Jalandhar district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jalandhar district
Serai Nurmahal
Location in Punjab
Location in Punjab
Country India
StatePunjab
RegionDoaba
Named forArea inside the water
HeadquartersJalandhar
Government
 • Administrator of DistrictSh. Ghanshyam Thori
Area
 • Total2,632 km2 (1,016 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[‡]
 • Total2,193,590
 • Density830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialPunjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Literacy91.4%
Websitejalandhar.nic.in

Jalandhar district is a district in Doaba region of the state of Punjab, India. The district headquarters is the city of Jalandhar.

Before the Partition of India, Jalandhar was also the headquarters of the Jalandhar Division, with constituent districts Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ferozepur and Kangra. The entire Jalandhar Division was awarded to India when Punjab was partitioned.[1]

History[edit]

Classical[edit]

Jalandhar was the site of the Katoch Rajput kingdom of Jalandhara, also known as Trigarta. The date of its founding is unclear, but its presence is observed by the Chinese pilgrim The Chinese source refers to an incident when the King of Kashmir was forced to surrender a tooth relic of Buddha to Harsha. In another instance, King Udito of Jalandhar, who accepted Buddhism, was commanded by Harsha to conduct Xuanzang safely to the frontiers with a military escort on the pilgrim’s homeward journey. King Udito obeyed the order. It is known from the Chinese source that the rulers of distant lands up to China’s borders, helped the pilgrim with escorts out of respect for Harsha.

Kalhana records the defeat of Prithvi Chandra Raja of Trigarta by Sankara Varmma of Kashmir towards the end of the ninth century.[2] 3

Medieval[edit]

Jalandhar became part of the Persianate Ghaznavid Empire during the reign of Ibrahim Shah sometime between 1058 and 1098, and by 1240, it was a fief of the Delhi Sultanate.[2] In 1298, an army led by Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan defeated in battle, and forced the retreat of invading Mongols of the Chagatai Khanate.[2]

The sack and plunder of Delhi by Timur in 1398 gravely weakened the Delhi Sultanate and ushered in a period of lawlessness in the country. In 1416, the governor of Jalandhar, Malik Tughan assassinated the governor of Sirhind, and later rebelled against Khizr Khan, before being defeated.[2] In the following years Jasrath Khokhar led a series of raids across Jalandhar as he challenged the authority of the Sultan.[2] In 1441, Jalandhar came under the authority of Bahlol Lodi who was appointed governor of Lahore province. Lodi made peace with Jasrath, rebelled and in 1450 became sovereign of Delhi.[2]

Early modern[edit]

Mughal[edit]

When Babur invaded northern India in 1524 he granted the jagir of Jalandhar to Daulat Khan Lodi at whose instigation he had come.[2] The following year Lodi revolted and was defeated by Babur. In 1540, Babur's son Humayun was expelled by Sher Shah Suri and Jalandhar became part of the Sur Empire. On Humayun's return in 1555, Jalandhar was occupied by his general Bairam Khan and later Akbar. Whilst Akbar had moved east to fight Hemu, Sikandar Suri defeated Khizr Khan, governor of Lahore, at Chamiari in the north of the district.[2] On Akbar's return to Jalandhar, Mughal hegemony was re-established.

With the regaining of Humayun lot of Muslim tribes such as Baloch, Syed and Arain (the descendants of Arab invaders accompanied with Muhammad Bin Qasim were settled in Sindh and Balochistan fetch up in Jalandhar Doaba region.

During Akbar's reign, the city of Jalandhar became one of his mint cities. In 1594, the town of Kartarpur was founded by Guru Arjan on land granted by Akbar.[3] The reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan saw significant improvements to the region's infrastructure, and many villages were founded.[2] The town of Phillaur dates from this period, when it was selected for one of the serais on the Delhi to Lahore road, whilst the town of Nurmahal was re-established by Jahangir's consort Nur Jahan, who is believed to have been raised there. Mughal administrative authority in Jalandhar lasted into the reign of Muhammad Shah, evidenced by the significant number of land grants in the district issued by the Emperor.[2]

Durrani[edit]

Nader Shah's invasion of India, culminating in the sack of Delhi in 1739, effectively ended Mughal imperial power. During his fourth invasion, Nurmahal was plundered and its inhabitants slaughtered.[2] In 1756, Adina Beg, Arain (descendants of Arab invaders accompanied with Muhammad Bin Qasim via Sindh later in 15th century) settled in Jalandhar, assisted militarily by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, defeated Sarbuland Khan, the Afghan general and captured Jalandhar. In 1758, the Mahrattas, at the instigation of Adina Beg, invaded the Punjab, defeating the Afghans, and installing Adina Beg as governor of the entire province.[2] Adina Beg died in 1759, and in 1761 the Afghans returned, taking control of the Punjab, and driving out the Mahrattas.[2]

Sikh[edit]

The death of Adina Beg coincided with the start of increasing Sikh influence in Jalandhar, with many sardars dating the acquisition of their estates from 1759.[2] The Dallewalia Misl, one of twelve Sikh Misls that came to dominate the Punjab during this period originated in the southern extremities of the district. In 1766 the Faizullapuria Misl of Khushal Singh captured the town of Jalandhar and thereafter entrenched their power in the district.[4]

In 1811, Ranjit Singh despatched Dewan Mokham Chand to annex Faizullapuria dominions in Jalandhar. By August that year, Budh Singh, son of Khushal Singh, had fled and Jalandhar came under the control of Lahore and part of the Sikh Empire.[4] The petty sardars of the district were gradually ousted from their estates, and were replaced by the direct management of the Sikh governors.[4]

Modern[edit]

British[edit]

During both the First Anglo-Sikh War and Second Anglo-Sikh War no significant battle took place in Jalandhar.[2] Following the British victory in 1846, Jalandhar was ceded to the East India Company becoming part of the Trans Sutlej States.

When the Indian Rebellion of 1857 began, Jalandhar was strategically important as a main line of communication between the Punjab and Delhi.[2] Incidents of mutiny originated in Jalandhar and Phillaur cantonments, however they were suppressed by the 8th Foot who in turn were strengthened by troops provided by Randhir Singh of Kapurthala, John Nicholson's moveable column and the Tiwana horse under Sher Muhammad Khan.[5]

In 1858, Jalandhar became part of the British Raj and in 1863 became administratively part of Punjab province.[2]

The first case of the plague in the Punjab was reported in the village of Khatkar Kalan in 1897.[6]

Partition[edit]

In early 1947, communal tensions heightened in Jalandhar and across the Punjab.[7] In March riots occurred in the district following speeches made by Congress and Sikh leaders at Lahore.[7] In June 1947, the Indian Independence Act 1947 stipulated the partition of the Punjab, and on 17 August the Radcliffe Line was announced, placing Jalandhar in the new Dominion of India.[8] As Jalandhar had a Muslim plurality at the time (45.23 per cent per the 1941 census)[9] it led to significant demographic change in the district, with the Muslim population becoming refugees in Pakistan, and an influx of Hindus and Sikhs arriving having abandoned their homes in the new Pakistan.[8]

Administration[edit]

The district is divided into five tehsils:

In addition there are a further five sub-tehsils:[10]

Constituencies[edit]

Jalandhar Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 13 Lok Sabha constituencies in Punjab.

There are also nine Punjab Vidhan Sabha constituencies located in the district:[11]

MLA[edit]

No. Constituency Name of MLA Party Bench
30 Phillaur (SC) Vikramjit Singh Chaudhary Indian National Congress Opposition
31 Nakodar Inderjit Kaur Mann Aam Aadmi Party Government
32 Shahkot Hardev Singh Laddi Indian National Congress Opposition
33 Kartarpur (SC) Balkar Singh Aam Aadmi Party Government
34 Jalandhar West (SC) Sheetal Angural Aam Aadmi Party Government
35 Jalandhar Central Raman Arora Aam Aadmi Party Government
36 Jalandhar North Avtar Singh Junior Indian National Congress Opposition
37 Jalandhar Cantonment Pargat Singh Indian National Congress Opposition
38 Adampur (SC) Sukhwinder Singh Kotli Indian National Congress Opposition

Villages[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901721,579—    
1911630,769−1.34%
1921647,086+0.26%
1931742,659+1.39%
1941887,080+1.79%
1951829,858−0.66%
1961981,801+1.70%
19711,175,196+1.81%
19811,406,587+1.81%
19911,649,937+1.61%
20011,962,761+1.75%
20112,193,590+1.12%
source:[21]

According to the 2011 census Jalandhar district has a population of 4,193,590,[22] roughly equal to the nation of Latvia[23] or the US state of New Mexico.[24] This gives it a ranking of 208th in India (out of a total of 640).[22] The district has a population density of 831 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,150/sq mi) .[22] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.16%.[22] Jalandhar has a sex ratio of 913 females for every 1000 males,[22] and a literacy rate of 91.4%. Scheduled Castes made up 38.95% of the population.[22]

Gender[edit]

The table below shows the sex ratio of Jalandhar district through decades.

Sex ratio of Jalandhar district[25]
Census year Ratio
2011 915
2001 887
1991 897
1981 890
1971 883
1961 867
1951 857
1941 859
1931 841
1921 807
1911 783
1901 848

The table below shows the child sex ratio of children below the age of 6 years in the rural and urban areas of Jalandhar district.

Child sex ratio of children below the age of 6 years in Jalandhar district[26]
Year Urban Rural
2011 865 885
2001 793 817

Religion[edit]

Religion in Jalandhar district (2011)[27]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
63.56%
Sikhism
32.75%
Islam
1.38%
Christianity
1.19%
Buddhism
0.52%
Other or not stated
0.22%

Hinduism is the majority religion. In rural areas, Sikhs and Hindus are roughly equal proportions, but in urban areas, Hindus are predominant.[27]

Religion in Jalandhar District
Religious
group
2011[27]
Pop. %
Hinduism 1,394,329 63.56%
Sikhism 718,363 32.75%
Islam 30,233 1.38%
Christianity 26,016 1.19%
Others 24,649 1.12%
Total Population 2,193,590 100%

The table below shows the population of different religions in absolute numbers in the urban and rural areas of Jalandhar district.

Absolute numbers of different religious groups in Jalandhar district[28]
Religion Urban (2011) Rural (2011) Urban (2001) Rural (2001) Urban (1991) Rural (1991)
Hindu 8,63,936 5,30,393 6,72,889 4,85,979 4,60,102 5,09,318
Sikh 2,52,274 4,66,089 2,30,709 5,10,132 1,42,700 6,00,666
Muslim 14,363 12,408 9,835 9,092 4,452 4,048
Christian 17,825 11,653 8,216 12,271 1,381 7,231
Other religions 14,363 11,876 9,835 13,243 4,452 720
Religious groups in Jalandhar District (British Punjab province era)
Religious
group
1901[29] 1911[30][31] 1921[32] 1931[33] 1941[9]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 421,011 45.88% 357,051 44.52% 366,586 44.57% 419,556 44.46% 509,804 45.23%
Hinduism [a] 368,051 40.11% 265,378 33.09% 244,995 29.79% 268,822 28.49% 311,010 27.59%
Sikhism 125,817 13.71% 176,227 21.98% 206,130 25.06% 249,571 26.45% 298,741 26.5%
Christianity 1,713 0.19% 2,404 0.3% 4,088 0.5% 4,323 0.46% 6,233 0.55%
Jainism 969 0.11% 842 0.1% 736 0.09% 1,379 0.15% 1,395 0.12%
Zoroastrianism 24 0% 18 0% 9 0% 70 0.01% 7 0%
Judaism 2 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Buddhism 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Others 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Total population 917587 100% 801,920 100% 822,544 100% 943,721 100% 1,127,190 100%
Note: British Punjab province era district borders are not an exact match in the present-day due to various bifurcations to district borders — which since created new districts — throughout the historic Punjab Province region during the post-independence era that have taken into account population increases.
Religion in the Tehsils of Jalandhar District (1941)[9]
Tehsil Hinduism [a] Islam Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[b] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Jalandhar Tehsil 123,718 27.93% 226,623 51.16% 86,996 19.64% 4,656 1.05% 768 0.17% 249 0.06% 443,010 100%
Nawanshahr Tehsil 81,019 34.33% 74,449 31.54% 79,972 33.88% 92 0.04% 496 0.21% 0 0% 236,028 100%
Phillaur Tehsil 66,507 30.32% 72,814 33.19% 79,736 36.35% 294 0.13% 7 0% 11 0.01% 219,369 100%
Nakodar Tehsil 39,766 17.38% 135,918 59.41% 52,037 22.75% 929 0.41% 124 0.05% 9 0% 228,783 100%
Note1: British Punjab province era tehsil borders are not an exact match in the present-day due to various bifurcations to tehsil borders — which since created new tehsils — throughout the historic Punjab Province region during the post-independence era that have taken into account population increases.

Note2: Tehsil religious breakdown figures for Christianity only includes local Christians, labeled as "Indian Christians" on census. Does not include Anglo-Indian Christians or British Christians, who were classified under "Other" category.

Language[edit]

Languages of Jalandhar district (2011)[34]

  Punjabi (88.15%)
  Hindi (9.83%)
  Others (2.02%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 88.15% of the population spoke Punjabi and 9.83% Hindi as their first language. Hindi is predominantly spoken in urban areas.[34]

Health[edit]

The table below shows the data from the district nutrition profile of children below the age of 5 years, in Jalandhar, as of year 2020.

District nutrition profile of children under 5 years of age in Jalandhar, year 2020 [35]
Indicators Number of children (<5 years) Percent (2020) Percent (2016)
Stunted 38,536 25% 29%
Wasted 15,967 10% 17%
Severely wasted 6,834 4% 6%
Underweight 25,877 17% 25%
Overweight/obesity 2,827 2% 1%
Anemia 96,595 69% 60%
Total children 155,323

The table below shows the district nutrition profile of Jalandhar of women between the ages of 15 to 49 years, as of year 2020.

District nutritional profile of Jalandhar of women of 15–49 years, in 2020[35]
Indicators Number of women (15–49 years) Percent (2020) Percent (2016)
Underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m^2) 85,534 12% 7%
Overweight/obesity 347,827 48% 27%
Hypertension 234,262 33% 12%
Diabetes 128,120 18% NA
Anemia (non-preg) 412,752 57% 54%
Anemia (preg) NA NA 49%
Total women (preg) 35,199
Total women 720,586

Economy[edit]

Jalandhar has a major sports items manufacturing industry. It produces around 90% of all sports items produced in Punjab.[36]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jalandhar Division". Jalandhar District Portal. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Government of Punjab, Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XIV A. Jullundur District, with maps, 1904, Lahore, Civil and Military Gazette Press, 1908
  3. ^ Harish Dhillon, Janamsakhis, Ageless Stories, Timeless Values, Hay House, 2015
  4. ^ a b c Sir William Wilson Hunter, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Trübner & Company, 1885, p.85
  5. ^ Cannon, Cannon & Cunningham (1883), pp. 103
  6. ^ James, C. H., Report on the outbreak of plague in the Jullundur and Hoshiarpur districts of the Punjab, 1897-98, 1898
  7. ^ a b J. S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, Volumes 2-3, Cambridge University Press, 1998
  8. ^ a b Pervaiz I Cheema; Manuel Riemer (22 August 1990). Pakistan's Defence Policy 1947–58. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-349-20942-2. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b c India Census Commissioner (1941). "Census of India, 1941. Vol. 6, Punjab". p. 42. JSTOR saoa.crl.28215541. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  10. ^ "Welcome to Official Website of Jalandhar Divisional Commissioner, Punjab". commissionerjalandhar.gov.in.
  11. ^ "Constituencies | Jalandhar Web Portal | India".
  12. ^ "Village population per Census India". Census of India, 2011.
  13. ^ "Village Population per Census India". Census of India, 2011.
  14. ^ "Village Population per Census India". Census of India, 2011.
  15. ^ "Village Population per Census India". censusindia.gov.in.
  16. ^ "Village Population per Census India". Census of India, 2011.
  17. ^ "Mianwal Araian Village Population - Shahkot - Jalandhar, Punjab".
  18. ^ "Sagarpur Village Population - Phillaur - Jalandhar, Punjab". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  19. ^ "Sarnana Population - Jalandhar, Punjab". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  20. ^ "Sundar Tatar Population per Census 2011". census2011.co.in.
  21. ^ "Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901".
  22. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Hand Book – Jalandhar" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  23. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Latvia 2,204,708, July 2011 est.
  24. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. New Mexico - 2,059,179
  25. ^ "District-wise Decadal Sex ratio in Punjab". Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  26. ^ "District-wise Rural and Urban Child Population (0-6 years) and their sex ratio in Punjab". Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2023.
  27. ^ a b c "Table C-01 Population by Religious Community: Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  28. ^ "Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India". 21 January 2022.
  29. ^ "Census of India 1901. [Vol. 17A]. Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province". 1901. p. 34. JSTOR saoa.crl.25363739. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  30. ^ "Census of India 1911. Vol. 14, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1911. p. 27. JSTOR saoa.crl.25393788. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  31. ^ Kaul, Harikishan (1911). "Census Of India 1911 Punjab Vol XIV Part II". p. 27. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  32. ^ "Census of India 1921. Vol. 15, Punjab and Delhi. Pt. 2, Tables". 1921. p. 29. JSTOR saoa.crl.25430165. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  33. ^ "Census of India 1931. Vol. 17, Punjab. Pt. 2, Tables". 1931. p. 277. JSTOR saoa.crl.25793242. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  34. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  35. ^ a b https://www.niti.gov.in/sites/default/files/2022-07/Jalandhar-Punjab.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  36. ^ "Jalandhar Industries".
  1. ^ a b 1931-1941: Including Ad-Dharmis
  2. ^ Including Anglo-Indian Christians, British Christians, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated

External links[edit]