Ludhiana

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This article is about the municipality in Punjab, India. For its namesake district, see Ludhiana district.
Ludhiana laxmi
ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ
Metropolitan City
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan, Tiger Safari
Gurudwara Sri Dukhniwaran Sahib, Clock Tower, Gurudwara Shri Manji Sahib Alamgir, Lodhi Fort, Maharaja Ranjit Singh War Museum, Shri Krishna Mandir and Guru Nanak Dev Bhavan, Tiger Safari
Ludhiana laxmi is located in Punjab
Ludhiana laxmi
Ludhiana laxmi
Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85
Country India India
State Punjab
District Ludhiana
Named for Sikander Lodi
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Harcharan Singh Gohalwaria (SAD)
 • Commissioner G.K.Singh Dhaliwal,IAS[1]
Area
 • Total 310 km2 (120 sq mi)
Elevation 262 m (860 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,618,879
 • Rank 22nd
 • Density 9,752/km2 (25,260/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Ludhianvi
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN Multiple 141001-141011
Telephone code0161 91-161-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration PB 10
Website ludhiana.nic.in/

Ludhiana (Punjabi: ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and is the largest city north of New Delhi. It is the largest city in the state, with an estimated population of 1,693,653 as of the 2011 Census. The population increases substantially during the harvesting season due to the migration of labourers from the eastern states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha and Delhi. It has an area of about 3,767 square kilometres (1,454 sq mi). The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of its present course. It is a major industrial centre of northern India, and was referred to as India's Manchester by the BBC.[2]

Ludhiana is located 98 kilometres (61 mi) west of the state capital Chandigarh on NH 95 and is centrally located on National Highway 1, which runs from the Indian capital New Delhi to Amritsar. The city is also well connected to New Delhi by frequent train service and by air.

Geography[edit]

Ludhiana is located at 30°54′N 75°51′E / 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9; 75.85.[3] It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the Colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

The land dips steeply to the north and the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.

The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses the College of Textile Engineering). Legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the Fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section).

The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.

The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1980 by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.

Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.

Climate[edit]

Ludhiana features a humid subtropical under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 millimetres (29 in) of precipitation annually.

Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems top list of india in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 4th most polluted city in the world.[4][5] Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.[6]

Climate data for Ludhiana (1971–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
33.3
(91.9)
41.1
(106)
46.1
(115)
48.3
(118.9)
47.9
(118.2)
47.8
(118)
44.4
(111.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.0
(104)
35.8
(96.4)
29.4
(84.9)
48.3
(118.9)
Average high °C (°F) 18.9
(66)
21.0
(69.8)
26.0
(78.8)
34.6
(94.3)
38.8
(101.8)
39.6
(103.3)
34.9
(94.8)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.0
(89.6)
26.4
(79.5)
20.7
(69.3)
29.9
(85.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8
(55)
14.8
(58.6)
19.4
(66.9)
26.7
(80.1)
31.1
(88)
33.0
(91.4)
30.5
(86.9)
28.8
(83.8)
28.5
(83.3)
24.9
(76.8)
19.0
(66.2)
14.1
(57.4)
23.6
(74.5)
Average low °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
8.5
(47.3)
12.8
(55)
18.8
(65.8)
23.3
(73.9)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79)
24.8
(76.6)
23.4
(74.1)
17.7
(63.9)
11.6
(52.9)
7.4
(45.3)
17.3
(63.1)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−1.1
(30)
1.4
(34.5)
7.1
(44.8)
11.7
(53.1)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.2
(59.4)
9.4
(48.9)
0.3
(32.5)
−1.1
(30)
−2.2
(28)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21
(0.83)
39
(1.54)
31
(1.22)
20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
60
(2.36)
229
(9.02)
189
(7.44)
85
(3.35)
5
(0.2)
13
(0.51)
21
(0.83)
733
(28.86)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.8 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.3 4.7 11.6 9.6 4.5 0.5 1.4 2.1 49.5
Average relative humidity (%) 74 66 62 44 39 49 71 76 68 61 68 74 63
Source #1: NOAA[7]
Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 1,693,653.[9] The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent.[10] This population consists of 950,123 males and 743,530 females.[9]

Commerce[edit]

Feroze Gandhi Market, Ludhiana

The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009 and 2013.[11]

The riches are brought mostly by small-scale industrial units,[12] which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery, apparel, and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces 60% of India's tractor parts and a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars like BMW and Mercedes are exclusively produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement. It is one of the largest manufacturer of sewing machines. Hand tools and precision industrial equipment is another speciality. The apparel industry Ludhiana is famous all over India for its woolen sweaters and cotton T-shirts; most of the top Indian woolen apparel brands are based in Ludhiana.

Ludhiana is also home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association.

Education[edit]

School Education[edit]

Ludhiana has almost 361 Senior Secondary, 367 High, 322 Middle and 1129 Primary and Pre-Primary recognized Schools, with a total of 398,770 students.[13] Most of these Schools are either run by Central Board of Secondary Education or by Punjab School Education Board. Other boards are also there, which include convent boards.Sacred Heart Convent School, Sarabha Nagar is one of the most prestigious schools in the city. The city has many prestigious school chains too, such as SHSSS (BRS Ngr.), DAV Schools, BCM Schools. KVM is of the oldest schools of the city estd. in 1940 and the first school in the region to be affiliated by CBSE.

Agriculture[edit]

Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University.[14] The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU had been recently upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University (GADVASU).

Medical[edit]

The entrance of the old building of Christian Medical College, Ludhiana

Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, the first medical school for women in Asia was founded by Dame Edith Mary Brown in 1894.

Engineering[edit]

Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Gulzar Group of Institutes, Bhutta College of Engineering,Guru Arjan Dev Polytechnic College Ludhiana and Ludhiana College of Engineering & Technology are main colleges offering quality education in engineering. Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is a very old and renowned institution offering best available facilities and education for engineering students. Research & development centre for bicycle and sewing machine.[15] R and D polytechnic college[16] there are other institutes catering to local and surrounding areas such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).

Management[edit]

Ludhiana has many MANAGEMENT Colleges providing courses such as Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Hospitality and Management (HM), Airlines Tourism and Hospitality management (ATHM), Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA), and Bachelor of Commerce. (B.Com)

There are few good colleges providing these courses both part time as well as full time, such as the Punjab College of Technical Education (PCTE), Synetic Business School (SBS) Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management (SACCM) and also Government college for boys and Government college for girls. Khalsa College and Arya college are also good colleges to study as a part time student.

For Foreign students Punjab College of Technical Education (PCTE), Synetic Business School (SBS) and Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) are good colleges to apply and study.

Transportation[edit]

Ludhiana is well connected by air and rail as Ludhiana railway station is on main Delhi-Amritsar route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Dhuri and Delhi. The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Pathankot, Kanpur, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division.The railway line between Ludhiana and Chandigarh opened in 2013. The government has even passed a dedicated freight track between Ludhiana and Kolkata.[citation needed]

A DMU Train in Ludhiana

Airport[edit]

Ludhiana is connected by air with Delhi. Air India fly daily between New Delhi and Ludhiana Airport.[17] There was a proposal to construct a new international airport in Ludhiana which has since been cancelled. Ludhiana's status as a large industrial hub is cited as a reason for another airport in Punjab after Amritsar And Pathankot

Ludhiana Metro[edit]

This project has been scrapped by the government because lack of funds


The government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Delhi for construction of a Ludhiana Metro. This light transit system will serve about 25 years to Ludhiana. There will be two corridors in Ludhiana Metro. This two corridors of metro will give relief to many roads to some extent.

City Transportation[edit]

Ludhiana is connected with other cities of Punjab and also with other states by Bus service. Several major National Highways, NH1, NH95, NH11, NH20 pass through the city. The transportation services are provided by state owned Punjab Roadways and private bus operators.


City business service has been cancelled Moving around inside the city is done mostly by City-buses, auto-rickshaws, and Cycle rickshaw, while latest Ludhiana BRTS is under construction.

Auto Rickshaw[edit]

The Auto Rickshaw is a three-wheel drive vehicle, which is one way to travel in the city. These Auto Rickshaws have the capacity to hold three to six passengers. It can be hired individually or on a sharing basis. The Auto Rickshaws are easily available at every major place, including the Inter State Bus Terminal and The Railway Station at a nominal fare which varies from ₨ 10 to ₨ 30.

Rickshaw[edit]

Cycle rickshaw is widely used in Ludhiana.The Rickshaw or tricycle is pulled by a person and is a relatively cheap way of traveling in the city, but has become pricey after the autos were being scrapped.

Taxi[edit]

Radio taxis are also easily available. It is also the most used means of transport by the people of Ludhiana. Ola Cabs launched in the city on 7 October 2014.[18]

Attractions[edit]

Markets and Shopping malls[edit]

For shopping, Markets such as Chaura Bazaar, Ghumar Mandi, Jawahar Nagar Camp and Mall Road are good places to buy from.

Malls such as Westend Mall, MBD Mall , Silver Arc and Pavilion mall are good attractions as big malls .

Flames Mall, Ansal Plaza , SRS Mall and Govardhan City Center are also some good medium-sized malls.

Parks and Recreation[edit]

Ludhiana is a mixture of Urban and Rural living. The city is surrounded by farming land on every side but inside the city there are very many parks that still exist for relaxation, walking and picnics.

Parks Such as Leisure Valley, Rose garden and PAU are very good places to walk and spend time.

Kabaddi[edit]

Guru Nanak Stadium is known for hosting the Kabaddi matches along with athletic games. Kabaddi world cup's finals have been played twice in Guru Nanak Stadium Ludhiana.[19] The Stadium often hosts high-profile Kabbadi matches.


Skating[edit]

A skating rink for speed skating and roller hockey is there in Ludhiana in Leisure Valley, Sarabha Nagar. Many skaters like Jodh Singh, Saurabh Sharma, and Harshveer Singh Sekhon has made Ludhiana proud by winning many medals at several district,state and national championships. Jodh Singh and Harshveer Sekhon also represented India at international championships.In 2006 Jodh Singh won two silver medals in 400m and 800m race in Laurie Hastie Cup held at Palmerston North, New Zealand.[20][21][22][23]

Kila Raipur Sports Festival[edit]

Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as Rural Olympics,[24] is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana), in Punjab, India. Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Gill Sports Festival

Notable individuals[edit]

Name Occupation
Sukhdev Thapar Freedom Fighter[25]
Kartar Singh Sarabha Freedom Fighter
Bhai Randhir Singh Freedom Fighter
Neel Kamal Puri Novelist, Columnist[26]
Dharmendra Actor
Sahir Ludhianvi Lyricist
Divya Dutta Actress
Sunil Mittal Indian Telecom Mogul, Philanthropist
Brijmohan Lall Munjal Industrialist, Founder of Hero Group
Rajinder Gupta Industrialist, Chairman of TridentGroup
Trishneet Arora Ethical Hacker, Author
Keshub Mahindra Industrialist, Chairman of Mahindra Group
Shubha Phutela Actress
Dakssh Ajit Singh Actor
Abhinav Shukla Actor
Sudarshan Agarwal Politician
Shilpi Sharma Actress
Juhi Chawla Actress
Gulzar Singh Sandhu Writer
Naina Dhaliwal Indian Model
Inderjit Hasanpuri Song Writer
Ram Singh Social Reformer
Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi One of founders of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam
Talish Pakistani Actor
Raj Khosla Director
Baldev Raj Chopra Producer and director
Kuldeep Manak Singer
Inderjit Nikku Singer
Ravinder Grewal Singer
Amar Singh Chamkila Singer
Diljit Dosanjh Singer
Surinder Shinda Singer
Karnail Gill Singer
Gippy Grewal Singer
Ishmeet Singh Singer
Lal Chand Yamla Jatt Singer
Mandeep Singh Student
Pankaj Kapoor Actor
Hardev Dilgir Writer

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Not An Easy Task For New MC Commissioner". Time of India. 29 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "India's Manchester". BBC. 28 February 2006. 
  3. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ludhiana". fallingrain.com. 
  4. ^ Majeed, Shariq (26 March 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Preet, Jatinder (16 October 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian (Delhi, India). Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Ludhiana Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Area and Population - Official Website of Ludhiana". 
  10. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  11. ^ "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Entrepreneurship in India's small-scale industries. Richard P. Taub, Doris L. Taub
  13. ^ "Education and Medical Facilities - Official Website of Ludhiana". 
  14. ^ Ludhiana Colleges. Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  15. ^ "www.bsrdindia.com". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "R&D Polytechnic College". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  17. ^ New Delhi to Ludhiana Flights, Cheap Air Tickets from New Delhi to Ludhiana: MakeMyTrip India . Makemytrip.com. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Ola Cabs launch in Ludhiana and Amritsar". 
  19. ^ "Kabaddi World Cup: India all the way". The Tribune – Sports Page. 21 November 2011. 
  20. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Ludhiana Stories". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  21. ^ "Ludhiana’s Harshveer Sekhon wins medals at National Open Roller Skating Championship". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  22. ^ Hindustan Times e-Paper. Paper.hindustantimes.com. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  23. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060909/ldh3.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ "Racy start to Kila Raipur Rural Olympics". The Tribune – Ludhiana Tribune. 4 February 2011. 
  25. ^ Sukhdev Thapar
  26. ^ "Punjab's victory over history". India Today. 4 Mrach 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]