Alu Mosema
- Morq-e Torsh
- Shami Goosht
- Khoresh Aloo
- Mahi Shekam Por (Stuffed Fish)
- Morgh Shekam Por (Stuffed Chicken)
- Ordak Shekam Por (Stuffed Duck)
Haraz Road: Road 77 is the most important road from Tehran to northern Iran (province of Mazandaran) besidesKaraj-Chaloos. This road passes from the valley of Haraz river and therefore is also known as Haraz Road between Amol and Rudehen. Haraz road is the nearest road to Mount Damavand, the highest peak in Iran and Middle East. Lar National Park is accessible via this road. The road is the shortest route from Tehran to the north ( 180 km) and in recent years some parts of the road has been widened and the safety has been improved.
Amol and the old part of town is the first of the four towns that populate the world in which there is Nezamiyeh. In the 5th century AH, Nizam al-Mulk, in his famous book named "Seer-ul-moluok", recommended creation of modern institutions by the name of Nezamiah with academic status in the big famous cities of Islamic world as Balkh, Baghdad, Damascus, Neishabour, and Bukhara. The name of Amol was also included among them.Most of Allameh the scientific world are born in this city and the cultural capital of the world is Amol.Gold and copper have been expensive and time-old Amol, Amol has been the commercial center Iran.
Amol has three universities:
- Amol University of Special Modern Technologies the first and only state University of Amol www.ausmt.ac.ir
- Islamic Azad University of Amol International University The big University Middle East
- Shomal University Most of the Middle East
- Haraz University of Amol
- Mazandaran 5
- Green University
- PNU Amol
- Sama College
- Doctor College
- INSTITO Pasteur D, Iran of Amol
- Samangan institute
Some famous companies
- DESA (company) Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company DESA.
- Kalleh Company
- FZ.CO Iran
- Iranian Money Printing T A K A B
- Broiler Production Integration
- NASAJI Babakan
- Tanbaco Khazar
- Polur Mineral Water Mazandaran
- Nestle IRAN of the Amol
- Garma Electric Garma Electric is a Persian E.P.C company.
As the administrative center of Amol county
Amol is the administrative center of Amol county.
|Map||District||City / RD*
|Emamzadeh abdollah District||Emamzadeh abdollah City (c)|
|Bala Khiyaban-e Litkuh RD||Derazan, Haloomesar, Oskoo Mahalleh (c), Ziarood, ...|
|Chelav Rural District RD||Lahash, SangeChal, Neshel, ...|
|Central||Amol City (c)|
|Pain Khiyaban-e Litkuh RD||Hali Koti, Kelaksar, Marandeh (c), ...|
|Harazpey-ye Jonubi RD||Ahangar Kola, Aski Mahalleh, Kamangar Kola, Pasha Kola, Qadi Mahalleh (c), Qoroq, ...|
|Dashtesare Sofla RD||Ahangar Kola, Aski Mahalleh, Kamangar Kola, Pasha Kola, Qadi Mahalleh (c), Qoroq, ...|
|Larijan||Rineh City (c)|
|Bala Larijan RD||Ab Ask, Abgarm, Akha, Amir Abad, Dinan, Enheh, Garna, Gazaneh, Gilas, Ira, Kenar Anjam, Kondeloo, Lasem, Lazirak, Malar, Nava, Niak, Polemoon, Poloor, Shahandasht, Shams Abad, Vana, Ziar, ...|
|Larijan-e Sofla RD||Baijan (c), Haji Dela, Namar, Panjab, ...|
|Dashtesar||Dashtesare gharbi RD||Baliran,Darzi Kola, Firooz Kola, Pasha Kola, ...|
|Dashtesare sharghi RD||Ejbar Kola(c), Tir kola, Tamesk,...|
|Dabudasht||Dabudasht City (c)|
|Dabuy-ye Jonubi RD||Darzi Kola, , Espahi Kola, Raees Abad (c), Espiari, ...|
|Dabuy-ye Miani RD||Vaskas, Kabood Kola, Kachap, ...|
Kalleh is a volleyball club based in Amol, Asian champions, currently competing in the highest tier of the Iranian volleyball classification, the Iranian Volleyball Super League. Kaleh also has a basketball team named Kalleh Basketball.
Wrestling and volleyball
Amol is the birthplace of many popular Wrestlers and Volleyball athletes.
Notable wrestlers from Amol include Ghasem Rezaei (Olympic gold medalist), Ali Akbari, Mohsen Hajipour, Nahavandian and in volleyball, Behroz Ataei, Alireza Jadidi, Reza Ghara, Khowrasani, Adel Gholami, Khosro Ghobadi, Shah Gholam and Heshmat Omidi.
- Municipality Hotel (Hotel Shahr)
- Space Hotel
- Niloofar Hotel
- Official website
- Iran Post Website. Postcode.post.ir (2011-07-11). Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- Amol can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3053090" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
- "Iran Statistics Institute". Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Climate: Amol - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- موسسه آموزش عالی آمل – صفحه اصلی. Amol.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- دانشگاه علمي كاربردي واحد 5 مازندارن – آمل. Uast-amol.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- موسسه آموزش عالی سبز. Sabz.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- "دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز آمل". Pnuamol.ac.ir. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
- دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی – آموزشکده فنی و حرفه ای سما واحد آیت اله آملی. Amol-samacollege.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- Institut pasteur d'Iran. Pasteur.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- "موسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی سمنگان". Samangan.ac.ir. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
- About Us. Dairy.kalleh.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- شرکت فولادین ذوب آمل – فذا. Fzaco.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- "كارخانه توليد كاغذ اسناد بهادار". Cbi.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- "Zarbal". Zarbal.com. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- "صنایع آلومینیوم آبسکون". Abeskoon.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- POLUR. Polurco.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
- "Home Nestlé Iran". Nestle.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
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