The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Blackface was and is a form of theatrical make-up used predominantly by non-black performers to represent a caricature of a black person. The practice gained popularity during the 19th century and contributed to the spread of racial stereotypes such as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon". In 1848, blackface minstrel shows were an American national art of the time, translating formal art such as opera into popular terms for a general audience. Early in the 20th century, blackface branched off from the minstrel show and became a form in its own right, until it ended in the United States with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s.
- 1 History
- 2 Authentic or counterfeit
- 3 "Darky" iconography
- 4 Modern-day manifestations
- 5 Geographical
- 5.1 Australia
- 5.2 Belgium and Netherlands
- 5.3 Canada
- 5.4 Cape Verde
- 5.5 China
- 5.6 Europe
- 5.7 Finland
- 5.8 Germany
- 5.9 Guatemala
- 5.10 Iran
- 5.11 Japan
- 5.12 Mexico
- 5.13 Panama
- 5.14 Portugal and Brazil
- 5.15 South Africa
- 5.16 Thailand
- 5.17 United Kingdom
- 5.18 United States
- 5.19 USSR
- 6 Legacy
- 7 See also
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Blackface was an important performance tradition in the American theater for roughly 100 years beginning around 1830. It quickly became popular elsewhere, particularly so in Britain, where the tradition lasted longer than in the U.S., occurring on primetime TV, most famously in The Black and White Minstrel Show, which ended in 1978, and in Are You Being Served?'s Christmas specials in 1976 and finally in 1981. In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most commonly used in the minstrel performance tradition, which it both predated and outlasted. Early white performers in blackface used burnt cork and later greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips, often wearing woolly wigs, gloves, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Later, black artists also performed in blackface.
Stereotypes embodied in the stock characters of blackface minstrels not only played a significant role in cementing and proliferating racist images, attitudes, and perceptions worldwide, but also in popularizing black culture. In some quarters, the caricatures that were the legacy of blackface persist to the present day and are a cause of ongoing controversy. Another view is that "blackface is a form of cross-dressing in which one puts on the insignias of a sex, class, or race that stands in opposition to one's own."
By the mid-20th century, changing attitudes about race and racism effectively ended the prominence of blackface makeup used in performance in the U.S. and elsewhere. Blackface in contemporary art remains in relatively limited use as a theatrical device and is more commonly used today as social commentary or satire. Perhaps the most enduring effect of blackface is the precedent it established in the introduction of African-American culture to an international audience, albeit through a distorted lens. Blackface's appropriation, exploitation, and assimilation of African-American culture—as well as the inter-ethnic artistic collaborations that stemmed from it—were but a prologue to the lucrative packaging, marketing, and dissemination of African-American cultural expression and its myriad derivative forms in today's world popular culture.
There is no consensus about a single moment that constitutes the origin of blackface. John Strausbaugh places it as part of a tradition of "displaying Blackness for the enjoyment and edification of white viewers" that dates back at least to 1441, when captive West Africans were displayed in Portugal. Whites routinely portrayed the black characters in the Elizabethan and Jacobean theater (see English Renaissance theatre), most famously in Othello (1604). However, Othello and other plays of this era did not involve the emulation and caricature of "such supposed innate qualities of Blackness as inherent musicality, natural athleticism", etc. that Strausbaugh sees as crucial to blackface. Lewis Hallam, Jr., a white blackface actor of American Company fame, brought blackface in this more specific sense to prominence as a theatrical device in the United States when playing the role of "Mungo", an inebriated black man in The Padlock, a British play that premiered in New York City at the John Street Theatre on May 29, 1769. The play attracted notice, and other performers adopted the style. From at least the 1810s, blackface clowns were popular in the United States. British actor Charles Mathews toured the U.S. in 1822–23, and as a result added a "black" characterization to his repertoire of British regional types for his next show, A Trip to America, which included Mathews singing "Possum up a Gum Tree", a popular slave freedom song. Edwin Forrest played a plantation black in 1823, and George Washington Dixon was already building his stage career around blackface in 1828, but it was another white comic actor, Thomas D. Rice, who truly popularized blackface. Rice introduced the song "Jump Jim Crow" accompanied by a dance in his stage act in 1828 and scored stardom with it by 1832.
First on de heel tap, den on the toe
Every time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow.
I wheel about and turn about an do just so,
And every time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow.
Rice traveled the U.S., performing under the stage name "Daddy Jim Crow". The name Jim Crow later became attached to statutes that codified the reinstitution of segregation and discrimination after Reconstruction.
In the 1830s and early 1840s, blackface performances mixed skits with comic songs and vigorous dances. Initially, Rice and his peers performed only in relatively disreputable venues, but as blackface gained popularity they gained opportunities to perform as entr'actes in theatrical venues of a higher class. Stereotyped blackface characters developed: buffoonish, lazy, superstitious, cowardly, and lascivious characters, who stole, lied pathologically, and mangled the English language. Early blackface minstrels were all male, so cross-dressing white men also played black women who were often portrayed as unappealingly and grotesquely mannish, in the matronly mammy mold, or as highly sexually provocative. The 1830s American stage, where blackface first rose to prominence, featured similarly comic stereotypes of the clever Yankee and the larger-than-life Frontiersman; the late 19th- and early 20th-century American and British stage where it last prospered featured many other, mostly ethnically-based, comic stereotypes: conniving, venal Jews; drunken brawling Irishmen with blarney at the ready; oily Italians; stodgy Germans; and gullible rural rubes.
1830s and early 1840s blackface performers performed solo or as duos, with the occasional trio; the traveling troupes that would later characterize blackface minstrelsy arose only with the minstrel show. In New York City in 1843, Dan Emmett and his Virginia Minstrels broke blackface minstrelsy loose from its novelty act and entr'acte status and performed the first full-blown minstrel show: an evening's entertainment composed entirely of blackface performance. (E. P. Christy did more or less the same, apparently independently, earlier the same year in Buffalo, New York.) Their loosely structured show with the musicians sitting in a semicircle, a tambourine player on one end and a bones player on the other, set the precedent for what would soon become the first act of a standard three-act minstrel show. By 1852, the skits that had been part of blackface performance for decades expanded to one-act farces, often used as the show's third act.
The songs of northern composer Stephen Foster figured prominently in blackface minstrel shows of the period. Though written in dialect and certainly politically incorrect by today's standards, his later songs were free of the ridicule and blatantly racist caricatures that typified other songs of the genre. Foster's works treated slaves and the South in general with an often cloying sentimentality that appealed to audiences of the day.
White minstrel shows featured white performers pretending to be blacks, playing their versions of black music and speaking ersatz black dialects. Minstrel shows dominated popular show business in the U.S. from that time through into the 1890s, also enjoying massive popularity in the UK and in other parts of Europe. As the minstrel show went into decline, blackface returned to its novelty act roots and became part of vaudeville. Blackface featured prominently in film at least into the 1930s, and the "aural blackface" of the Amos 'n' Andy radio show lasted into the 1950s. Meanwhile, amateur blackface minstrel shows continued to be common at least into the 1950s. In the UK, one such blackface popular in the 1950s was Ricardo Warley from Alston, Cumbria who toured around the North of England with a monkey called Bilbo.
As a result, the genre played an important role in shaping perceptions of and prejudices about blacks generally and African Americans in particular. Some social commentators have stated that blackface provided an outlet for whites' fear of the unknown and the unfamiliar, and a socially acceptable way of expressing their feelings and fears about race and control. Writes Eric Lott in Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class, "The black mask offered a way to play with the collective fears of a degraded and threatening—and male—Other while at the same time maintaining some symbolic control over them."
However, at least initially, blackface could also give voice to an oppositional dynamic that was prohibited by society. As early as 1832, a blacked-up Thomas D. Rice was singing, "An' I caution all white dandies not to come in my way, / For if dey insult me, dey'll in de gutter lay." It also on occasion equated lower-class white and lower-class black audiences; while parodying Shakespeare, Rice sang, "Aldough I'm a black man, de white is call'd my broder."
Through the 1930s, many well-known entertainers of stage and screen also performed in blackface. Whites who performed in blackface in film included Al Jolson, Eddie Cantor, Bing Crosby, Fred Astaire, Buster Keaton, Joan Crawford, Irene Dunne, Doris Day, Milton Berle, William Holden, Marion Davies, Myrna Loy, Betty Grable, Dennis Morgan, Laurel and Hardy, Betty Hutton, The Three Stooges, Mickey Rooney, Shirley Temple, Judy Garland, Donald O'Connor and Chester Morris and George E. Stone in Boston Blackie's Rendezvous. As late as the 1940s, Warner Bros. used blackface in a minstrel show sketch in This is the Army (1943) and by casting Flora Robson as a Haitian maid in Saratoga Trunk (1945).
In the early years of film, black characters were routinely played by whites in blackface. In the first known film of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1903) all of the major black roles were whites in blackface. Even the 1914 Uncle Tom starring African-American actor Sam Lucas in the title role had a white male in blackface as Topsy. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (1915) used whites in blackface to represent all of its major black characters, but reaction against the film's racism largely put an end to this practice in dramatic film roles. Thereafter, whites in blackface would appear almost exclusively in broad comedies or "ventriloquizing" blackness in the context of a vaudeville or minstrel performance within a film. This stands in contrast to made-up whites routinely playing Native Americans, Asians, Arabs, and so forth, for several more decades.
Blackface makeup was largely eliminated even from live film comedy in the U.S. after the end of the 1930s, when public sensibilities regarding race began to change and blackface became increasingly associated with racism and bigotry. Still, the tradition did not end all at once. The radio program Amos 'n' Andy (1928–60) constituted a type of "aural blackface", in that the black characters were portrayed by whites and conformed to stage blackface stereotypes. The conventions of blackface also lived on unmodified at least into the 1950s in animated theatrical cartoons. Strausbaugh estimates that roughly one-third of late 1940s MGM cartoons "included a blackface, coon, or mammy figure." Bugs Bunny appeared in blackface at least as late as Southern Fried Rabbit in 1953.
In 1910, the ballet Sheherazade, choreographed by Michael Fokine, premiered in Russia. The story behind the ballet was inspired by a tone poem written by Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov. In the ballet the leading female character, Zobeide, is seduced by a Golden Slave. The dancer who portrayed the Golden Slave, the first being Vaslav Nijinsky, would have his face and body painted brown for the performance. This was done to show the audience the slave was of a darker complexion. Later in 1912, Fokine choreographed the ballet Petrushka, which was performed on stage. The ballet centers around three puppets that come to life, Petrushka, the Ballerina, and the Moor. When the ballet premiered, the part of the Moor, first danced by Alexander Orlov, was performed in full blackface. The Moor puppet is first seen onstage playing with a coconut, which he attempts to open with his scimitar. His movements are apelike. The Moor seduces the Ballerina and later savagely cuts off the head of the puppet Petrushka. When Petrushka is performed today, the part of the Moor is still done in full blackface, or occasionally blueface. The blackface has not been publicly criticized in the ballet community. Black and brownface appear in other ballets today, such as La Bayadère and Othello, in the United States and Europe.
Black minstrel shows
By 1840, black performers also were performing in blackface makeup. Frederick Douglass generally abhorred blackface and was one of the first people to write against the institution of blackface minstrelsy, condemning it as racist in nature, with inauthentic, northern, white origins. Douglass did, however, maintain: "It is something to be gained when the colored man in any form can appear before a white audience."
When all-black minstrel shows began to proliferate in the 1860s, they often were billed as "authentic" and "the real thing". These "colored minstrels" always claimed to be recently freed slaves (doubtlessly many were, but most were not) and were widely seen as authentic. This presumption of authenticity could be a bit of a trap, with white audiences seeing them more like "animals in a zoo" than skilled performers. Despite often smaller budgets and smaller venues, their public appeal sometimes rivalled that of white minstrel troupes. In March 1866, Booker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels may have been the country's most popular troupe, and were certainly among the most critically acclaimed.
These "colored" troupes—many using the name "Georgia Minstrels"—focused on "plantation" material, rather than the more explicit social commentary (and more nastily racist stereotyping) found in portrayals of northern blacks. In the execution of authentic black music and the percussive, polyrhythmic tradition of pattin' Juba, when the only instruments performers used were their hands and feet, clapping and slapping their bodies and shuffling and stomping their feet, black troupes particularly excelled. One of the most successful black minstrel companies was Sam Hague's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels, managed by Charles Hicks. This company eventually was taken over by Charles Callendar. The Georgia Minstrels toured the United States and abroad and later became Haverly's Colored Minstrels.
From the mid-1870s, as white blackface minstrelsy became increasingly lavish and moved away from "Negro subjects", black troupes took the opposite tack. The popularity of the Fisk Jubilee Singers and other jubilee singers had demonstrated northern white interest in white religious music as sung by blacks, especially spirituals. Some jubilee troupes pitched themselves as quasi-minstrels and even incorporated minstrel songs; meanwhile, blackface troupes began to adopt first jubilee material and then a broader range of southern black religious material. Within a few years, the word "jubilee", originally used by the Fisk Jubilee Singers to set themselves apart from blackface minstrels and to emphasize the religious character of their music, became little more than a synonym for "plantation" material. Where the jubilee singers tried to "clean up" Southern black religion for white consumption, blackface performers exaggerated its more exotic aspects.
African-American blackface productions also contained buffoonery and comedy, by way of self-parody. In the early days of African-American involvement in theatrical performance, blacks could not perform without blackface makeup, regardless of how dark-skinned they were. The 1860s "colored" troupes violated this convention for a time: the comedy-oriented endmen "corked up", but the other performers "astonished" commentators by the diversity of their hues. Still, their performances were largely in accord with established blackface stereotypes.
These black performers became stars within the broad African-American community, but were largely ignored or condemned by the black bourgeoisie. James Monroe Trotter — a middle-class African American who had contempt for their "disgusting caricaturing" but admired their "highly musical culture"—wrote in 1882 that "few... who condemned black minstrels for giving 'aid and comfort to the enemy'" had ever seen them perform. Unlike white audiences, black audiences presumably always recognized blackface performance as caricature, and took pleasure in seeing their own culture observed and reflected, much as they would half a century later in the performances of Moms Mabley.
Despite reinforcing racist stereotypes, blackface minstrelsy was a practical and often relatively lucrative livelihood when compared to the menial labor to which most blacks were relegated. Owing to the discrimination of the day, "corking (or blacking) up" provided an often singular opportunity for African-American musicians, actors, and dancers to practice their crafts. Some minstrel shows, particularly when performing outside the South, also managed subtly to poke fun at the racist attitudes and double standards of white society or champion the abolitionist cause. It was through blackface performers, white and black, that the richness and exuberance of African-American music, humor, and dance first reached mainstream, white audiences in the U.S. and abroad. It was through blackface minstrelsy that African American performers first entered the mainstream of American show business. Black performers used blackface performance to satirize white behavior. It was also a forum for the sexual double entendre gags that were frowned upon by white moralists. There was often a subtle message behind the outrageous vaudeville routines:
The laughter that cascaded out of the seats was directed parenthetically toward those in America who allowed themselves to imagine that such 'nigger' showtime was in any way respective of the way we live or thought about ourselves in the real world.:5, 92–92, 1983 ed.
In the Theater Owners Booking Association (TOBA), an all-black vaudeville circuit organized in 1909, blackface acts were a popular staple. Called "Toby" for short, performers also nicknamed it "Tough on Black Actors" (or, variously, "Artists" or "Asses"), because earnings were so meager. Still, TOBA headliners like Tim Moore and Johnny Hudgins could make a very good living, and even for lesser players, TOBA provided fairly steady, more desirable work than generally was available elsewhere. Blackface served as a springboard for hundreds of artists and entertainers—black and white—many of whom later would go on to find work in other performance traditions. For example, one of the most famous stars of Haverly's European Minstrels was Sam Lucas, who became known as the "Grand Old Man of the Negro Stage". Lucas later played the title role in the 1914 cinematic production of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. From the early 1930s to the late 1940s, New York City's famous Apollo Theater in Harlem featured skits in which almost all black male performers wore the blackface makeup and huge white painted lips, despite protests that it was degrading from the NAACP. The comics said they felt "naked" without it.:4, 1983 ed.
The minstrel show was appropriated by the black performer from the original white shows, but only in its general form. Blacks took over the form and made it their own. The professionalism of performance came from black theater. Some argue that the black minstrels gave the shows vitality and humor that the white shows never had. As the black social critic LeRoi Jones has written:
It is essential to realize that...the idea of white men imitating, or caricaturing, what they consider certain generic characteristics of the black man's life in America is important if only because of the Negro's reaction to it. (And it is the Negro's reaction to America, first white and then black and white America, that I consider to have made him such a unique member of this society.)
The black minstrel performer was not only poking fun at himself but in a more profound way, he was poking fun at the white man. The cakewalk is caricaturing white customs, while white theater companies attempted to satirize the cakewalk as a black dance. Again, as LeRoi Jones notes:
If the cakewalk is a Negro dance caricaturing certain white customs, what is that dance when, say, a white theater company attempts to satirize it as a Negro dance? I find the idea of white minstrels in blackface satirizing a dance satirizing themselves a remarkable king of irony—which, I suppose is the whole point of minstrel shows.
Authentic or counterfeit
The degree to which blackface performance drew on authentic African-American culture and traditions is controversial. Blacks, including slaves, were influenced by white culture, including white musical culture. Certainly this was the case with church music from very early times. Complicating matters further, once the blackface era began, some blackface minstrel songs unquestionably written by New York-based professionals (Stephen Foster, for example) made their way to the plantations in the South and merged into the body of African-American folk music.
It seems clear, however, that American music by the early 19th century was an interwoven mixture of many influences, and that blacks were quite aware of white musical traditions and incorporated these into their music.
In the early years of the nineteenth century, white-to-black and black-to-white musical influences were widespread, a fact documented in numerous contemporary accounts.[...] [I]t becomes clear that the prevailing musical interaction and influences in the nineteenth century American produced a black populace conversant with the music of both traditions.
Early blackface minstrels often said that their material was largely or entirely authentic to African-American culture; John Strausbaugh, author of Black Like You, said that such claims were likely to be untrue. Well into the 20th century, scholars took the stories at face value. Constance Rourke, one of the founders of what is now known as cultural studies, largely assumed this as late as 1931. In the Civil Rights era there was a strong reaction against this view, to the point of denying that blackface was anything other than a white racist counterfeit. Starting no later than Robert Toll's Blacking Up (1974), a "third wave" has systematically studied the origins of blackface, and has put forward a nuanced picture: that blackface did, indeed, draw on African-American culture, but that it transformed, stereotyped, and caricatured that culture, resulting in often racist representations of black characters.
As discussed above, this picture becomes even more complicated after the Civil War, when many African Americans became blackface performers. They drew on much material of undoubted slave origins, but they also drew on a professional performer's instincts, while working within an established genre, and with the same motivation as white performers to make exaggerated claims of the authenticity of their own material.
Author Strausbaugh summed up as follows: "Some minstrel songs started as Negro folk songs, were adapted by White minstrels, became widely popular, and were readopted by Blacks," writes Strausbaugh. "The question of whether minstrelsy was white or black music was moot. It was a mix, a mutt – that is, it was American music."
The darky icon itself—googly-eyed, with inky skin, exaggerated white, pink or red lips, and bright, white teeth—became a common motif in entertainment, children's literature, mechanical banks, and other toys and games of all sorts, cartoons and comic strips, advertisements, jewelry, textiles, postcards, sheet music, food branding and packaging, and other consumer goods.
In 1895, the Golliwog surfaced in Great Britain, the product of children's book illustrator Florence Kate Upton, who modeled her rag doll character after a minstrel doll from her American childhood. "Golly", as he later affectionately came to be called, had a jet-black face, wild, woolly hair, bright, red lips, and sported formal minstrel attire. The generic British golliwog later made its way back across the Atlantic as dolls, toy tea sets, ladies' perfume, and in myriad of other forms. The word "golliwog" may have given rise to the ethnic slur "wog".
U.S. cartoons from the 1930s and 1940s often featured characters in blackface gags as well as other racial and ethnic caricatures. Blackface was one of the influences in the development of characters such as Mickey Mouse. The United Artists 1933 release "Mickey's Mellerdrammer"—the name a corruption of "melodrama" thought to harken back to the earliest minstrel shows—was a film short based on a production of Uncle Tom's Cabin by the Disney characters. Mickey, of course, was already black, but the advertising poster for the film shows Mickey with exaggerated, orange lips; bushy, white sidewhiskers; and his now trademark white gloves.
In the U.S., by the 1950s, the NAACP had begun calling attention to such portrayals of African Americans and mounted a campaign to put an end to blackface performances and depictions. For decades, darky images had been seen in the branding of everyday products and commodities such as Picaninny Freeze, the Coon Chicken Inn restaurant chain, and Nigger Hair Tobacco. With the eventual successes of the modern day Civil Rights Movement, such blatantly racist branding practices ended in the U.S., and blackface became an American taboo.
Continued Use in Asia
However, blackface-inspired iconography continue in popular media in Asia. In Japan, in the early 1960s, a toy called Dakkochan became hugely popular. Dakkochan was a black child with large red lips and a grass skirt. There were boy and girl dolls, with the girls being distinguished by a bow. The black skin of the dolls was said to have been significant and in-line with the rising popularity of jazz. Novelist Tensei Kawano went as far as to state, "We of the younger generation are outcasts from politics and society. In a way we are like Negroes, who have a long record of oppression and misunderstanding, and we feel akin to them." Japanese cartoons continue to prominently feature characters inspired by "darky" iconography, including well-known Mr. Popo in popular series Dragonball Z..
To this present day, prominent brands continue to use the iconography, including Chinese toothpaste brand Darlie, which was re-named from "Darkie", and 'Black Man' in Thailand. Vaudeville-inspired blackface remains frequently utilized in commercials. 
Over time, blackface and "darky" iconography became artistic and stylistic devices associated with art deco and the Jazz Age. By the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in Europe, where it was more widely tolerated, blackface became a kind of outré, camp convention in some artistic circles. The Black and White Minstrel Show was a popular British musical variety show that featured blackface performers, and remained on British television until 1978 and in stage shows until 1989. Many of the songs were from the music hall, country and western and folk traditions. Actors and dancers in blackface appeared in music videos such as Grace Jones's "Slave to the Rhythm" (1980, also part of her touring piece A One Man Show), Culture Club's "Do You Really Want to Hurt Me" (1982) and Taco's "Puttin' On the Ritz" (1983).
When trade and tourism produce a confluence of cultures, bringing differing sensibilities regarding blackface into contact with one another, the results can be jarring. When Japanese toymaker Sanrio Corporation exported a darky-icon character doll (the doll, Bibinba, had fat, pink lips and rings in its ears) in the 1990s, the ensuing controversy prompted Sanrio to halt production.
Trademark for Conguitos, a confection manufactured by the LACASA Group features a tubby, little brown character with full, red lips. In Britain, "Golly", a golliwog character, fell out of favor in 2001 after almost a century as the trademark of jam producer James Robertson & Sons, but the debate still continues whether the golliwog should be banished in all forms from further commercial production and display, or preserved as a treasured childhood icon. In France, the chocolate powder Banania still uses a little black boy with large red lips as its emblem. The licorice brand Tabu, owned by Perfetti Van Melle and distributed in Europe, introduced a cartoon minstrel mascot in the 1980s inspired by Al Jolson's blackface performance in The Jazz Singer, which is still in use today.
The influence of blackface on branding and advertising, as well as on perceptions and portrayals of blacks, generally, can be found worldwide.
Digital media provide opportunities to inhabit and perform black identity without actually painting one's face. In 1999, Adam Clayton Powell III coined the term "high-tech blackface" to refer to stereotypical portrayals of black characters in video games. David Leonard writes that "The desire to 'be black' because of the stereotypical visions of strength, athleticism, power and sexual potency all play out within the virtual reality of sports games." Leonard's argument suggests that players perform a type of Identity tourism by controlling black avatars in sports games. Phillips and Reed argue that this type of blackface "is not only about whites assuming black roles, nor about exaggerated performances of blackness for the benefit of a racist audience. Rather, it is about performing a version of blackness that constrains it within the boundaries legible to white supremacy."
Social media has also facilitated the spread of blackface in culture. In 2016, a controversy emerged over Snapchat's Bob Marley filter, which allowed users to superimpose dark skin, dreadlocks, and a knitted cap over their own faces. A number of controversies have also emerged about students at American universities sharing images of themselves appearing to wear blackface makeup. Additionally, writers such as Lauren Michele Jackson and Victoria Princewill have criticized non-black people sharing animated images of black people or black-skinned emojis, calling the practice "digital blackface".
Papa Lazarou was a character in the comedy-horror TV show The League of Gentlemen in the 1990s, and a subsequent movie. His exaggerated form of gypsy-styled blackface embodied the 'local' characters' fear of outsiders. It was revealed at the end of the series that this was his actual skin colour.
A sketch in a 2003 episode of Little Britain features two characters who appear in blackface as minstrels, as regularly seen on British television until the 1980s. The same characters return for one 2005 sketch. In the sketches, the racist overtones are subverted with the characters presented as belonging to a race genuinely possessing the appearance of white men in blackface (referred to as "Minstrels") who are persecuted by the public and local government.
In October 2009, a talent-search skit on Australian TV's Hey Hey It's Saturday reunion show featured a tribute group for Michael Jackson, the "Jackson Jive" in blackface, with the Michael Jackson character in whiteface. American performer Harry Connick, Jr. was one of the guest judges and objected to the act, stating that he believed it was offensive to black people, and gave the troupe a score of zero. The show and the group later apologised to Connick, with the troupe leader of Indian descent stating that the skit was not intended to be offensive or racist.
Belgium and Netherlands
In Tintin in the Congo, cartoonist Hergé uses a blackface type drawing style to depict the native Congolese. And in the Dutch comic Sjors & Sjimmie, started in 1902, Sjimmy was initially depicted in the same way, but was gradually turned into a normal, but black, Dutch boy and in 1969, when Jan Kruis took over the comic, his transformation to a normal boy was complete.
In the Netherlands and Belgium, people annually celebrate St. Nicolas Eve with Sinterklaas accompanied by multiple Zwarte Pieten in the form of adolescent boys and girls, and men and women, with their face painted black, or different colors or styles in some large city parades nowadays, wearing Moorish page boy costumes. The Moorish Zwarte Piet character has been traced back to the middle of the 19th century when Jan Schenkman, a popular children's book author, added an African servant to the Sinterklaas story. However, the original and archetypal Zwarte Piet is believed to be a continuation of a much older custom in which people with black faces appeared in Winter Solstice rituals. In other parts of Western Europe and in Central Europe, black-faced and masked people also perform the role of companions of Saint Nicholas, who is known as Nikolo in Austria, Niklaus in Germany and Samichlaus in Switzerland. Also on Saint Martin's Eve, black-faced men go around in processions through Wörgl and the Lower Inn Valley, in Tyrol.
Zwarte Piet as a depiction of a Moorish page resembles many of the classic "darky" icons, and visitors are often surprised at the sight of white people made up in what appears to be classic blackface. Internal opposition to the practice has been present since the 1960s. Some of the stereotypical elements have been toned down in recent decades. However, a 2013 survey indicated support among the Dutch population is strong: 89% of the 19,000 respondents were opposed to altering the character's appearance, 5% favoured change, and 6% had no firm opinion either way.
Up until the early 2000s, white comedians sometimes used makeup to represent a black person, most often as a parody of an actual person. For example, the Montreal-based satiric group Rock et Belles Oreilles did so when comedian Yves Pelletier disguised himself as comedian and show host Gregory Charles, making fun of his energetic personality (not of his racial background) on his television game show "Que le meilleur gagne". RBO also did a parody of a talk show where a strongly stereotypical fictitious Haitian man (Pelletier again) was easily offended, as well as a group parody of the Caribbean band La Compagnie Créole and a sketch about the mangled lines of African-American actors in movie translations. Pelletier did another parody of Gregory Charles for the New Year's Eve TV special "Le Bye Bye de RBO" in 2006 (as an homage to Charles who had had a particularly successful year), along with a parody of Governor General Michaëlle Jean in another sketch. And in RBO's 2007 "Bye Bye", Guy A. Lepage impersonated a black Quebecer testifying during the Bouchard-Taylor hearings, while in another sketch, Lepage, Pelletier and Bruno Landry impersonated injured Darfur residents.
In September 2011, HEC Montréal students caused a stir when using blackface to "pay tribute" to Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt during Frosh Week. The story went national, and was even covered on CNN. The university students were filmed in Jamaican flag colours, chanting "smoke weed" in a chorus. The University later apologized for the lack of consciousness of its student body.
In May 2013, comedian Mario Jean performed in blackface to imitate Boucar Diouf (fr) an African immigrant-comedian and story-teller. Many notable Quebec journalists and pundits defended the practice and deny the history of blackface is part of Quebec's history. Boucar Diouf praised his fellow comedian for a sign of great open-mindedness.
In December 2013, white actor Joel Legendre (fr) performed in blackface in the annual New Year's Eve TV special "Bye Bye 2013", in yet another parody of Gregory Charles, this time as host of the variety show "Le choc des générations".
In December 2014, the satirical end-of-year production by Théâtre du Rideau Vert, a mainstream theatre company, included a blackface representation of hockey player P.K. Subban by white actor Marc Saint-Martin. Despite some criticism the sketch was not withdrawn.
In June 2018, singer Betty Bonifassi and director Robert Lepage were accused of staging a black imitation that was reminiscent of blackface when they put together the show "SLĀV" at the Montreal Jazz Festival, notably because it included a scene where white performers were dressed as slaves as they picked cotton. After two initial performances, the rest of the run was canceled after singer Moses Sumney refused to perform his own show at the same Festival, arguing that, in "SLĀV", "The only thing missing is black paint".
There are some occurrences of blacking up (completely covering the entire exposed body) with afro wigs and stereotypical grass skirts and costume at festivals in this African country. 
On February 15, 2018, a comedy sketch titled "Same Joy, Same Happiness" intending to celebrate Chinese-African ties on the CCTV New Year's Gala, which draws an audience of up to 800 million, showed a Chinese actress in blackface makeup with a giant fake bottom playing an African mother, while a performer only exposing black arms playing a monkey accompanied her. At the end of the skit, the actress shouted, "I love Chinese people! I love China!" After being broadcast, the scene was widely criticized being "disgusting", "awkward" and "completely racist" on Twitter and Sina Weibo. But according to the street interviews by the Associated Press in Beijing on February 16, some Chinese people believed this kind of criticism was overblown. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang, who also watched the skit, said that China had consistently opposed any form of racism, and added, "I want to say that if there are people who want to seize on an incident to exaggerate matters, and sow discord in China's relations with African countries, this is a doomed futile effort" at a daily news briefing on February 22.
In Europe, there are a number of folk dances or folk performances in which the black face appears to represent the night, or the coming of the longer nights associated with winter. Many fall or autumn North European folk black face customs are employed ritualistically to appease the forces of the oncoming winter, utilizing characters with blackened faces, or black masks.
In Finland, a version of the Star boys' singing procession originating in the city of Oulu, a musical play known as Tiernapojat, has become established as a cherished Christmas tradition nationwide. The Tiernapojat show is a staple of Christmas festivities in schools, kindergartens, and elsewhere, and it is broadcast every Christmas on radio and television. The Finnish version contains non-biblical elements such as king Herod vanquishing the "king of the Moors", whose face in the play has traditionally been painted black. The character's color of skin is also a theme in the procession's lyrics.
In Germany, blackface was used in several theatrical productions.
Examples of theatrical productions include the many productions of the play "Unschuld" (Innocence) by the German writer Dea Loher, although in this play about two black African immigrants, the use of black-face is not part of the stage directions or instructions. The staging of the play "Unschuld" (Innocence) at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin was also subject of protest. The activist group "Bühnenwatch" (stage watch) performed a stunt in one of the stagings: 42 activists, posing as spectators, left the audience without a word and later distributed leaflets to the audience. Fundamental of the criticism was that the use of black-face solidifies stereotypes regardless of any good intentions and supports racist structures. The critics were invited to a discussion with the director, actors, theatre manager and other artists of the Deutsches Theater. As a result of the discussion, Deutsches Theater changed the design of actor make-up. Ulrich Khuon, the theatre manager, later admitted to being surprised by the protest and is now in a process of reflection.
German productions of Herb Gardner's I'm Not Rappaport almost always cast the role of Midge Carter, the black character, famously portrayed in the U.S. by Ossie Davis, with a white actor in black makeup. The 2012 production of the play at the Berlin Schlosspark-Theater was the subject of protest. The director, Thomas Schendel, in his response to critics, argued that the classical and common plays would not offer enough roles that would justify a repertoire position for a black actor in a German theatre company. The protest grew considerably and was followed by media reports. While advocates of the theatre indicated that in principle it should be possible for any actor to play any character and that the play itself has an anti-racist message, the critics noted that the letter unwillingly disclosed the general, unexpressed policy of German theatres, i.e., that white actors are accounted to be qualified for all roles, even black ones, while black actors are suitable only for black roles. Other authors said that this problem in Germany generally exists for citizens with an immigrant background. The debate also received foreign media attention. The Schlosspark-Theater announced plans to continue the performances, and the German publishing company of Rappaport stated it will continue to grant permits for such performances.
German dramatists commented on the debate:
Unfortunately, I do not believe that our society has come to accept a black Faust in the theatre.— Christian Tombeil, theater manager of Schauspiel Essen, 2012
We too have a problem to deal with issues of racism. We try to work it out by promoting tolerance, but tolerance is not a solution to racism. Why not? Because it does not matter whether our best friends are immigrants if, at the same time, we cannot cast a Black man for the part of Hamlet because then nobody could truly understand the "real" essence of that part. Issues of racism are primarily issues of representation, especially in the theatre.— René Pollesch, director, 2012
In 2012, the American dramatist Bruce Norris cancelled a German production of his play Clybourne Park when it was disclosed that a white actress would portray the African-American "Francine". A subsequent production using black German actors was successfully staged.
Guatemalan 2015 elected president, Jimmy Morales, was a comic actor. One of the characters he impersonated in his comic show "Moralejas" was called Black Pitaya which used blackface makeup. Jimmy Morales defended his blackface character saying he is adored by the country’s black Garifuna and indigenous Mayan communities.
Hajji Firuz is a character in Iranian folklore who appears in the streets by the beginning of the New Year festival of Nowruz. His face is covered in black soot, which is to symbolize the dirt and dust from the previous year.
In Japanese hip hop, a subculture of hip-hoppers subscribe to the burapan style, and are referred to as blackfacers. The appearance of these blackfacers is evidence of the popularity of the hip-hop movement in Japan despite what is described as racist tendencies in the culture. Some Japanese fans of hip-hop find it embarrassing and ridiculous that blackface fans do this because they feel like they should not change their appearance to embrace the culture. In some instances it can be seen as a racist act, but for many of the young Japanese fans it is a way of immersing in the hip hop culture the way they see fit. The use of blackface is seen by some as a way to rebel against the culture of surface images in Japan.
Blackface also remains a contentious issue outside of hip hop. One Japanese R&B group, the Gosperats, has been known to wear blackface makeup during performances. In March 2015 a music television program produced by the Fuji TV network was scheduled to show a segment featuring two Japanese groups performing together in blackface, Rats & Star and Momoiro Clover Z. A picture was published online by one of the Rats & Star members after the segment was recorded, which led to a campaign against broadcasting of the segment. The program that aired on March 7 was edited by the network to remove the segment "after considering the overall circumstances", but the announcement did not acknowledge the campaign against the segment.
In modern-day Mexico there are examples of images (usually caricatures) in blackface (e.g., Memín Pinguín). Though there is backlash from international communities, Mexican society has not protested to have these images changed to racially sensitive images. On the contrary, in the controversial Memín Pinguín cartoon there has been support publicly and politically (chancellor for Mexico, Luis Ernesto Derbez). Currently in Mexico, only 3–4% of the population are composed of Afro-Mexicans (this percentage includes Asian Mexicans).
A notorious example of blackface in Mexican media is a comedic episode based around the Civil War titled La guerra de secesión de los Estados Unidos (The U.S. Secession War) in which famous comedian Chespirito did a skit in blackface.
Portobelo's Carnival and Congo dance in Panama include a use of blackface as a form of celebration of African history, an emancipatory symbol. Black men paint their faces with charcoal representing three things. Firstly, the blackface is used as a tool to remember their African descendants. Secondly, the black face is representative of the disguise or concealment on the run slaves would have used to evade the Spanish colonizers. Lastly, the practice of blackface is used as a way to signify the code or "secret language" slaves would have used during the time of Spanish occupation. During the celebration, for example, good morning will mean good night, and wearing black, or in this case blackface, which normally denotes a time of mourning, is used as a way to represent a time of celebration instead.
Portugal and Brazil
In Portugal, there is not a long history of use of actors in blackface for "serious" performances meant for realistic black character, but the use of blackface for comedy keeps being used frequently well into the 21st century. The talk-show 5 Para a Meia-Noite, examples of which some episodes were hosted by Luís Filipe Borges and Pedro Fernandes, who have both done it, used it almost on a weekly basis. Use of black performance in impersonations was quite frequently used in the (ongoing) song and impressions show A Tua Cara não Me É Estranha, with blackface impressions of Michael Jackson, Siedah Garrett, Tracy Chapman, Louie Armstrong, Nat King Cole, among others.
In Brazil, there has been at least some history of non-comedic use of blackface, using white actors for black characters like Uncle Tom (although the practice of "racelift", or making black/mulatto characters into mestiços/swarthy whites/caboclos, is more frequent than blackface). Use of blackface in humor has been used more rarely than in Portugal, although it also continues into this century (but it creates major uproar among the sizeable and more politically active Afro-Brazilian community).
Inspired by blackface minstrels who visited Cape Town, South Africa, in 1848, former Javanese and Malay coolies took up the minstrel tradition, holding emancipation celebrations which consisted of music, dancing and parades. Such celebrations eventually became consolidated into an annual, year-end event called the "Coon Carnival" but now known as the Cape Town Minstrel Carnival or the Kaapse Klopse.
Today, carnival minstrels are mostly Coloured ("mixed race"), Afrikaans-speaking revelers. Often in a pared-down style of blackface which exaggerates only the lips. They parade down the streets of the city in colorful costumes, in a celebration of Creole culture. Participants also pay homage to the carnival's African-American roots, playing Negro spirituals and jazz featuring traditional Dixieland jazz instruments, including horns, banjos, and tambourines.
The South African actor and filmmaker Leon Schuster is well known for employing the blackface technique in his filming to little or no controversy. But in 2013, the Advertising Standards Authority of South Africa halted the airing of an ad wherein Schuster portrayed a stereotypically dishonest African politician in blackface. The action was in response to the following submitted complaint:
...the commercial is offensive as it portrays a stereotype that black politicians are liars. This technique is known as blackface, and is an inherently racist form of acting. The black character is depicted with derogatory intention, speaks with a thick accent, and recalls a stereotypical black dictator. To achieve the desired result of showing a corrupt official, there was no need for the man to be made out to be black.
Vodacom South Africa has also been accused of using non-African actors in blackface in its advertising as opposed to simply using African actors. Some have denounced blackface as an artefact of apartheid, accusing broadcasters of lampooning Black people. Others continue to see it as "harmless fun". In 2014, photos of two white University of Pretoria female students donning blackface makeup in an attempt at caricaturing Black domestic workers surfaced on Facebook. The students were said to face disciplinary action for throwing the institution's name into disrepute, this despite having perpetrated the incident at a private party and later taking down the images. University of Stellenbosch students Poekie Briedenhann and a friend drew much controversy after posting a picture of themselves in what appeared be dark paint and were subsequently accused of donning "blackface" and wrongfully suspended from their residence and later reinstated. The pair claimed they had been dressed up as purple aliens for a space-themed residence party.
In Thailand, actors darken their faces to portray the Negrito of Thailand in a popular play by King Chulalongkorn (1868–1910), Ngo Pa (Thai: เงาะป่า), which has been turned into a musical and a movie.
Poachers and rioters
From 1723–1823, it was a criminal offence to blacken one's face in some circumstances, with a punishment of death. The Black Act was passed at a time of economic downturn that led to heightened social tensions, and in response to a series of raids by two groups of poachers who blackened their faces to prevent identification. Blackening one's face with soot, lampblack, boot polish or coal dust being a traditional form of disguise, or masking, in the UK, especially at night when poaching.
The Welsh Rebecca Rioters (1839–1843) used to blacken their faces and/or wear masks to prevent themselves being identified whilst breaking down turnpike gates, sometimes dressed as women.
South Western English traditional folk plays sometimes have a Turk Slaver character, probably from the Barbary Coast Slave raids on Cornwall, Devon, Dorset and Somerset in the early 17th Century by "Sallee Rovers" (where the English were the slaves captured and taken by force to North Africa). This character is usually played using a black face (or brownface).
Molly Dancers and Cornish Guise Dancers, both of whom are usually traditionally associated with midwinter festivals, often use blacked faces as a disguise. As the Molly dancers wished to avoid being identified by the landlords and petty nobles, who were also usually the local Magistrates, when they played tricks on those who failed to be generous enough in their gifts to the dancers. And the Guise dancers (disguised dancers) also wished to avoid any punishment for their mocking songs embarrassing the local gentry.
In Bacup, Lancashire, the Britannia Coco-nut Dancers, wear black faces. Some[who?] believe the origin of this dance can be traced back to the influx of Cornish miners to northern England, and the black face relates to the dirty blackened faces associated with mining.
In Cornwall, several Mummer's Day celebrations are held; these were sometimes known as "Darkie Day" (a corruption of the original "Darking Day", referring to the darkening or painting of the faces) and involved local residents dancing through the streets in blackface to musical accompaniment. Although the origins of blacking-up for Mummer's Day have no racial connotations – the tradition is pagan in origin and goes back to the days of the Celts – controversially, in the Padstow festival, minstrel songs, such as one song with the words "He's gone where the good niggers go", were formerly included due to the popularity of minstrel songs during the early 20th century, perhaps due to people not being aware of the pagan origins of the face painting.
The traditional wedding day chimney sweep, that is considered to be good luck, sometimes has a partially blacked up face to suggest smears of soot. This depends on the performer but it was, and still is, unusual to have a full blackening. Though the complete covered "greyface" is known.
These two traditions, of chimney sweep and folk dancing, coincide in the sometimes lost traditions of (chimney)sweepers festivals. Medway Council supports the Sweeps' Festival, revived in 1981, now claimed to be "the largest festival of Morris dance in the world". It takes place in Rochester around May Day and features a Jack in the Green character. Originally the chimney sweeps were little boys, and they used the day to beg for money, until this child labour was outlawed.
In the early 20th century, group of African-American laborers began a marching club in the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade, dressed as hobos and calling themselves "The Tramps". Wanting a flashier look, they renamed themselves "Zulus" and copied their costumes from a blackface vaudeville skit performed at a local black jazz club and cabaret. The result is one of the best known and most striking krewes of Mardi Gras, the Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club. Dressed in grass skirts, top hats and exaggerated blackface, the Zulus of New Orleans are controversial as well as popular.
An example of the disregard in American culture for racial boundaries and the color line was the popular duo Amos 'n' Andy, characters played by two white men. They gradually stripped off the blackface makeup during live 1929 performances while continuing to talk in dialect (see African-American English).
The wearing of blackface was once a regular part of the annual Mummers Parade in Philadelphia. Growing dissent from civil rights groups and the offense of the black community led to a 1964 city policy, ruling out blackface. Despite the ban on blackface, brownface was still used in the parade in 2016 to depict Mexicans, causing outrage once again among civil rights groups. Also in 1964, bowing to pressure from the interracial group Concern, teenagers in Norfolk, Connecticut, reluctantly agreed to discontinue using blackface in their traditional minstrel show that was a fund-raiser for the March of Dimes.
Grace Slick, singer of Jefferson Airplane, was wearing blackface when they performed "Crown of Creation" and "Lather" at The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1968. A clip is included in a 2004 documentary Fly Jefferson Airplane, directed by Bob Sarles. Frank Zappa is depicted in blackface on the covers of his triple album Joe's Garage, released in 1979. In 1980, an underground film, Forbidden Zone, was released, directed by Richard Elfman and starring the band Oingo Boingo, which received controversy for blackface sequences.
Mitchell has remained unapologetic about her alter ‘persona,’ citing that she “does not have the soul of a white woman…I write like a black poet. I frequently write from a black perspective" in an interview with LA Weekly.  Her denial of any fault has not gone without criticism, as Sheila Weller writes in her book Girls Like Us "Joni romanticized being black, without the disadvantages. She would increasingly insist that her music was 'black' and that, as it progressed deeply into jazz, it should be played on black stations (it rarely was).”
Soul Man is a 1986 American film featuring C. Thomas Howell as Mark Watson a pampered rich college graduate who uses ‘tanning pills’ in order to qualify for a Graduate school scholarship to Harvard Law only available to African American students. He expects to be treated as a fellow student and instead learns the isolation of ‘being black’ on campus. Mark Watson later befriends and falls in love with the original candidate of the scholarship, a single mother who works as a waitress to support her education. The character later ‘comes out’ as white, leading to the famous defending line "Can you blame him for the color of his skin?" The film was met with vast criticism of a white man donning black face to humanize white ignorance at the expense of African American viewers. Despite a large box office intake, has scored low on every film critic platform. "A white man donning blackface is taboo," said C Thomas Howell "Conversation over — you can't win. But our intentions were pure: We wanted to make a funny movie that had a message about racism."
Former Illinois congressman and House Republican party minority leader Bob Michel caused a minor stir in 1988, when on the USA Today television program he fondly recalled minstrel shows in which he had participated as a young man and expressed his regret that they had fallen out of fashion.
‘’Trading Places’’ is a 1983 American film, telling the elaborate story of a commodities banker and street hustler crossing paths after being made part of a bet. The film features a scene between Eddie Murphy, Jamie Lee Curtis, Denholm Elliott, and Dan Aykroyd when they must don disguises to enter a train. For no reason relevant to the plot Dan Aykroyd’s character puts on full black face make up, a dread locked wig and a Jamaican accent to fill the position of a Jamaican pot head. The film has received very little criticism for its use of racial and Ethnic stereotype, Rotten Tomatoes even citing it as "featuring deft interplay between Eddie Murphy and Dan Aykroyd, Trading Places is an immensely appealing social satire."
In 1993, white actor Ted Danson ignited a firestorm of controversy when he appeared at a New York Friars' Club roast in blackface, delivering a risqué shtick written by his then love interest, African-American comedian Whoopi Goldberg.
Blackface and minstrelsy serve as the theme of Spike Lee's film Bamboozled (2000). It tells of a disgruntled black television executive who reintroduces the old blackface style in a series concept in an attempt to get himself fired, and is instead horrified by its success. The original design of the Pokémon character Jynx caused controversy over its alleged resemblance to a blackface caricature. It has since been redesigned with a purple skin tone.
Commodities bearing iconic "darky" images, from tableware, soap and toy marbles to home accessories and T-shirts, continue to be manufactured and marketed. Some are reproductions of historical artifacts, while others are so-called "fantasy" items, newly designed for the marketplace. There is a thriving niche market for such items in the U.S., particularly. The value of the original artifacts of darky iconography (vintage "negrobilia") has risen steadily since the 1970s.
There have been several inflammatory incidents of white college students donning blackface. Such incidents usually escalate around Halloween, with students using often accused of perpetuating racial stereotypes.
Jimmy Kimmel donned black paint over his body and used an exaggerated, accented voice to portray NBA player Karl Malone on The Man Show in 2003. Kimmel repeatedly impersonated the NBA player on The Man Show and even made an appearance on Crank Yankers using his exaggerated AAVE to prank call about Beanie Babies. Not much has been said about Kimmel’s racial transgressions but many media news outlets reflect on his aversion of speaking about controversial subjects that would otherwise bring up his sordid past. 
A Mighty Heart is a 2007 American film featuring Angelina Jolie playing Mariane Pearl, the wife of the kidnapped Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Mariane Pearl is of multi-racial descent, born from a Dutch-Jewish father and an Afro-Chinese-Cuban mother. She personally cast Angelina Jolie to play herself, defending the choice to have Jolie “sporting a spray tan and a corkscrew wig.”
Mixed criticism of the film came in large part for the choice to have Angelina Jolie portray a woman of color in face make up and curly wig portraying Mariane Pearl. Defense of the casting choice was in large part due Pearl’s mixed racial heritage, critics claimed it would have been impossible to find an Afro-Latina actress with the same crowd drawing caliber of Angelina Jolie. Director Michael Winterbottom defended his casting choice in an interview, “To try and find a French actress who’s half-Cuban, quarter-Chinese, half-Dutch who speaks great English and could do that part better — I mean, if there had been some more choices, I might have thought, ‘Why don’t we use that person?’ … I don’t think there would have been anyone better.”
A 2008 imitation of Barack Obama by comedian Fred Armisen (of Venezuelan and Korean descent) on the popular television program Saturday Night Live caused some stir, with The Guardian's commentator openly asking why SNL did not hire an additional black actor to do the sketch; the show had only one black cast member at the time.
In the November 2010 episode "Dee Reynolds: Shaping America's Youth", the TV show It's Always Sunny In Philadelphia comically explored if blackface could ever be done "right". One of the characters insists that Laurence Olivier's blackface performance in his 1965 production of Othello was not offensive. In the same episode, the gang shows their fan film, Lethal Weapon 5, in which the character Mac appears in blackface. In the season 9 episode "The Gang make Lethal Weapon 6", Mac once again dons black make-up, along with Dee, who plays his character's wife in the film.
The 2012 Popchips commercial showing actor Ashton Kutcher with brown make-up on his face impersonating a stereotypical Indian person generated a storm of controversy and was eventually pulled by the company after complaints of racism. In the TV series Mad Men, set in the 1960s in New York City, the character Roger Sterling appears in blackface in the season 3 episode "My Old Kentucky Home". Robert Downey Jr. appeared in a satirical role as a white Australian actor donning blackface in Tropic Thunder. Julianne Hough attracted controversy in October 2013 when she donned blackface as part of a Halloween costume depicting the character of "Crazy Eyes" from Orange Is the New Black. Hough later apologized, stating on Twitter: "I realize my costume hurt and offended people and I truly apologize."
Billy Crystal impersonated Sammy Davis Jr. in the 2012 Oscars opening montage. The scene depicts Crystal in black face paint wearing a oiled wave wig while talking to Justin Bieber. In the scene Crystal leaves a parting remark to Bieber, “Have fun storming the Führer,” a poor association to his famous line in The Princess Bride “Have fun storming the castle.” The skit was remarked as poor taste, considering he was chosen as the “safer” choice after Eddie Murphy bowed out following producer and creative partner Brett Ratner’s homophobic remarks. 
Victoria Foyt was accused of using blackface in the trailer for her young adult novel Save the Pearls: Revealing Eden as well as in the book and its artwork. Gay white performer Chuck Knipp has used drag, blackface, and broad racial caricature while portraying a character named "Shirley Q. Liquor" in his cabaret act, generally performed for all-white audiences. Knipp's outrageously stereotypical character has drawn criticism and prompted demonstrations from black, gay and transgender activists. "The Story of O.J", a song on Jay-Z's 4:44 album, has an accompanying music video which features an animated Jay-Z in exaggerated blackface.
The Metropolitan Opera, based in New York City used blackface in productions of the opera Otello until 2015, though some have argued that the practice of using dark makeup for the character did not qualify as blackface.
In November 2005, controversy erupted when journalist Steve Gilliard posted a photograph on his blog. The image was of African American Michael S. Steele, a politician, then a candidate for U.S. Senate. It had been doctored to include bushy, white eyebrows and big, red lips. The caption read, "I's simple Sambo and I's running for the big house." Gilliard, also African-American, defended the image, commenting that the politically conservative Steele has "refused to stand up for his people." (See Uncle Tom § Epithet.)
Blackface performances are not unusual within the Latino community of Miami. As Spanish-speakers from different countries, ethnic, racial, class, and educational blackgrounds settle in the United States, they have to grapple with being re-classified vis-a-vis other American-born and immigrant groups. Blackface performances have, for instance, tried to work through U.S. racial and ethnic classifications in conflict with national identities. A case in point is the representation of Latino and its popular embodiment as a stereotypical Dominican man.
Blackface minstrelsy was the conduit through which African-American and African-American-influenced music, comedy, and dance first reached the white American mainstream. It played a seminal role in the introduction of African-American culture to world audiences.
Though antebellum (minstrel) troupes were white, the form developed in a form of racial collaboration, illustrating the axiom that defined – and continues to define – American music as it developed over the next century and a half: African-American innovations metamorphose into American popular culture when white performers learn to mimic black ones.
Many of country's earliest stars, such as Jimmie Rodgers and Bob Wills, were veterans of blackface performance. More recently, the American country music television show Hee Haw (1969–1993) had the format and much of the content of a minstrel show.
The immense popularity and profitability of blackface were testaments to the power, appeal, and commercial viability of not only black music and dance, but also of black style. This led to cross-cultural collaborations, as Giddins writes; but the often ruthless exploitation of African-American artistic genius, as well—by other, white performers and composers; agents; promoters; publishers; and record company executives.
While blackface in the literal sense has played only a minor role in entertainment in recent decades, various writers see it as epitomizing an appropriation and imitation of black culture that continues today. As noted above, Strausbaugh sees blackface as central to a longer tradition of "displaying Blackness". "To this day," he writes, "Whites admire, envy and seek to emulate such supposed innate qualities of Blackness as inherent musicality, natural athleticism, the composure known as 'cool' and superior sexual endowment," a phenomemon he views as part of the history of blackface. For more than a century, when white performers have wanted to appear sexy, (like Elvis or Mick Jagger); or streetwise, (like Eminem); or hip, (like Mezz Mezzrow); they often have turned to African-American performance styles, stage presence and personas. Pop culture referencing and cultural appropriation of African-American performance and stylistic traditions is a tradition with origins in blackface minstrelsy.
This "browning", à la Richard Rodriguez, of American and world popular culture began with blackface minstrelsy. It is a continuum of pervasive African-American influence which has many prominent manifestations today, among them the ubiquity of the cool aesthetic and hip hop culture.
- Border Morris
- Censored Eleven
- Coon song
- Little Black Sambo
- List of blackface minstrel songs
- List of blackface minstrel troupes
- List of entertainers known to have performed in blackface
- Portrayal of East Asians in Hollywood
- Whiteface (performance)
- Cultural appropriation
- For the "darky"/"coon" distinction see, for example, note 34 on p. 167 of Edward Marx and Laura E. Franey's annotated edition of Yone Noguchi, The American Diary of a Japanese Girl, Temple University Press, 2007, ISBN 1-59213-555-2. See also Lewis A. Erenberg (1984), Steppin' Out: New York Nightlife and the Transformation of American Culture, 1890–1930, University of Chicago Press, p. 73, ISBN 0-226-21515-6. For more on the "darky" stereotype, see J. Ronald Green (2000), Straight Lick: The Cinema of Oscar Micheaux, Indiana University Press, pp. 134, 206, ISBN 0-253-33753-4; p. 151 of the same work also alludes to the specific "coon" archetype.
- Mahar, William John (1999). Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture. University of Illinois Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-252-06696-0..
- Frank W. Sweet, A History of the Minstrel Show, Backintyme (2000), p. 25, ISBN 0-939479-21-4
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 62
- "The Father Christmas Affair". Are You Being Served?. Series 4. Episode 7. 1976-12-06. BBC1.
- "Roots?". Are You Being Served?. Series 8. Episode 8. 1981-12-24. BBC1.
- Lott, Eric. "Blackface and Blackness: The Minstrel Show in American Culture", in Annemarie Bean, James V. Hatch, and Brooks McNamara (eds), Inside the minstrel mask: readings in nineteenth-century blackface minstrelsy, pp. 5–6.
- Rogin, Michael (University of California Press 1998) Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (p. 30)
- Lott 1993, pp. 17–18
- Watkins 1999, p. 82
- Inside the minstrel mask: Readings in nineteenth-century blackface minstrelsy by Bean, Annemarie, James V. Hatch, and Brooks McNamara. 1996. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
- Jason Rodriquez, "Color-Blind Ideology and the Cultural Appropriation of Hip-Hop", Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 35, No. 6, 645–68 (2006).
- Darktown Strutters. – book reviews Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine. by Eric Lott, African American Review, Spring 1997.
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 35–36
- Tosches, Nick (2002). Where Dead Voices Gather. Back Bay. p. 10. ISBN 0-316-89537-7.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 68
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. p. 489.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 74 et. seq.
- Lott 1993, p. 211
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 67
- Oakley, Giles (2nd Edition) The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues (ISBN 0-306-80743-2)
- Ronald L. F. Davis, Creating Jim Crow Archived June 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., The History of Jim Crow online, New York Life. Accessed 31 January 2008.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 27
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 130–131
- Jody Rosen (2006), album notes to Jewface, Reboot Stereophonic CD RSR006
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 131
- Michael C. O'Neill, O'Neill's Ireland: Old Sod or Blarney Bog?, Laconics (eOneill.com), 2006. Accessed online 2 February 2008.
- Pat, Paddy and Teague Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine., The Independent (London), January 2, 1996. Accessed online (at findarticles.com) 2 February 2008.
- Toll 1974, p. 30
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 102–03
- Toll 1974, pp. 51–52
- Toll 1974, pp. 56–57
- Key, Susan. "Sound and Sentimentality: Nostalgia in the Songs of Stephen Foster." American Music, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Summer 1995), pp. 145–66.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 126
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 225
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 145–49
- Ransom, Harry. Minstrel Show Collection, p. 149 (1959), UTA.
- Lott 1993, p. 25
- Ashny, LeRoy (2006). With Amusement for All. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 17–18.
- One extensive list can be found at Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 222–225.
- Smith, Rj, "Pardon the Expression" (book review), Los Angeles Magazine, August 2001. Accessed online 2 February 2008.
- John, Kenrick. "Blackface and Old Wounds". Musicals 101. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Bogle, Donald (2011), Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters, Harper-Collins, p. 369, ISBN 978-0-06-124173-4
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 203–04
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 204–06
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 211–12
- Michael Rogin, Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (1998), University of California Press, p. 79, ISBN 0-520-21380-7.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 214
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 214–15
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 225; the televised version (1951–53) used African-American actors.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 240
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 241
- Au, Susan. Ballet and Modern Dance, 2nd ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002. Print.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 136
- Granville Ganter, "He made us laugh some": Frederick Douglass's humor, originally published in African American Review, December 22, 2003. Online at HighBeam Encyclopedia. Accessed online 2 February 2008.
- Frederick Douglass, Gavitt's Original Ethiopian Serenaders, originally published in The North Star (Rochester), 29 June 1849. Online in Stephen Railton, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, University of Virginia. Accessed online 31 January 2008.
- Toll 1974, p. 199
- Toll 1974, pp. 198, 236–37
- Toll 1974, p. 206
- Toll 1974, p. 205
- Toll 1974, p. 203
- Toll 1974, pp. 179, 198
- Toll 1974, p. 234
- Toll 1974, pp. 236–37, 244
- Toll 1974, p. 243
- Toll 1974, p. 200
- Toll 1974, p. 180
- Toll 1974, pp. 226–28, including the quotation from Trotter.
- Toll 1974, pp. 258–59
- Toll 1974, p. 195
- Toll 1974, p. 228
- Fox, Ted (2003) . Showtime at the Apollo. Rhinebeck, NY, USA: Mill Road Enterprises. ISBN 978-0-9723700-1-1. OCLC 680471611, 54084944, 9393699. (subscription required)
- Margo Jefferson, "Blackface Master Echoes in Hip-Hop", New York Times, October 13, 2004. Accessed online 2 February 2008.
- Johnson (1968). Black Manhattan, p. 90. Quoted in Toll 1974, p. 218
- Jones, Leroy (1963). Blues People: The Negro Experience in White America and the Music that Developed from It. NY: TMorrow Quill Paperbacks. pp. 85–86. ISBN 0-688-18474-X.
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 70–72
- Floyd, Jr., Samuel A. (1997) . The Power of Black Music: Interpreting its History from Africa to the United States. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 58 (1st ed.). ISBN 978-0-19-508235-7. OCLC 72565771, 801847202, 466431378. Retrieved October 25, 2012. (subscription required)
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 69
- Strausbaugh 2006, pp. 27–28
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 70
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 70; Toll 1974 passim.
- John, Strausbaugh. "Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface, Insult & Imitation in American Popular Culture". www.amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
- "The Golliwog Caricature", Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University. Accessed online 31 January 2008.
- Sacks and Sacks 158.
- "Mickey's Mellerdrammer. Archived 2012-11-20 at the Wayback Machine." Linen-mounted movie poster. Hake's Americana & Collectibles, sales site. Retrieved 01-14-2008.
- Coon Chicken Inn Archived 2014-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. Photos and history of the restaurant chain.
- "JAPAN: Dakkochan Delirium". Time. 1960-08-29. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Minstrels founder Mitchell dies, BBC, 29 August 2002. Accessed 2 February 2008.
- Miriam Kershaw, Postcolonialism and androgyny: the performance art of Grace Jones Archived 2013-06-14 at the Wayback Machine., Art Journal, Winter 1997, p. 5. Archived 2008-09-22 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed online 17 July 2008 at FindArticles.com.
- Marks, Craig; Tannenbaum, Rob (2011). I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. New York: Dutton. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-525-95230-5. Retrieved 2014-06-14.
- "Taco – Puttin' on the Ritz (Original Uncensored Version)". YouTube. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Hughes, Sherick A. (2003). "The Convenient Scapegoating of Blacks in Postwar Japan: Shaping the Black Experience Abroad". Journal of Black Studies. 33 (3): 335–53. doi:10.1177/0021934702238635. JSTOR 3180837. p. 342.
- John Greenwald with reporting by Kumiko Makihara, Japan Prejudice and Black Sambo, Time Magazine, June 24, 2001. Accessed online 20 May 2008.
- "CHOCOLATES LACASA · Chocolates y turrones con Imaginación" Archived January 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. lacasa.es. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "The African-American Image Abroad: Golly, It's Good!". Archived from the original on 2014-08-13.
- "Banania". banania.fr. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "I nostri Brand". Perfetti van Melle. 11 September 2017.
- Marriot, Michael (October 21, 1999). "Blood, Gore, Sex and Now: Race". The New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Leonard, David. "High Tech Blackface – Race, Sports Video Games and Becoming the Other". Intelligent Agent. 4 (4).
- Phillips, Amanda; Reed, Alison (2013). "Additive Race: Colorblind Discourses of Realism in Performance Capture Technologies". Digital Creativity. 24 (2).
- Graham, Jefferson (April 21, 2016). "Snapchat under fire for Marley filter called blackface". Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Brueck, Hilary (April 20, 2016). "Is Snapchat's New Bob Marley Filter Just Blackface?". Fortune.
- Clemons, Tracy (September 30, 2016). "'Blackface' Social Media Post Lands Prairie View A&M Athlete in Hot Water".
- Turnage, Jeremy; Mills, Chad (September 29, 2016). "Blackface or charcoal mask? College investigates photo on social media". Retrieved October 14, 2016.
- Simpson, Ian (October 1, 2016). "Pennsylvania college students suspended over blackface video". Retrieved October 14, 2016.
- Park, Madison (September 16, 2016). "Kansas State student apologizes but denies wearing blackface". Retrieved October 14, 2016.
- Jackson, Lauren Michele (2 August 2017). "We Need to Talk About Digital Blackface in Reaction GIFs". Teen Vogue. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Princewill, Victoria (14 August 2017). "Is it OK to use black emojis and gifs?". BBC. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- UB40 – Dream A Lie (Video). YouTube. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- Evelyne Yamine, Gareth Trickey and Chris Scott. Hey Hey sees red over black face Jackson 5 act Archived 2013-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Telegraph, October 08, 2009.
- "De oudst bekende naam van Zwarte Piet: Pieter-mê-knecht (1850)". 1850. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- Bas 2013, pp. 32, 34, 42–50
- Bas 2013, p. 49
- "Sinterklaas:Illustraties". 1814–1948. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Sterling, Toby (4 December 2012). "Criticism of Dutch 'Black Pete' tradition grows". The Boston Globe. Boston: NYTC. ISSN 0743-1791. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Hoving, I. e.a. (2005) Cultuur en migratie in Nederland. Veranderingen van het alledaagse 1950–2000 Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers p.253
- "'Zwarte Piet niet racistisch en moet blijven'". EenVandaag. 22 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Que le moins pire gagne". YouTube. Sep 10, 2009. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Les gens qui font l'énervement" (1989-1990 sketch). Rock et Belles Oreilles : The Coffret, Jacques K. Primeau Productions, 2011.
- Untitled 1988 bonus sketch. Rock et Belles Oreilles : The Coffret, Jacques K. Primeau Productions, 2011.
- Untitled 1989-1990 bonus sketch. Rock et Belles Oreilles : The Coffret, Jacques K. Primeau Productions, 2011.
- "Bye Bye 2006 RBO (5)". YouTube. June 2, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Le byebye de RBO 2006 Complet" (at 14:23). YouTube, August 6, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "La conne mission Bouchard-Taylor : Rock et Belles Oreilles (RBO)". YouTube. January 15, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- "RBO bye bye 2007 - Tour du monde". YouTube, March 2, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "Blackface controversy at Canadian school – YouTube". Sep 20, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Montreal university students don blackface". CBC News. Sep 15, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Montreal university expresses regret over blackface stunt". The Star. Toronto. September 15, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Blackface Blunder Backfires at Université de Montréal". September 17, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Challenging "Blackface" Is Not Quebec-Bashing". May 28, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- CTV News Montreal (24 February 2015). "Special Report: Examining the blackface debate". Montreal. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Why The Hell Are Quebec Comedians Wearing Blackface?". May 16, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Judith Lussier, "Les Québécois, tous des racistes", Métro, May 27, 2013, and Patrick Lagacé, "Une fois c'est un noir dans un gala", La Presse, May 27, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- "You Can't Point Out Racism In Quebec". May 25, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
-  Boucar Diouf, 25 May 2013, Je n'aime pas la fraternité raciale!
- "Le choc de la transpiration – Bye Bye 2013". YouTube, Jan 6, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- "Un visage peint en noir crée la controverse". December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- "P.K. Subban blackface in Théâtre du Rideau Vert play deemed offensive by some". December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- "Moses Sumney Quits Montreal Jazz Fest Over Show on Slavery." Billboard, July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- "SLĀV misses the mark, and precious opportunity." Montreal Gazette. July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Zhao, Christina (2018-02-16). "'RACIST' BLACKFACE CHINESE NEW YEAR TV SKETCH SPARKS WORLDWIDE OUTRAGE". Newsweek. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Chutel, Lynsey (16 February 2018). "China's state TV ran a racist skit with blackface as Africans for its Lunar New Year show". Quartz. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Kang, Dake (February 16, 2018). "Blackface in Chinese Lunar New Year sketch draws criticism". Associated Press. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Blanchard, Ben (22 February 2018). "China denies Lunar New Year broadcast with actress in blackface and fake buttocks was racist". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- John Mack (ed.), Masks: the Art of Expression, British Museum, 1994. ISBN 0-7141-2507-5/"The Other Within: Masks and masquerades in Europe", Cesayo Dogre Poppi.
- "'Star Boys'".
- "Geschichte". Retrieved 2017-07-12.
- Unterberger, Andrew (2011-10-04). "Happy National Taco Day!". Popdust. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Unschuld [Innocence]". Jenke Nordalm (in German). Retrieved October 25, 2012. Webpage of the director of the production at the Theater Freiburg with pictures
- "Colorblind?". etberlin.de. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Aktuell: Das Deutsche Theater sieht weiß und/oder Schwarz? | Theaterensemble 'Label Noir' | Metropolis, Samstag ab 16.45 Uhr | Kultur entdecken | de – ARTE". arte.tv. 2012. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "BBC News – Germany's Schlosspark Theatre defends 'blackface' actor". bbc.co.uk. January 10, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Cadet, Danielle (10 January 2012). "German Play, 'I'm Not Rappaport', Angers Critics With Blackface Actor". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Lauer, Stefan. "Blackface Is the New Black". vice.com. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Milagro, Lara-Sophie (March 28, 2012). "Die Blackfacing-Debatte III – Man muss kein Neonazi sein, um rassistisch zu handeln". nachtkritik.de. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Uludag, Özgür (May 2011). "Kommentar – Migranten spielen auf den Sprechbühnen keine Rolle". nachtkritik.de. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Georgakis, Nikolaos (2012). "Rassismusdebatte um Schwarze auf Schauspielbühnen". derwesten.de. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Haberl, Tobias (2012). "Interview mit René Pollesch über Liebe und Rücksicht. – Aus dem Magazin". sz-magazin.sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "'Clybourne Park' at Staatstheater Mainz". staatstheater-mainz.com. 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Lakhani, Nina (21 October 2015). "Guatemalans face choice of former blackface comedian or ex-first lady". The Guardian.
- "Noruz | TraditionsCustoms.com". traditionscustoms.com. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
- "Black-Face Minstrelsy". virginia.edu. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Wood, Joe. "The Yellow Negro" (PDF). Transition (73): 40–67. doi:10.2307/2935443.
- Top: LocoRoco Racist? Archived 2009-10-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- Neate, Patrick. "Where You're At: Notes From the Frontline of a Hip Hop Planet."
- "Time to shut down this modern-day minstrel show". The Japan Times. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Hamamoto, Ben. "Is blackface in Japan racist?". Archived from the original on 2006-09-07.
- Jun Hongo. "Japan TV Station Pulls Blackface Performance From Program". WSJ. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Fuji TV removes blackface segment after outcry". The Japan Times. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Hace EU el 'ridículo' al criticar a Memín Pinguín: Derbez (It was ridiculous for the EU to criticize Memín Pinguín)". Archived from the original on 2012-10-03.
- Video on YouTube
- Elizabeth, Rhodes, (2004-01-01). "Black Indians, Zulus and Congos; Transformation and Transference of Community Traditions in New Orleans and Panama".
- Revolta dos Pasteis de Nata [sic] – Ze Black [sic], YouTube
- Boy N'Ass & Dr. Pussy (parte 2) – Luís Filipe Borges – 5 Para a Meia Noite, YouTube
- "BLACK N'DECK" episódio 6 – Pedro Fernandes – 5 Para a Meia Noite, YouTube
- "Snoop Dogg" fala português – Pedro Fernandes – 5 Para a Meia Noite, YouTube
- A Tua Cara Não Me é estranha: Paulo Vintém interpreta Michael Jackson, Youtube
- Maria João Abreu (Michael Jackson) – A Tua Cara Não Me É Estranha (TVI), YouTube
- Daniela e Edmundo interpretam Michael Jackson e Siedah Garrett-A Tua cara não me é Estranha (TVI ), YouTube
- Merche Romero interpreta Tracy Chapman, YouTube
- Mico da Câmara Pereira interpreta «What a Wonderful World» de Louis Armstrong, YouTube
- Nicolau Breyner interpreta_Nat King Cole_ A Tua Cara Não me é Estranha, YouTube
- OS NEGROS NAS NOVELAS, blog Virtualia, 23 May 2009.
- A Cor de Gabriela Archived 2013-01-26 at the Wayback Machine., Lost in Japan, 18 June 2012.
- Caixa refaz propaganda e mostra Machado de Assis mulato, F5, Folha de S.Paulo, 10 October 2011.
- "Racismo explícito no Zorra Total relembra humor segregacionista dos EUA", Pragmatismo Político, 15 August 2012.
- "Coon Carnival Cape Town". 2005-10-27. Archived from the original on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- ""Offensive" Blackface South African Commercial Banned". BuzzFeed.
- William Fitzhugh Brundage (2011). Beyond Blackface: African Americans and the Creation of American Popular Culture, 1890–1930. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8078-3462-6.
- ewn.co.za. 2014. Tuks-blackface-students-face-disciplinary-action. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ewn.co.za/2014/08/06/Tuks-blackface-students-face-disciplinary-action. [Accessed 06 August 14].
- Keyes, Charles F. (1995). The golden peninsula : culture and adaptation in mainland Southeast Asia. Includes bibliographical references and index. Honolulu: (SHAPS library of Asian studies) University of Hawai'i Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-8248-1696-X.
- Rogers, Pat (1974). "The Waltham blacks and the Black Act". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 17 (3). ISSN 0018-246X.
- Buckland, Theresa Jill (1990). "Black Faces, Garlands, and Coconuts: Exotic Dances on Street and Stage". Dance Research Journal. Congress on Research on Dance. 22 (2): 1–12. JSTOR 1477779.
- Beth Abbit (24 April 2014), "Straw defends 'Nutters in Twitter picture row", Rossendale Free Press, archived from the original on 27 April 2014
- William Langley (27 Apr 2014), "Meeting the dance troop who say 'blacking-up' is a badge of pride", Sunday Telegraph
- "Darkie Day". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- "History of the Sweeps Festival". Medway Council. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Booth, Robert (5 November 2017). "Lewes bonfire society ends tradition of blacking-up". The Guardian.
- "Zulu Blackface: The Real Story!". Archived from the original on 2006-02-27.
- The Zulu Parade of Mardi Gras, American Experience web site, PBS. Accessed 16 July 2008.
- Stowe, David W. (1994). Swing Changes: Big-Band Jazz in New Deal America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 0-674-85825-5.
- Callow, Simon (1995). Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. Penguin. p. 145. ISBN 0-670-86722-5.
- John Francis Marion, Smithsonian Magazine, January 1981. "On New Year's Day in Philadelphia, Mummer's the word". Archived version accessed 4 January 2008.
- Newhouse, Sam (2016-01-04). "Mummers face backlash for 'brownface,' anti-gay incidents". Metro. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Joseph A. O'Brien, The Hartford Courant, January 30, 1964.. Accessed 3 February 2011.
- Elfman, Richard and Bright, Matthew (2004). Forbidden Zone (DVD Audio commentary). Fantoma. UPC 695026704423.
- Chicago Sun-Times Editorial, "Michel remarks insulting," November 16, 1988.
- Michel, Bob. "My Sincere Apologies", Chicago Sun-Times, November 18, 1988.
- Pulliam-Moore, Charles. "How Nintendo Changed This Racist Pokémon's Design for the Better". =Splinter. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Leah Dilworth (2003), Acts of Possession: : Collecting in America, Rutgers University Press, p. 255, ISBN 0-8135-3272-8.
- Johnson, Sophie."'Blackface' incident ignites campus." Whitman College Pioneer, October 26, 2006. Retrieved on 11-27-2007.
- Walter, Vic."Gates' Unfinished Business: Racism at Texas A&M Archived 2016-02-22 at the Wayback Machine.." ABC News, The Blotter, November 10, 2006. Retrieved on 11-27-2007.
- Editorial. "Blackface a Black Mark for Every Student Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Illini, October 31, 2007. Retrieved on 12–2–07.
- Connolly, Joe. "Blackface Makes Its Way To College Campuses Archived 2012-03-15 at the Wayback Machine.." The Daily Orange, November 11, 2003. Retrieved on 11–26–07.
- Pool, Hannah (26 February 2008). "Blacked-up Obama is a pretty weak joke". The Guardian.
- Sims, David (2011-07-05). ""Dee Reynolds: Shaping America's Youth" | It's Always Sunny In Philadelphia | TV Club | TV". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- Potts, Kimberly (May 3, 2012). "Ashton Kutcher 'Brownface' Ad With Indian Character 'Raj' Pulled (Video)". The Wrap. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (October 29, 2013). "Derek Hough Defends Sister In Blackface Controversy". Huffington Post.
- "Julianne Hough slammed for donning 'black face' Halloween costume". Fox News. October 28, 2013.
- "Julianne Hough dons blackface for Halloween, apologizes". USA TODAY. 27 October 2013. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- Today In Racism: YA Series "Save The Pearls" Employs Offensive Blackface And Bizarre Racist Stereotypes Plot The Frisky
- Is YA Novel "Save the Pearls" Straight-Up Racist or Just Misguided? XOJane
- Blackface Drag Again Draws Fire Gay City News. Volume 3, Issue 308 | February 19–25, 2004
- "After 100 years, Metropolitan Opera shuns blackface for 'Otello'". RT English. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Metropolitan Opera To Drop Use Of Blackface-Style Makeup In 'Otello'". NPR.org. 4 August 2015. Retrieved on 26 November 2015.
- "Debating 'Otello,' Blackface and Casting Trends". The New York Times. 1 October 2015.
- "An 'Otello' Without Blackface Highlights an Enduring Tradition in Opera". The New York Times. 20 September 2015.
- "The rarity of black faces, not 'Otello' in blackface, should be issue in opera". The Washington Post. 16 October 2015.
- James W. Brosnan (2005-10-27). "Virginia governor's candidate pulls ads after 'Sambo' attack". Scripps Howard News Service. Archived from the original on 2008-01-13. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Hernandez-Reguant, Ariana; Arroyo, Jossianna (2015-07-13). "The Brownface of Latinidad in Cuban Miami". Cuba Counterpoints. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
- Gary Giddings, Bing Crosby: A Pocketful of Dreams, The Early Years 1903–1940 (2001), Back Bay Books, p. 78. ISBN 0-316-88645-9.
- Nolan Porterfield, Jimmie Rodgers: The Life and Times of America's Blue Yodeler (1979), University of Indiana Press, p. 262, ISBN 0-252-00750-6.
- Charles Townsend, San Antonio Rose: The Life and Music of Bob Wills (1986), University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-01362-X, p. 45.
- Nick Tosches, Where Dead Voices Gather (2002), Back Bay, p. 66, ISBN 0-316-89537-7.
- Lott 1993, p. 5
- Toll 1974, p. 51
- Barlow, William. "Black Music on Radio During the Jazz Age," African American Review, Summer 1995.
- Kofsky, Frank (1998). Black Music, White Business: Illuminating the History and Political Economy of Jazz. Pathfinder Press.
- Reich, Howard and Gaines, William."Jelly Roll Blues: The Great Jazz Swindle[permanent dead link]," Part 1 of 3. The Chicago Tribune, November 28, 2007. Retrieved on 11-29-2007.[dead link]
- "Whites, Blacks and the Blues", "The Blues" Teacher's Guide, PBS. Retrieved on 12-18-2008.
- Kolawole, Helen."He Wasn't My King." The Guardian Unlimited, August 15, 2002. Retrieved on 11-29-2007.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 61: not about "sexiness", but makes an explicit analogy between T. D. Rice with "Jump Jim Crow" and Elvis Presley with "Hound Dog".
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 218 explicitly analogizes Al Jolson's style of blackface to Jagger and Eminem: "not mockery, but the sincere mimicry of a non-Black artist who loves Black culture (or what he thinks is Black culture) so dearly he can't resist imitating it, even to the ridiculous point of blacking up."
- Cunningham, Daniel Mudie. "Larry Clark: Trashing the White American Dream." Archived 2016-04-03 at the Wayback Machine. The Film Journal. Retrieved on 2006-08-25
- Roediger, David (1997). "The First Word in Whiteness: Early Twentieth-Century European Immigration", Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror. Temple University Press, p. 355.
- Strausbaugh 2006, p. 40: "To this day, Whites admire, envy and seek to emulate such supposed innate qualities of Blackness as inherent musicality, natural athleticism, the composure known at 'cool' and superior sexual endowment." Conversely, up to and including the Civil Rights era, "aspirational" black performers imitated white style: Strausbaugh 2006, p. 140
- Southgate, Nick."Coolhunting, account planning and the ancient cool of Aristotle." Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 453–61, 2003. Citation for the ubiquity. Retrieved on 03-02-2007.
- Thompson, Robert Farris (1973). "An Aesthetic of the Cool". African Arts. 7 (1): 40–43, 64–67, 89–91. JSTOR 3334749. Citation for African (more specifically, Yoruba) origin of "cool".
- MacBroom, Patricia. "Rap Locally, Rhyme Globally: Hip-Hop Culture Becomes a World-Wide Language for Youth Resistance, According to Course." News, Berkeleyan. 2000-05-02. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
- Abbott, Lynn, & Seroff, Doug (2008). Ragged but Right: Black Traveling Shows, "Coon Songs," and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
- Armstron-De Vreeze, Pamela (1997). "Surviving Zwarte Piet — a Black mother in the Netherlands copes with a racist institution in Dutch culture". Essence magazine.[dead link]
- Bas, Marcel (2013). Zwarte Piet: discriminerend of fascinerend?. Aspekt Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789461534095.
- Chude-Sokei, Louis (2005). The Last Darky: Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy and the African Diaspora. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3643-X.
- Cockrell, Dale (1997). Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and their World. Cambridge Studies in American Theatre and Drama. ISBN 0-521-56828-5.
- Levinthal, David (1999). Blackface. Arena. ISBN 1-892041-06-5.
- Lhamon, Jr., W.T. (1998). Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-74711-9.
- Hughes, Langston; Meltzer, Milton (1967). Black Magic: A Pictorial History of Black Entertainers in America. New York: Bonanza Books. ISBN 0-306-80406-9.
- Lott, Eric (1993). Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507832-2.
- Malik, Sarita. "The Black and White Minstrel Show". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
- Rogin, Michael (1998). Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21380-7.
- Sacks, Howard L., and Sacks, Judith (1993). Way up North in Dixie: A Black Family's Claim to the Confederate Anthem. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
- Sammond, Nicholas (2015). Birth of an Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- Strausbaugh, John (2006). Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface, Insult and Imitation in American Popular Culture. Jeremy P. Tarcher / Penguin. ISBN 1-58542-498-6.
- Toll, Robert C. (1974). Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6300-5.
- Twain, Mark (1924). "XIX, dictated 1906-11-30". Mark Twain's Autobiography. New York: Albert Bigelow Paine. LCCN 24025122.
- Watkins, Mel (1999). On the Real Side: A History of African American Comedy from Slavery to Chris Rock. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 1-55652-351-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Blackface.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Blackface minstrelsy.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Blackface|
- "Blackface and other historic racial images from the Authentic History Center"
- "Bambizzoozled – Blackface in Movies and Television"
- "The Blackface Stereotype", Manthia Diawara
- "Cape Minstrel Festival Kaapse Klopse", Cape Town Magazine.
- Recent blackface stories in the news, from the Colorblind Society
- "Zulu Blackface: The Real Story!"
- "The New Era of Blackface," Louis Chude-Sokei
- "The History of Racist Blackface Stereotypes
- "Blacking Up: Hip-Hop's Remix of Race and Identity
- "From Blackface to Beulah: Subtle Subversion in Early Black Sitcoms"
- Video: Blackface: History of a Controversy; Blackface in modern society, especially related to school.
- Zwarte Piet
- Zwarte Piet? – Boom Chicago rap video satire of Run DMC's "Christmas in Hollis"
- Expatica's Dutch News in English: Annual Zwarte Piet Debate
- "Who is Black Peter?" from Ferris State University
- Zwarte Piet film by Adwa Foundation, Rotterdam, and the Global Afrikan Congress[permanent dead link]
- Zwarte Piet (in Dutch)
- Balthazar in Spain