Jalandhar district

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Jalandhar district
Jalandhar district
Location in Punjab
RegionDoaba
Named forArea inside the water or King Jalandhara
HeadquartersJalandhar
Government
 • Administrator of DistrictSh. Ghanshyam Thori
Area
 • Total2,632 km2 (1,016 sq mi)
Population
 (2017)[‡]
 • Total3,093,590
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialPunjabi, Hindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Literacy82.4%
Websitejalandhar.nic.in

Jalandhar district (Jalandhar Zilā) is a district in Doaba region of the state of Punjab, India. District headquarters is Jalandhar city.

Before the Partition of India, Jalandhar was also the headquarters of the Jalandhar Division, with constituent districts Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ferozepur and Kangra. The entire Jalandhar Division was awarded to India when Punjab was partitioned.[1]

History[edit]

Classical[edit]

Later on Jalandhar was the site of the Katoch Rajput kingdom of Jalandhara, also known as Trigartta. The date of its founding is unclear, but its presence is observed by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang in the seventh century, and Kalhana records the defeat of Prithvi Chandra Raja of Trigartta by Sankara Varmma of Kashmir towards the end of the ninth century.[2]

Medieval[edit]

Jalandhar became part of the Persianate Ghaznavid Empire during the reign of Ibrahim Shah sometime between 1058 and 1098, and by 1240, it was a fief of the Delhi Sultanate.[2] In 1298, an army led by Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan defeated in battle, and forced the retreat of invading Mongols of the Chagatai Khanate.[2]

The sack and plunder of Delhi by Timur in 1398 gravely weakened the Delhi Sultanate and ushered in a period of lawlessness in the country. In 1416, the governor of Jalandhar, Malik Tughan assassinated the governor of Sirhind, and later rebelled against Khizr Khan, before being defeated.[2] In the following years Jasrath Khokhar led a series of raids across Jalandhar as he challenged the authority of the Sultan.[2] In 1441, Jalandhar came under the authority of Bahlol Lodi who was appointed governor of Lahore province. Lodi made peace with Jasrath, rebelled and in 1450 became sovereign of Delhi.[2]

Early modern[edit]

Mughal[edit]

When Babur invaded northern India in 1524 he granted the jagir of Jalandhar to Daulat Khan Lodi at whose instigation he had come.[2] The following year Lodi revolted and was defeated by Babur. In 1540, Babur's son Humayun was expelled by Sher Shah Suri and Jalandhar became part of the Sur Empire. On Humayun's return in 1555, Jalandhar was occupied by his general Bairam Khan and later Akbar. Whilst Akbar had moved east to fight Hemu, Sikandar Suri defeated Khizr Khan, governor of Lahore, at Chamiari in the north of the district.[2] On Akbar's return to Jalandhar, Mughal hegemony was re-established.

During Akbar's reign, the city of Jalandhar became one of his mint cities. In 1594, the town of Kartarpur was founded by Guru Arjan on land granted by Akbar.[3] The reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan saw significant improvements to the region's infrastructure, and many villages were founded.[2] The town of Phillaur dates from this period, when it was selected for one of the serais on the Delhi to Lahore road, whilst the town of Nurmahal was re-established by Jahangir's consort Nur Jahan, who is believed to have been raised there. Mughal administrative authority in Jalandhar lasted into the reign of Muhammad Shah, evidenced by the significant number of land grants in the district issued by the Emperor.[2]

Durrani[edit]

Nader Shah's invasion of India, culminating in the sack of Delhi in 1739, effectively ended Mughal imperial power. During his fourth invasion, Nurmahal was plundered and its inhabitants slaughtered.[2] In 1756, Adina Beg, a native of Jalandhar, assisted militarily by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, defeated Sarbuland Khan, the Afghan general and captured Jalandhar. In 1758, the Mahrattas, at the instigation of Adina Beg, invaded the Punjab, defeating the Afghans, and installing Adina Beg as governor of the entire province.[2] Adina Beg died in 1759, and in 1761 the Afghans returned, taking control of the Punjab, and driving out the Mahrattas.[2]

Sikh[edit]

The death of Adina Beg coincided with the start of increasing Sikh influence in Jalandhar, with many sardars dating the acquisition of their estates from 1759.[2] The Dallewalia Misl, one of twelve Sikh Misls that came to dominate the Punjab during this period originated in the southern extremities of the district. In 1766 the Faizullapuria Misl of Khushal Singh captured the town of Jalandhar and thereafter entrenched their power in the district.[4]

In 1811, Ranjit Singh despatched Dewan Mokham Chand to annex Faizullapuria dominions in Jalandhar. By August that year, Budh Singh, son of Khushal Singh, had fled and Jalandhar came under the control of Lahore and part of the Sikh Empire.[4] The petty sardars of the district were gradually ousted from their estates, and were replaced by the direct management of the Sikh governors.[4]

Modern[edit]

British[edit]

During both the First Anglo-Sikh War and Second Anglo-Sikh War no significant battle took place in Jalandhar.[2] Following the British victory in 1846, Jalandhar was ceded to the East India Company becoming part of the Trans Sutlej States.

When the Indian Rebellion of 1857 began, Jalandhar was strategically important as a main line of communication between the Punjab and Delhi.[2] Incidents of mutiny originated in Jalandhar and Phillaur cantonments, however they were suppressed by the 8th Foot who in turn were strengthened by troops provided by Randhir Singh of Kapurthala, John Nicholson’s moveable column and the Tiwana horse under Sher Muhammad Khan.[5]

In 1858, Jalandhar became part of the British Raj and in 1863 became administratively part of Punjab province.[2]

The first case of the plague in the Punjab was reported in the village of Khatkar Kalan in 1897.[6]

Partition[edit]

In early 1947, communal tensions heightened in Jalandhar and across the Punjab.[7] In March riots occurred in the district following speeches made by Congress and Sikh leaders at Lahore.[7] In June 1947, the Indian Independence Act 1947 stipulated the partition of the Punjab, and on 17 August the Radcliffe Line was announced, placing Jalandhar in the new Dominion of India.[8] As Jalandhar had a Muslim majority at the time it led to significant demographic change in the district, with the Muslim population becoming refugees in Pakistan, and an influx of Hindus and Sikhs arriving having abandoned their homes in the new Pakistan.[8]

Administration[edit]

The district is divided into five tehsils:

In addition there are a further five sub-tehsils:[9]

Constituencies[edit]

Jalandhar Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 13 Lok Sabha constituencies in Punjab.

There are also nine Punjab Vidhan Sabha constituencies located in the district:[10]

MLA[edit]

No. Constituency Name of MLA Party Bench
30 Phillaur (SC) Vikramjit Singh Chaudhary Indian National Congress Opposition
31 Nakodar Inderjit Kaur Mann Aam Aadmi Party Government
32 Shahkot Hardev Singh Laddi Indian National Congress Opposition
33 Kartarpur (SC) Balkar Singh Aam Aadmi Party Government
34 Jalandhar West (SC) Sheetal Angural Aam Aadmi Party Government
35 Jalandhar Central Raman Arora Aam Aadmi Party Government
36 Jalandhar North Avtar Singh Junior Indian National Congress Opposition
37 Jalandhar Cantonment Pargat Singh Indian National Congress Opposition
38 Adampur (SC) Sukhwinder Singh Kotli Indian National Congress Opposition

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901721,579—    
1911630,769−1.34%
1921647,086+0.26%
1931742,659+1.39%
1941887,080+1.79%
1951829,858−0.66%
1961981,801+1.70%
19711,175,196+1.81%
19811,406,587+1.81%
19911,649,937+1.61%
20011,962,761+1.75%
20112,193,590+1.12%
source:[11]

According to the 2011 census Jalandhar district has a population of 2,193,590,[12] roughly equal to the nation of Latvia[13] or the US state of New Mexico.[14] This gives it a ranking of 209th in India (out of a total of 640).[12] The district has a population density of 831 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,150/sq mi) .[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.16%.[12] Jalandhar has a sex ratio of 913 females for every 1000 males,[12] and a literacy rate of 82.4%.[12]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Jalandhar district[15]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
63.56%
Sikhism
32.75%
Islam
1.38%
Christianity
1.19%
Others
0.74%
Religion in Jalandhar District [a]
Religion Population (1941)[16]: 42  Percentage (1941) Population (2011)[15] Percentage (2011)
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 509,804 45.23% 30,233 1.38%
Hinduism Om.svg 311,010 27.59% 1,394,329 63.56%
Sikhism Khanda.svg 298,741 26.5% 718,363 32.75%
Christianity Christian cross.svg 5,971 0.53% 26,016 1.19%
Others [b] 1,664 0.15% 24,649 1.12%
Total Population 1,127,190 100% 2,193,590 100%

Language[edit]

Languages of Jalandhar (First Language) (2011)[17][18]

  Punjabi (88.15%)
  Hindi (9.83%)
  Others (2.02%)

Management colleges[edit]

  • Apeejay Institute of Management Technical Campus, Jalandhar (Punjab)[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jalandhar Division, Jalandhar District Portal, retrieved 26 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Government of Punjab, Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XIV A. Jullundur District, with maps, 1904, Lahore, Civil and Military Gazette Press, 1908
  3. ^ Harish Dhillon, Janamsakhis, Ageless Stories, Timeless Values, Hay House, 2015
  4. ^ a b c Sir William Wilson Hunter, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Trübner & Company, 1885, p.85
  5. ^ Cannon, Cannon & Cunningham (1883), pp. 103
  6. ^ James, C. H., Report on the outbreak of plague in the Jullundur and Hoshiarpur districts of the Punjab, 1897-98, 1898
  7. ^ a b J. S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, Volumes 2-3, Cambridge University Press, 1998
  8. ^ a b Pervaiz I Cheema; Manuel Riemer (22 August 1990). Pakistan's Defence Policy 1947–58. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-349-20942-2. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  9. ^ "Welcome to Official Website of Jalandhar Divisional Commissioner, Punjab". commissionerjalandhar.gov.in.
  10. ^ "Constituencies | Jalandhar Web Portal | India".
  11. ^ "Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901".
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Latvia 2,204,708, July 2011 est.
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. New Mexico - 2,059,179
  15. ^ a b "Jalandhar District Population Census 2011, Punjab literacy sex ratio and density".
  16. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  17. ^ "Language – India, States and Union Territories" (PDF). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  18. ^ "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue - Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Top MBA ,MCA Colleges in North India, Punjab, Jalandhar - Apeejay Institute of Management Technical Campus".
  1. ^ 1941 and 2011 district borders are not an exact match as bifurcations created new districts that took into account population increases during the timeframe. This discrepancy can be seen in the district population history table which has taken into account the various bifurcations since 1941.
  2. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated

External links[edit]