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Anti-Pakistan sentiment (also known as Pakistan-phobia or Pakophobia) is a sentiment against Pakistanis as a people and/or a nation in a generalizing manner. The opposite of anti-Pakistan sentiment is pro-Pakistan sentiment.
The Indian state does not accept the validity of the Two Nation Theory stating Muslims needed a homeland in South Asia. The nationalist movement, led by Mohandas K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru aimed to make what was then British India plus the 562 princely states under British paramountcy as a single secular and democratic state. Hindu nationalists in India support the idea of Akhand Bharat which means Undivided India, and treat the Partition of India as illegitimate.
The slogan "Death to Pakistan" (Pakistan Murdabad) was raised by Sikh leader Master Tara Singh in March 1947, soon after the Unionist Party cabinet of Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana resigned in the Punjab, and immediately after it was announced that the Muslim League would take over the reins of provincial government. The resignation of the Khizar Tiwana government, composed of Muslim, Hindu, and Sikhs, followed the unrest caused by the call for the Direct Action Day by the Muslim League the previous year.
According to historian Stanley Wolpert in A New History of India, when the administration of Punjab was taken over by Muslim League, "Master Tara Singh, prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century, called for direct action by his khalsa against the League at this time, igniting the powder keg of repressed violence that set the Punjab ablaze with his cry of "Pakistan Murdabad" ("Death to Pakistan"). Tara Singh and his followers were demanding a Sikh nation of their own, Sikhistan, and by demonstrating their willingness to die in defence of their homeland, they sought to prove the validity of their claim." This slogan often was followed by religious fights and conflicts.
Shiv Sena warned that it will not allow Pakistan to play any 2011 Cricket World Cup in Mumbai. Pakistan Hockey Federation also feared of sending the national hockey of Pakistan because of anti-Pakistani sentiment in India.
Several major Bollywood films have depicted Pakistan in a hostile manner by portraying Pakistanis and the state as a hostile enemy. Bollywood movies, however, have been highly popular in Pakistan and India's Bollywood movie star Shah Rukh Khan has advocated India-Pakistan reconciliation. Although Bollywood films were banned for 40 years prior to 2008 because Indian culture was officially viewed as being "vulgar", there had been an active black market during the period and little was done to disrupt it.
In 2012, Raj Thackeray and his party Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) told Indian singer Asha Bhosle not to co-judge in Sur Kshetra, a musical reality show aired on a local television channel that featured Pakistani artists alongside Indians. The MNS threatened to disrupt the shoot among other consequences if the channel went on to air the show. However, amid tight security in a hotel conference, Bhosle played down the threat, saying she only understood the language of music and did not understand politics.
The relationship between Bangladesh and Pakistan is affected by past history. Due to political, economic, linguistic and ethnic discrimination by the Pakistani state before independence in 1971, and the atrocities against the Bengalis committed by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War, some people in Bangladesh abhor everything from Pakistan. The Government of Bangladesh demands a formal apology for those atrocities from the Pakistani head of state, as well as putting on trial former military and political leaders who had played a role in the army action in then East Pakistan. Pakistan has continued to ignore this demand.
In 2012 Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) abandon a planned cricket tour in Pakistan indefinitely amid fears over players' safety, following protests by Bangladeshis and a Facebook campaign against the visit.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations have been negatively affected by issues related to the Durand Line, the 1978–present war (i.e. Mujahideen, Afghan refugees, Taliban insurgency and border skirmishes), including water and the growing influence of India in Afghanistan. Most major attacks in Afghanistan are blamed on neighboring Pakistan and Iran. This makes anti-Pakistan sentiment run high in the country, particularly among the Afghan politicians. In response to Afghan support for Baloch insurgents, since the 1970s onwards, Pakistan supported rebels such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Haqqanis, Taliban, and others against the governments of Afghanistan.
In the 1990s, Pakistan's support to the Taliban movement led to strong anti-Pakistan sentiments in Afghanistan. According to Pakistan and Afghanistan expert Ahmed Rashid, "between 1994 and 1999, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" keeping the Taliban regime in power. The role of the Pakistani military during that time has been described by international observers as a "creeping invasion" of Afghanistan. UN documents also reveal the role of Arab and Pakistani support troops in Taliban massacre campaigns.
In the course of the Taliban insurgency anti-Pakistan sentiment was again fuelled after a spate of suicide bombings by the Taliban, which in 2011 and 2012 caused 80% of the civilian casualties in Afghanistan, and which the Afghan government and many international officials claim is supported by Pakistan. Demonstrations in Afghanistan have denounced Pakistan politically for its alleged role in Taliban attacks. Afghan leaders such as Amrullah Saleh or Ahmad Wali Massoud (a younger brother of Ahmad Shah Massoud) have said, that their criticism is directed at the politics of the Pakistani military and not at Pakistan as a country. Both reiterated the distinction by saying that the Pakistani people had been very generous in providing shelter to Afghan refugees but that it was the policy of the Pakistani military which had caused so much suffering to the Afghan people.
Anti-Pakistan sentiment have increased in Afghanistan after hundreds of suicide bombings and assassinations. In 2011, while lecturing at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf claimed the reason for anti-Pakistan sentiment was Afghanistan's relationship to the former Soviet Union and India. His statement came despite Afghanistan being known for its historically fierce anti-Soviet resistance.
After the July 2005 bombings in London, there were waves of "Pakistanophobia" in France. A Pakistani community leader said a "right-wing newspaper, for instance, launched a ferocious campaign against Pakistanis in France and placed them in one basket, calling them a "cause for concern."
As of 2005[update], the United Kingdom had the largest overseas Pakistani community, who are known as British Pakistanis. There have been periodic ethnic tensions faced by the Pakistani community. The first recorded use of the term "Paki" in a derogatory way was in the United Kingdom. It has also been used for non-Pakistani ethnic groups. The word is being reclaimed by younger British Pakistanis, who use it themselves.
Pakistani cable operators have accused foreign news organisations of airing "anti-Pakistan" material, according to the BBC. In November 2011 that organisation was itself blocked from view in Pakistan after it broadcast a documentary called Secret Pakistan in which Pakistan's connection to the Taliban were explored. The BBC noted that while it was officially the action of broadcast operators in the country, "the Pakistani government is likely to have put pressure on [them] to impose the ban". The government denied this, saying that it was committed to "freedom of press and media".
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|last1=in Authors list (help)
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Masoud, an ethnic Tajik, studied engineering before the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and then moved to Pakistan for military training.
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During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network – including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network—which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency—is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul."
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Angry protests against Afghan President Hamid Karzai erupted Friday at the burial of his government's chief peace negotiator, who was killed this week by a suicide bomber posing as a Taliban envoy. The daylong funeral observances for Burhanuddin Rabbani, a former president, brought Afghanistan's capital to a near-standstill, with some of the heaviest security in recent memory. Police and soldiers in armored vehicles patrolled the streets, checkpoints dotted major boulevards and traffic circles, and a large part of central Kabul was blocked to all but foot traffic. Helicopters buzzed overhead. ... Mourners also shouted slogans denouncing Pakistan, which is seen as fomenting insurgent violence ...
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Its first recorded use was in 1964, when hostility in Britain to immigration from its former colonies in the Asian sub-continent, was beginning to find a voice.
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