Moga district

Coordinates: 30°49′12″N 75°10′12″E / 30.82000°N 75.17000°E / 30.82000; 75.17000
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Moga district
Gurudwara in Bagha Purana
Gurudwara in Bagha Purana
Moga district
Country India
 • Total2,235 km2 (863 sq mi)
 • Total995,746
 • Density444/km2 (1,150/sq mi)
 • OfficialPunjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters

Moga district is one of the twenty-two districts in the state of Punjab, India. It became the 17th district of Punjab State on 24 November 1995 cut from Faridkot district. Moga District is among the largest producers of wheat and rice in Punjab, India. People from Moga City and Moga District belong to the Malwa culture. The district is noted for being the homeland for a high proportion of Indian Punjabi expatriates who emigrated abroad and their descendents, which has given it the nickname of "NRI district".[1]

Moga town is the headquarters of the district, is situated on Ferozpur-Moga-Ludhiana road. Takhtupura Sahib is one of the well-known villages in this district. Takhtupura Sahib is a historical village. Moga is well for its Nestlé factory,[1] Adani Food Pvt Ltd, and vehicle modifications. Highways connected with Moga are Jalandhar, Barnala, Ludhiana, Ferozpur, Kotkapura, Amritsar. Bus services and Railway services are well connected with some major cities like Ludhiana, Chandigarh, and Delhi.


The name of Moga may be ultimately derived from the Indo-Scythian king, Maues, who invaded and ruled the area in the 1st century BCE after conquering the Indo-Greek polities of the region.[2]


Ancient Era[edit]

Structures and sites dating before the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar are exceedingly rare due to the changing course of the Sutlej river throughout the centuries. As a result, very few sites dating back to antiquity have been uncovered in the local area of Moga. This effect is more pronounced in the western parts of the district.

The location of ancient villages and towns can be inferred to the present of mounds of earth, brick, and pottery that have been excavated called thehs. These mounds are evidence that the banks of the river were inhabited in ancient times. A number of coins have been discovered at the site of these mounds.[3]

Indus Valley Civilization[edit]

Sites identified as belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered in the area. Scholars have linked these finds to other sites uncovered in the Rupnagar area of Punjab.[3][4][5]

Vedic Period[edit]

The composition of the Rigveda is proposed to have occurred in the Punjab circa 1500 and 1200 BCE.[6]

Post-Vedic Period (After 600 BCE)[edit]

The region of Moga belongs to the Malwai cultural zone, named after the ancient Malava tribe whom inhabited the area in ancient times.[7] During the reign of Porus in the 4th century BCE, the southern area of Punjab was ruled by both the Kshudrakas and Malavas. Some scholars believe they were pushed southwards due to martial and social pressures occurring in the north.[8] Alexander of Macedon warred with the Malavas for control of the region. This wrestle for power is recorded as being fierce and bitter in Greek historical accounts.[7] After the withdrawal of Macedonian forces in the area, the Malavas joined with anti-Greek forces to usurp Hellenistic power and control of the region, leading to the formation of the Mauryan dynasty.

The decline of the Mauryan dynasty coincided with an invasion of Bactrian Greeks, whom successfully took control of the region in the second century BCE. This seizure of power in the Punjab by the Bactrians led to the migration of the Malavas from the area to Rajasthan, and from there to the now-called Malwa plateau of Central India.

Mediaeval Era[edit]

Folio of a historical Guru Granth Sahib manuscript containing the official Gurmukhi seal of Guru Gobind Singh within the margin of the page. It is kept in the private familial collection of the relatives of Mata Damodari (wife of Guru Hargobind) in Gurdwara Daroli Bhai at the village of Daroli Bhai Ki, Moga district, Punjab, India

The area is believed to have been under the writ of the Punwar clan of Rajputs during the early-mediaeval period.[9] They were headquartered in Janer, at the old riverbed location of the Sutlej river, over six kilometres north of the present-day city of Moga. Later on, the Bhati clan of Rajputs, originating from Jaisalmer, established themselves in the area, superseding the previous Punwars for authority of the region.

Jat tribes, whom had been practicing migratory, nomadic-pastoralism for much of their recorded history, began to permanently settle the Moga area during this time and take up a sedentary lifestyle of settled agriculture.[10][11][12] First of them being the Dhaliwal clan, who firmly established themselves southeast of Moga at Kangar. They appear to have possibly obtained high repute, seeing as a woman of the clan, Dharm, who was the daughter of Chaudhary Mihr Mitha Dhaliwal, was wedded to the Mughal emperor Akbar.[13] The Gill clan of Jats, originally based in Bathinda, dispersed to the western parts of Moga district around this time. At the end of the 16th century, the Sidhu clan of Jats migrated northwards to the area from Rajasthan. A branch of the Sidhus, the Brars, established themselves in the south of Gill territory, pushing its former inhabitants northwards whilst taking control of their key places in the process. The Brars founded a chieftainship at Kot Kapura, 40 kilometres west of present-day Moga, and rebelled against the overlordship of Nawab Ise Khan, the Manj governor. Most of the Jat tribes of the local area were converted to Sikhism by the missionary works of the seventh Guru of the Sikhs, Har Rai.

In 1715 CE, Nawab Ise Khan, the Manj governor, stirred a rebellion against the Mughal hegemony but was defeated and killed. In 1760 CE, the ascendency of Sikh power became grounded after the defeat of Adina Beg, who was the last Mughal governor of Lahore.

Modern Era[edit]

Sikh Period[edit]

The forces of Tara Singh, the misldar of the Dallewalia Misl of the Sikh Confederacy, led incursions into modern-day Moga district, all the way to Ramuwala and Mari. Fortresses (ਕਿਲਾ Kilā in Punjabi) were constructed at both of these places by the Sikh misl. The local nawab of Kot Ise Khan in modern-day Moga district became a protectorate of the Ahluwalia Misl. In 1763-64 CE, Gujar Singh, his brother Nusbaha Singh, and his two nephews, Gurbaksh Singh and Mastan Singh, of the Bhangi Misl, crossed the Sutlej river after a sacking of Kasur and gained control of the Firozepur area (including Moga) whilst Jai Singh Gharia, another band from the same quarters, seized Khai, Wan, and Bazidpur, and subordinated them.[3] The area of Moga was one of the 45 taluqas (subdistrict) south of the Sutlej River that was claimed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh as belonging to or claimed by him through Sada Kaur as per a list by Captain William Murray on 17 March 1828.[14]

British Period[edit]

During the First Anglo-Sikh War, the forces of the Sikh Empire crossed the river Sutlej on 16 December 1845, and fought battles at Mudki, Firozshah, Aliwal, and Sabraon. The Sikh forces were defeated by the British and retreated back beyond the Sutlej. After the war, the British acquired all former territory of the Lahore Darbar south and east of the Sutlej. When the Sutlej campaign drew to a close at the end of 1846, the territories of Khai, Baghuwala, Ambarhar, Zira, and Mudki, with portions of Kot Kapura, Guru Har Sahai, Jhumba, Kot Bhai, Bhuchcho, and Mahraj were added to the Firozepur district. Other acquisitions by the British were divided between the Badhni and Ludhiana districts. In 1847, the Badhni district was dissolved and the following areas were incorporated into the Firozepur district: Mallanwala, Makhu, Dharmkot, Kot Ise Khan, Badhni, Chuhar Chak, Mari, and Sadasinghwala.[3]

During the Mutiny of 1857, there were reports of a Roman Catholic church being burnt down amongst other buildings of the colonial establishment in Firozepur district during sparks of tension.[15]

During the late 19th century, the Kuka movement was prevalent in the areas of Moga, with many of its followers drawing from the laypersons of the district.[16][17] The Kukas are believed to be one of the first resistance movement of the subcontinent towards Indian independence from European powers.[18]

During the Indian Independence Movement, many revolutionaries came from Moga district. Many of them were tried and executed as a result of their activities against the colonial government.[19]


An event called the All-India Workers' Conference was held in Moga in September 1968, establishing the Bharatiya Khet Mazdoor Union with a membership of 251,000 at the time.[20][21] The areas of Moga district were heavily effected by Communist insurgencies in the latter half of the 20th century, being one of the worst affected areas of the state of Punjab.[22] In 1972, two students in Moga district were killed in a police firing, leading to an incident known as the Moga agitation, which was led by leftist groups where protestors set afire government buildings and public transport for two months.[23][24][25] On 26 June 1989, during the Punjab insurgency, an event known as the Moga massacre occurred, when suspected Khalistani militants opened fire on RSS workers undergoing a morning exercise and indoctrination session in Nehru Park in Moga city.[26] The attack led to the deaths of 24 people and was suspected of being carried out by the Khalistan Commando Force.[26] In March 2013, around over 150 farmers were arrested during an agitation in the state.[27] During the 2020–2021 Indian farmers' protest, many of the participants of the movement against the three farm bills hailed from Moga district.[28][29]

Creation of district[edit]

Originally, Moga used to be part of the Ferozepur district, but it was bifurcated and the then tehsils of Moga and Muktsar were transferred to the then-newly created Faridkot district on 7 August 1972.[30] From that point onwards, Moga was a subdivision of Faridkot district until the then Chief Minister of Punjab, Harcharan Singh Brar, agreed to the public request to make Moga a district on 24 November 1995.[1]


The towns of Bagha Purana, Badhni Kalan, Dharamkot, Kot Ise Khan, Nihal Singh Wala and Ghal Kalan fall in Moga District. The villages like Rattian Khosa Randhir, Dhalleke, Thathi Bhai, Rajiana, Dunne Ke, Landhe Ke, Samadh Bhai, Kotla Rai-ka, Bhekha, Bughipura, Daudhar, Dhudike, Lopon, Himmatpura, Manooke, and Chugawan also fall within this district.

Bagha Purana lies on the main road connecting Moga and Faridkot and thus is a major hub for buses to all across Punjab. Bagha Purana's police station has the largest jurisdiction in Punjab; over 65 'pinds' or villages are within its control. The town is basically divided into 3 'pattis' or sections: Muglu Patti (the biggest one), Bagha Patti, and Purana Patti. The town has its fair share of rich people and thus the standard of living is above average as compared to the surrounding towns and villages.

Dharamkot is a city and a municipal council in the Moga district. Daudhar is the largest village in Moga.


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Religion in Moga district (2011)[32]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

According to the 2011 census Moga district has a population of 995,746,[33] roughly equal to the nation of Fiji[34] or the US state of Montana.[35] This gives it a ranking of 447th in India (out of a total of 640).[33] The district has a population density of 444 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,150/sq mi) .[33] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 10.9%.[33] Moga has a sex ratio of 893 females for every 1000 males,[33] and a literacy rate of 71.6%. Scheduled Castes made up 36.50% of the population.[33]

Languages of Moga district (First Language) (2011)[36]

  Punjabi (96.21%)
  Hindi (3.21%)
  Others (0.58%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 96.21% of the population spoke Punjabi and 3.21% Hindi as their first language.[36] The district have the second highest percentage of Sikhs by district in Punjab, after Taran Taran (according to 2001 census).


No. Constituency Name of MLA Party Bench
71 Nihal Singh Wala (SC) Manjit Singh Bilaspur Aam Aadmi Party Government
72 Bhagha Purana Amritpal Singh Sukhanand Aam Aadmi Party Government
73 Moga Dr. Amandeep Kaur Arora Aam Aadmi Party Government
74 Dharamkot Devinder Singh Laddi Dhos Aam Aadmi Party Government


Moga city is also known for a number of educational institutes such as Engineering Colleges, Schools, etc.

Some of the most famous schools and colleges of Moga City are:



The district currently has a low amount of its area under forest cover, partly due to past deforestation during the Green Revolution,[37] but afforestation and reforestation drives have led to the planting of saplings in the district.[38] 9 million tree saplings are planned to be planted in the district before 2026 by NITI Aayog to meet the demands of a World Economic Forum initiative, with hopes of increasing Moga district's percentage of land under forest cover from the current 1.25% (2,575 hectares) to over 5% (11, 575 hectares).[38] In September 2021, a garden, named 'Guru Granth Sahib Bagh', was set-up in the historical village of Patto Hira Singh in the district. The garden is notable as it contains flora species mentioned in the Guru Granth Sahib, the primary Sikh canonical scripture and is intended on highlighting the connection between the Sikh Gurus and the natural world.[39]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Section 2: Different Districts of Punjab – Moga District". Discover Punjab: Attractions of Punjab. Parminder Singh Grover Moga, Davinderjit Singh, Bhupinder Singh. Ludhiana, Punjab, India: Golden Point Pvt Ltd. 2011. Moga district is one of the nineteen districts in the state of Punjab in North West Republic of India. It became the 17th district of Punjab State on 24 November 1995. It is also known as NRI district. Most Punjabi Non-resident Indians (NRIs) belong to rural areas of Moga District, who immigrated to the USA, the UK and Canada in the last 30-40 years. 40-45% of the population of NRIs from Canada, the US and the UK belong to Moga district. Moga District is among the largest producers of wheat and rice in Punjab, India. People from Moga City and Moga District belong to the Malwa culture. Numerous attempts were previously made to make Moga a district but all were unsuccessful. Finally the then Chief Minister of Punjab S. Harcharan Singh Brar agreed to the public demand to make this a district on 24 November 1995. Before this, Moga was the subdivision of Faridkot district. Moga town, the headquarters of the district, is situated on Ferozpur-Ludhiana road.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ Samad, Rafi U. (2011). The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-860-8.
  3. ^ a b c d "Punjab District Gazetteers - Chapter II History". Department of Revenue, Government of Punjab. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  4. ^ Frontiers of the Indus civilization : Sir Mortimer Wheeler commemoration volume. Mortimer Wheeler, B. B. Lal, S. P. Gupta. New Delhi: Published by Books & Books on behalf of Indian Archaeological Society jointly with Indian History & Culture Society. 1984. ISBN 0-85672-231-6. OCLC 11915695.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ "History | District Faridkot,Governmnet of Punjab | India". Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  6. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43304-5. OCLC 50516193.
  7. ^ a b Prakash, Buddha (1966). Glimpses of Ancient Panjab. Punjabi University, Department of Punjab Historical Studies.
  8. ^ Prakash, Buddha (1964). Political and Social Movements in Ancient Panjab (from the Vedic Age Upto [sic] the Maurya Period). M. Banarsidass.
  9. ^ Cunningham, Alexander (14 September 2016). Archeological Survey of India Report of Tours in the Punjab in 1878-79 vol.14. Vol. XIV. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). pp. 67–69. ISBN 978-1-333-58993-6.
  10. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (2006). India before Europe. Cynthia Talbot. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80904-5. OCLC 61303480.
  11. ^ Nomads in the sedentary world. Anatoly M. Khazanov, André. Wink. London: Routledge. 2001. ISBN 978-0-203-03720-1. OCLC 820853396. Hiuen Tsang gave the following account of a numerous pastoral-nomadic population in seventh-century Sin-ti (Sind): 'By the side of the river..[of Sind], along the flat marshy lowlands for some thousand li, there are several hundreds of thousands [a very great many] families ..[which] give themselves exclusively to tending cattle and from this derive their livelihood. They have no masters, and whether men or women, have neither rich nor poor.' While they were left unnamed by the Chinese pilgrim, these same people of lower Sind were called Jats' or 'Jats of the wastes' by the Arab geographers. The Jats, as 'dromedary men.' were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions at that time, with numerous subdivisions, ....{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  12. ^ Wink, André (2004). Indo-Islamic society: 14th – 15th centuries. BRILL. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-90-04-13561-1. In Sind, the breeding and grazing of sheep and buffaloes was the regular occupations of pastoral nomads in the lower country of the south, while the breeding of goats and camels was the dominant activity in the regions immediately to the east of the Kirthar range and between Multan and Mansura. The jats were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions here in early-medieval times, and although some of these migrated as far as Iraq, they generally did not move over very long distances on a regular basis. Many jats migrated to the north, into the Panjab, and here, between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, the once largely pastoral-nomadic Jat population was transformed into sedentary peasants. Some Jats continued to live in the thinly populated barr country between the five rivers of the Panjab, adopting a kind of transhumance, based on the herding of goats and camels. It seems that what happened to the jats is paradigmatic of most other pastoral and pastoral-nomadic populations in India in the sense that they became ever more closed in by an expanding sedentary-agricultural realm.
  13. ^ Dalal, Sukhvir Singh (April 2013). "Jat Jyoti". Jat Jyoti. Jat Biographical Centre B-49, First Floor, Church Road, Joshi Colony, I. P. Extension Delhi 110092: Jat Biographical Centre: 7.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  14. ^ Gupta, Hari Ram (1991). History of the Sikhs. Vol. 5. Munshiram Manoharlal. pp. 87–88. ISBN 9788121505154.
  15. ^ Punjab Government Records, Mutiny Reports. Vol. VIII. pp. Pt.I, pp. 47–57, pt.II, pp. 208–210, 331.
  16. ^ "Kukas. The Freedom Fighters of the Panjab. by Ahluwalia, M.M.: (1965) | John Randall (Books of Asia), ABA, ILAB". Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  17. ^ Yapp, M. E. (February 1967). "Fauja Singh Bajwa: Kuka movement: an important phase in Punjab's role in India's struggle for freedom. (Punjab History Forum Series, No. 1.) xvi, 236 pp., front., 11 plates. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, c 1965. Es. 20". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 30 (1): 208–209. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00099419. ISSN 0041-977X. S2CID 162232527.
  18. ^ "Ram Singh | Indian philosopher | Britannica". Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  19. ^ 1) Singh, 2) Singh, 1) Khushwant, 2) Satindra (1966). Ghadar, 1915. R & K Publishing House. pp. 62, 64, 67–70, 72, 73, 75–77, 79, 93. ASIN B000S04SYG.
  20. ^ Documents of the Ninth Congress of the Communist Party of India. Communist Party publication. Vol. 9. Congress of the Communist Party of India. 1971. pp. 157, 306, 310.
  21. ^ Singh, Gurharpal (1994). Communism in Punjab : a study of the movement up to 1967. Delhi: Ajanta Publications. p. 245. ISBN 81-202-0403-4. OCLC 30511796.
  22. ^ Party Life. Vol. 23. Communist Party of India. 1987. p. 15. The Faridkot jatha toured the Moga sub - division for four days and went through some of the worst disturbed areas
  23. ^ Sharma, Amaninder Pal (21 February 2014). "Recalling Moga agitation, Phoolka attempts to woo leftists". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  24. ^ Judge, Paramjit S. (1992). Insurrection to agitation : the Naxalite Movement in Punjab. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. pp. 133–138. ISBN 81-7154-527-0. OCLC 28372585.
  25. ^ Basu, Jyoti (1997). Documents of the Communist Movement in India: 1989-1991. Documents of the Communist Movement in India. Vol. 23. Calcutta: National Book Agency. p. 53. ISBN 81-7626-000-2. OCLC 38602806.
  26. ^ a b Weintraub, Richard M. (26 June 1989). "SIKH MILITANTS FIRE ON HINDU GATHERING IN PUNJAB". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  27. ^ "Farmers' agitation: 150 held in Moga". Hindustan Times. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  28. ^ "Farmers' agitation: Back from Tikri border, Moga man dies of illness". The Tribune, India. Tribune News Service. 13 April 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  29. ^ Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (30 December 2020). "Farmers in Punjab stand in for those involved in the Delhi agitation by fulfilling their farming roles". Frontline - The Hindu ( Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  30. ^ Sharma, B.R. (1983). "Preface". Punjab District Gazetteers - Firozpur District. Revenue Department of Punjab.
  31. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  32. ^ "Table C-01 Population by Religious Community: Punjab". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  33. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Hand Book – Moga" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  34. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Fiji 883,125 July 2011 est.
  35. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Montana 989,415
  36. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Punjab". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  37. ^ "In agri-rich Punjab, a fight to reclaim forest cover". The Times of India. 22 August 2022. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  38. ^ a b Singh, Harmandeep (9 June 2021). "Forest cover in Punjab's Moga to go up to 5% in 5 years". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  39. ^ Sandhu, Kulwinder (23 September 2021). "Garden with trees mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib opened in Moga". The Tribune (India).

External links[edit]

30°49′12″N 75°10′12″E / 30.82000°N 75.17000°E / 30.82000; 75.17000