|Bandjalang, Yugambeh, Githabul|
|Region||Queensland & New South Wales, Australia|
|Ethnicity||Bundjalung people, Western Bundjalung people, Githabul, Yugambeh people etc|
|20 (2005) to 95 (2006 census)|
|Latin with slight modifications|
Bandjalangic languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)
Bundjalung consists of a number of dialects, including Yugambeh (sometimes confused with Yugambal), Nganduwal, Minjangbal, Njangbal, Biriin, Baryulgil, Waalubal, Dinggabal, Wiyabal, Gidabal, Galibal, and Wudjeebal; Language varieties in the group vary in degree of mutual intelligibility. Bowern (2011) lists Yugambal, Githabul, Minjungbal, Ngara:ngwal, and Bandjalang as separate Bandjalangic languages.
- 1 Geographic Distribution
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Dialects
- 4 Vocabulary
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Yugambeh-Bandjalang is spoken over a wide geographic area; the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Logan River catchment as the northern boundary, the Clarence River forming the south and south-western boundaries, and the Northern Tablelands marking the western boundary. 
In practical orthography and some descriptions of the language, the letter "h" is often used after the vowel to indicate a long vowel.
|High||i iː||u uː|
/a/ and /e/ are neutralised as [ɛ] before /j/.
Although the standard IPA symbols used in transcription of the language are the voiced stop symbols, these segments are better characterised as obstruents because they are realised more often as fricatives or affricates than actual stops. There is no contrast in Bundjalung between these manners of articulation.
Bundjalung varieties do not have voicing contrasts for their obstruent sequences, and so phonological literature varies in its representation of these consonants- some linguists have chosen the symbols /p/, /k/, /c/, /t/, and others have decided upon /b/, /g/, /ɟ/, /d/. Generally, these consonants are phonetically voiceless, except when following a homorganic nasal segment.
The rhotic phoneme has several surface realisations in Bundjalung. Between vowels, it tends to be a flap, although it can sometimes be an approximant, and it is usually a trill at the end of syllables.
The existence of semivowels in Bundjalung can be disputed, as in many Australian languages. Some linguists posit their existence in order to avoid an analysis that involves onset-less syllables, which are usually held to be non-existent in Australian languages. Some phonologists have found that semivowels can be replaced with glottal stops in some varieties of Bundjalung.
Like many Australian languages, Bundjalung is thought to have a constraint that states that all syllables must have a consonant onset. Only vowels are permitted as the syllable nucleus, and these may be long or short. Syllable codas are also permitted, with long or short vowels in the nucleus. However, long vowels are not permitted to occur in adjacent syllables.
Bundjalung does not permit clusters of the same consonant, or clusters that begin with an obstruent phoneme or end with an approximant, except the labio-velar glide. All homorganic nasal-obstruent clusters occur in the language. Clusters usually only involve two segments, but clusters of three may occur if an intervening vowel is deleted by some process.
"Bundjalung" is used as a cover term for the dialect chain as well as to refer to certain individual dialects. At the time of the first European settlement in the mid-1800s, the Bundjalung people on the north coast of New South Wales and southeast of Queensland spoke up to twenty related dialects. Today only about nine remain. All were mutually intelligible with neighboring dialects. The dialects form recognisable clusters that share phonological and morphological features, as well as having higher degrees of mutual intelligibility. 
|Language Cluster||Area Spoken||Dialects|
|Condamine-Upper Clarence||Between the Upper Condamine and Upper Clarence River catchments||Galibal, Warwick Dialect, Gidabal, Dinggabal|
|Lower Richmond||Between the Lower Richmond and Lower Clarence River Catchments||Nyangbal, Bandjalang, Wiyabal, Minyangbal|
|Middle Clarence||Middle Clarence catchment||Wahlubal, Casino Dialect, Birihn, Baryugil|
|Tweed-Albert||Between the Logan and Tweed River catchments.||Yugambeh, Ngarangwal, Nganduwal|
Condamine - Upper Clarence
|#||Co-ordinates||Dialect||Areas Spoken||Alternate Names|
|1.||Kalibal||Kyogle area||Dinggabal, Galibal, Gullybul|
|2.||Dinggabal||Tabulam Area||Dingabal, Dingga, Gidabal|
|3.||Gidabal||Woodenbong and Tenterfield Area||Githabul|
|4.||Geynan||Warwick area||Warwick dialect|
|#||Co-ordinates||Dialect||Area Spoken||Alternate Names|
|1.||Wahlubal||South of Tabulam to Drake||Bandjalang, Western Bandjalang|
|2.||Casino Dialect||Casino Area||Bandjalang|
|#||Co-ordinates||Dialect||Area Spoken||Alternate Names|
|2.||Bandjalang Proper||Bungwalbin Creek & Casino Area||Bandjalang|
|3.||Wiyabal||Lismore Area||Wudjehbal, Bandjalang|
|4.||Minyangbal||Byron Bay area||Bandjalang, Arakwal|
|#||Co-ordinates||Dialect||Area spoken||Alternate names|
|1.||Yugambeh||Logan & Albert River basins||Yugam, Yugambah, Minyangbal|
|2.||Ngarangwal||Coomera & Nerang River basins||Nerang, Nerangbal, Yugambeh, Yugam, Minyangbal|
|3.||Nganduwal||Tweed River basins||Yugambeh, Yugam, Ngandu, Minyangbal|
|Ballina||English||Accidental or deliberate corruption of the Aboriginal words 'Bullinah and Boolinah' &/or 'Balloona, Balloonah, Balluna, Bullenah, Bullina and Bulluna'.|
|Bullenah||Balluna, Bullina, Bulluna, Balloona, Balloonah||'Blood running from the wounded' or 'The place of dying' or 'The place of the wounded after a fight' or 'Place where a battle was fought & people were found dying'.|
|Bullinah||Boolinah||'Place of many oysters'.|
|Cooriki||Gurigay, Hooraki, Kurrachee||'The meeting of the waters'.|
|Coraki||English||Accidental or deliberate corruption of the Aboriginal words 'Kurrachee', 'Gurigay', 'Hooraki' & 'Cooriki'|
|Gunya||'A traditional native home, made from wood and bark'.|
|Gummin||'meaning father's mother'.|
|Gummingarr||'Winter camping grounds'.|
|Jurbihls||Djuribil||Githabul||'Refers to both a site and the spirit that resides there'.|
|Maniworkan||'The place where the town of Woodburn is located'.|
|Nguthungali-garda||Githabul||'Spirits of our grandfathers'.|
|Uki||"Yoo-k-eye"||'A water fern with edible roots'.|
|Wollumbin||Ngarakwal||'Patriarch of mountains', 'Fighting Chief', 'Place of Death and Dying', 'Site at which one of the chief warriors lies' or 'Cloud Catcher'.|
|Woodenbong||'Wood ducks on water'.|
|Wulambiny Momoli||Mount Warning||Ngarakwal||'Turkey Nest'.|
|Language, Mythology and Ceremony|
|Dirawong||Dira-wong||Dirawonga, Goanna||Creator Being spirit that looked like a Goanna but behaved just like humans.|
|Weeum||Wee-um||'Clever Man' also known as 'Man of high degree of initiation'.|
|Wuyun Gali||Wu-yun Ga-li||'Clever Man' also known as 'Doctor'|
|Cooradgi||Gidhabal and Dinggabal||'Clever Men of the tribe' who could cast spells of sleep or sleeping sickness (Hoop Pine curse) as a reprisal against offenders of tribal law, tribal codes, enemies or bad spiritual influences. The ritual coincided with the bone pointing procedure common among Aboriginal tribes throughout Australia.|
|Flora and Fauna|
- Bundjalung (cover term) at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (see the info box for additional links)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bandjalang". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Terry., Crowley, (1978). The middle Clarence dialects of Bandjalang. Smythe, W. E. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. ISBN 0855750650. OCLC 6041138.
- Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
- Sharpe, Margaret C. (2005). Grammar and Texts of the Yugambeh-Bundjalung Dialect Chain in Eastern Australia. Muenchen, Germany: LINCOM. p. 180. ISBN 3-89586-784-5.
- Crowley, Terry (1978). The Middle Clarence dialects of Bundjalung. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
- Cunningham, Margaret C. (1969). "A description of the Yugumbir dialect of Bundjalung". University of Queensland Papers, Faculty of Arts. 1 (8).
- Geytenbeek, Brain B. (1964). "Morphology of the regular verbs of Gidabul". Papers on the languages of the Australian Aborigines.
- Geytenbeek, Brian B.; Getenbeek, Helen (1971). Gidabal grammar and dictionary. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
- Geytenbeek, Helen (1964). "Personal pronouns of Gidabul".
- Holmer, Nils M. (1971). Notes on the Bundjalung Dialect. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
- Sharpe, Margaret C. (1994). An all-dialect dictionary of Bunjalung, an Australian language no longer in general use.