|Founder(s)||Edward H. Crane, Charles G. Koch, Murray Rothbard|
|Mission||To originate, disseminate, and increase understanding of public policies based on the principles of individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace.|
|Focus||public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence|
|President||(and CEO) Peter N. Goettler|
|Chairman||Robert A. Levy|
|Executive Vice-President||David Boaz|
(FYE March 2014)
|Slogan||"Individual Liberty, Free Markets, and Peace"|
|Formerly called||Charles Koch Foundation; Cato Foundation|
|Location||1000 Massachusetts Ave. N.W. Washington, D.C., United States|
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.[nb 1] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute. Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence. According to the 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 16 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 8 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks. 
- 1 History
- 2 Activities
- 3 Ideological relationships
- 4 Cato positions on political issues and policies
- 4.1 On foreign policy
- 4.2 On domestic issues
- 4.3 On environmental policy
- 4.4 Other commentaries of presidential administrations
- 5 Funding and structure
- 6 Associates in the news
- 7 Nobel laureates at Cato
- 8 Milton Friedman Prize
- 9 Board of directors
- 10 Notable Cato experts
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The institute was founded in December 1974 in Wichita, Kansas as the Charles Koch Foundation and initially funded by Charles Koch.[nb 2] The other members of the first board of directors included co-founder Murray Rothbard, libertarian scholar Earl Ravenal, and businessmen Sam H. Husbands Jr. and David H. Padden. At the suggestion of Rothbard, the institute changed its name in 1976 to Cato Institute after Cato's Letters, a series of British essays penned in the early 18th century by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon.
Cato relocated first to San Francisco, California in 1977, then to Washington, D.C. in 1981, settling initially in a historic house on Capitol Hill.(p446) The Institute moved to its current location on Massachusetts Avenue in 1993. Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of think tanks by James G. McGann, PhD of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in "producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research".
The Cato Institute publishes numerous policy studies, briefing papers, periodicals, and books. Peer-reviewed academic journals include the Cato Journal and Regulation. Other periodicals include Cato's Letter, Cato Supreme Court Review, and Cato Policy Report. Cato published Inquiry Magazine from 1977 to 1982 (before transferring it to the Libertarian Review Foundation) and Literature of Liberty from 1978 to 1979 (before transferring it to the Institute for Humane Studies).
Notable books from Cato and Cato scholars include:
In addition to maintaining its own website in English and Spanish, Cato maintains websites focused on particular topics:
- "Downsizing the Federal Government" contains essays on the size of the US Federal Government and recommendations for decreasing various programs.
- "Libertarianism.org" is a website focused on the theory and practice of libertarianism.
- Cato Unbound, a web-only publication that features a monthly open debate between four people. The conversation begins with one lead essay, followed by three response essays by separate people. After that, all four participants can write as many responses and counter-responses as they want for the duration of that month.
- The "PoliceMisconduct.net" contains reports and stories from Cato's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project and the National Police Misconduct News Feed.
- "Overlawyered" is a law blog on the subject of tort reform run by author Walter Olson.
Speakers at Cato have included Federal Reserve Chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke, and International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato. In 2009 Czech Republic President Václav Klaus spoke at a conference.
The Cato Institute officially resists being labeled as part of the conservative movement because "'conservative' smacks of an unwillingness to change, of a desire to preserve the status quo".
Cato scholars Gene Healy and Tim Lynch were critical of the expansion of executive power under President George W. Bush and the Iraq War. In 2006 and 2007, Cato published two books critical of the Republican Party's perceived abandonment of the limited-government ideals that swept them into power in 1994. For their part, only a minority of Republican congressmen supported President George W. Bush's 2005 proposal to partially privatize Social Security, an idea strongly backed by the Institute. And in the 109th Congress, President Bush's immigration plan – which was based on a proposal by Cato scholar Dan Griswold – went down to defeat largely due to the eventual opposition of conservative Republican congressmen.
Some Cato scholars disagree with conservatives on drug liberalization, liberal immigration policy, energy policy, and LGBT rights – including the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. Former Cato President Ed Crane had a particular dislike for neoconservatism. In a 2003 article with Cato Chairman Emeritus William A. Niskanen, he called neoconservatism a "particular threat to liberty perhaps greater than the ideologically spent ideas of left-liberalism". In 1995, Crane wrote that neoconservatives "have a fundamentally benign view of the state", which Crane considers antithetical to libertarian ideals of individual freedom. In 2004, Cato's foreign policy team criticized neoconservative foreign policy, albeit the opposition to neo-conservative foreign policy has not always been uniform.
Selected positions of Cato scholars
Many Cato scholars advocate support for civil liberties, liberal immigration policies, drug liberalization, and the repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell and laws restricting consensual sexual activity.
In 2006, Markos Moulitsas of the Daily Kos proposed the term "Libertarian Democrat" to describe his particular liberal position, suggesting that libertarians should be allies of the Democratic Party. Replying, Cato vice president for research Brink Lindsey agreed that libertarians and liberals should view each other as natural ideological allies, and noted continuing differences between mainstream liberal views on economic policy and Cato's "Jeffersonian philosophy". Cato has stated on its "About Cato" page:
The Jeffersonian philosophy that animates Cato's work has increasingly come to be called "libertarianism" or "market liberalism." It combines an appreciation for entrepreneurship, the market process, and lower taxes with strict respect for civil liberties and skepticism about the benefits of both the welfare state and foreign military adventurism.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
The relationship between Cato and the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) improved with the nomination of Cato's new president John A. Allison IV in 2012. He is a former ARI board member and is reported to be an "ardent devotee" of Rand who has promoted reading her books to colleges nationwide.
Cato positions on political issues and policies
Some Cato scholars advocate policies that advance "individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace". They are libertarian in their policy positions, typically advocating diminished government intervention in domestic, social, and economic policies and decreased military and political intervention worldwide. Cato was cited by columnist Ezra Klein as nonpartisan, saying that it is “the foremost advocate for small-government principles in American life" and it "advocates those principles when Democrats are in power, and when Republicans are in power".
Specific policy proposals advanced by Cato scholars include such measures as abolishing the minimum wage, and abolishing affirmative action. Eric Lichtblau thinks Cato is presently "one of the country’s most widely cited research organizations".
On foreign policy
Cato's non-interventionist foreign policy views, and strong support for civil liberties, have frequently led Cato scholars to criticize those in power, both Republican and Democratic. Cato scholars opposed President George H. W. Bush's 1991 Gulf War operations (a position which caused the organization to lose nearly $1 million in funding),(p454) President Bill Clinton's interventions in Haiti and Kosovo, and President George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq. As a response to the September 11 attacks, Cato scholars supported the removal of al Qaeda and the Taliban regime from power, but are against an indefinite and open-ended military occupation of Afghanistan.
Ted Galen Carpenter, Cato's Vice President for Defense and Foreign Policy Studies, criticized many of the arguments offered to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq. One of the war's earliest critics, Carpenter wrote in January 2002: "Ousting Saddam would make Washington responsible for Iraq's political future and entangle the United States in an endless nation-building mission beset by intractable problems." Carpenter also predicted: "Most notably there is the issue posed by two persistent regional secession movements: the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south." Cato's Director of Foreign Policy Studies, Christopher Preble, argues in The Power Problem: How American Military Dominance Makes Us Less Safe, Less Prosperous, and Less Free, that America's position as an unrivaled superpower tempts policymakers to constantly overreach and to redefine ever more broadly the "national interest".
On domestic issues
Cato has published strong criticisms of the 1998 settlement which many U.S. states signed with the tobacco industry. In 2004, Cato scholar Daniel Griswold wrote in support of President George W. Bush's failed proposal to grant temporary work visas to otherwise undocumented laborers which would have granted limited residency for the purpose of employment in the U.S.
In 2003, Cato filed an amicus brief in support of the Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the remaining state laws that made private, non-commercial homosexual relations between consenting adults illegal. Cato cited the 14th Amendment, among other things, as the source of their support for the ruling. The amicus brief was cited in Justice Kennedy's majority opinion for the Court.
In 2006, Cato published a Policy Analysis criticising the Federal Marriage Amendment as unnecessary, anti-federalist, and anti-democratic. The amendment would have changed the United States Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage; the amendment failed in both houses of Congress.
Cato scholars have been sharp critics of current U.S. drug policy and the perceived growing militarization of U.S. law enforcement. Additionally, the Cato Institute opposes smoking bans and mandatory use of safety belts.
Criticism of corporate welfare
In 2004, the Institute published a paper arguing in favor of "drug re-importation". Cato has published numerous studies criticizing what it calls "corporate welfare", the practice of public officials funneling taxpayer money, usually via targeted budgetary spending, to politically connected corporate interests.
Cato president Ed Crane and Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope co-wrote a 2002 op-ed piece in the Washington Post calling for the abandonment of the Republican energy bill, arguing that it had become little more than a gravy train for Washington, D.C. lobbyists. Again in 2005, Cato scholar Jerry Taylor teamed up with Daniel Becker of the Sierra Club to attack the Republican Energy Bill as a give-away to corporate interests.
On copyright issues
On environmental policy
Cato scholars have written extensively about the issues of the environment, including global warming, environmental regulation, and energy policy. The Cato Institute lists "Energy and the Environment" as one of its 13 major "research issues", and global warming is one of six sub-topics under this heading. The Institute has issued over two dozen studies on energy and environmental topics in recent years.
Some experts, including writers cited by PolitiFact.com and Scientific American, have criticized Cato's work on global warming. Cato has held a number of briefings on global warming with global warming skeptics as panelists. In December 2003, panelists included Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and John Christy. Michaels, Balling and Christy agree that global warming is, in fact, related at least some degree to human activity but that some scientists and the media have overstated the danger. The Cato Institute has also criticized political attempts to stop global warming as expensive and ineffective:
No known mechanism can stop global warming in the near term. International agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, would have no detectable effect on average temperature within any reasonable policy time frame (i.e., 50 years or so), even with full compliance.
It's false. There is absolutely no evidence that extreme weather events are on the increase. None. The argument that more and more dollar damages accrue is a reflection of the greater amount of wealth we've created.[this quote needs a citation]
Cato scholars have also been critical of the Bush administration's views on energy policy. In 2003, Cato scholars Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren blasted the Republican Energy Bill as "hundreds of pages of corporate welfare, symbolic gestures, empty promises, and pork-barrel projects". They also spoke out against the former president's calls for larger ethanol subsidies.
With regard to the "Takings Clause" of the United States Constitution and environmental protection, libertarians associated with Cato contend that the Constitution is not adequate to guarantee the protection of private property rights.
Other commentaries of presidential administrations
George W. Bush administration
Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush's Republican administration (2001–2009) on several issues, including education, and excessive government spending. On other issues, they supported Bush administration initiatives, most notably health care, Social Security, global warming, tax policy, and immigration.
2008 Election campaign commentaries
Barack Obama administration
Cato has criticized President Obama's stances on policy issues such as fiscal stimulus, healthcare reform, foreign policy, and the drug-related matters, while supporting his stance on the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell and liberal immigration policy.
Funding and structure
The Cato Institute is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under U.S. Internal Revenue Code. The Institute performs no contract research and does not accept government funding. For revenue, the Institute is largely dependent on private contributions.
According to its annual report, the Cato Institute had fiscal year 2008 income of $24 million. The report notes that 77% of Cato's income that year came from individual contributions, 13% from foundations, 2% from corporations, and 8% from "program and other income" (e.g., publication sales, program fees).
According to an agreement signed in 1977, there were to be four shareholders of the Cato Institute. They were Charles and David H. Koch, Ed Crane, and William A. Niskanen. Niskanen died in October 2011. In March 2012, a dispute broke out over the ownership of Niskanen's shares. Charles and David Koch filed suit in Kansas, seeking to void his shareholder seat. The Kochs argued that Niskanen’s shares should first be offered to the board of the Institute, and then to the remaining shareholders. Crane contended that Niskanen's share belonged to his widow, Kathryn Washburn, and that the move by the Kochs was an attempt to turn Cato into "some sort of auxiliary for the G.O.P.... It's detrimental to Cato, it's detrimental to Koch Industries, it's detrimental to the libertarian movement."
In June 2012, Cato announced an agreement in principle to settle the dispute by changing the institute's governing structure. Under the agreement, a board replaced the shareholders and Crane, who at the time was also Chief Executive Officer, retired. Former BB&T bank CEO John A. Allison IV replaced him. The Koch brothers agreed to drop two lawsuits.
- Atlantic Philanthropies
- Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation
- Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation
- Castle Rock Foundation (formerly known as The Coors Foundation)
- Donors Trust
- Earhart Foundation
- Ford Foundation
- JM Foundation, founded by businessman Jeremiah Milbank
- John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.
- Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation
- Scaife Foundations (Sarah Mellon Scaife, Carthage)
In 2011 Cato received just under 2% of its support from corporations. According to the group's annual report, the following corporations gave more than $5000:
Criticism of corporate support to Cato
|This section requires expansion. (July 2012)|
The advocacy group Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights accused Cato of being too tied to tobacco industry corporate funders. They reported that Cato received funding from Philip Morris and other tobacco companies in the 1990s and that at one point Rupert Murdoch served on the boards of directors of both Cato and Philip Morris.
The Nation reported support for Cato from the tobacco industry in a 2012 story, noting that Philip Morris listed Cato VP David Boaz as one of its "National Allies" in a 2000 memo, and that in 2001 a British American Tobacco executive sent a thank-you letter to Cato Chairman Robert Levy.
|This section may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (April 2015)|
|Funding details as of FYE March 2014:||
Net assets as of FYE March 2013: $58,731,695.
Associates in the news
- Cato senior fellow Robert A. Levy personally funded the plaintiffs' successful Supreme Court challenge to the District of Columbia's gun ban (District of Columbia v. Heller), on the basis of the Second Amendment.
- In January 2008, Dom Armentano wrote an op-ed piece about UFOs and classified government data in the Vero Beach Press-Journal. Cato Executive Vice President David Boaz wrote that "I won't deny that this latest op-ed played a role in our decision..." to drop Armentano as a Cato adjunct scholar.
Nobel laureates at Cato
Milton Friedman Prize
Since 2002, the Cato Institute has awarded the Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty every two years to "an individual who has made a significant contribution to advancing human freedom." The prize comes with a cash award of US$250,000.
|2002||Peter Thomas Bauer||British|
|2004||Hernando de Soto Polar||Peruvian|
Board of directors
As of April 2015:
- John A. Allison IV, Former President and CEO, Cato Institute; retired Chairman and CEO, BB&T
- K. Tucker Andersen, Director, Above All Advisors
- Carl Barney, Chairman, Center for Excellence in Higher Education
- Frank Bond, Executive Vice President, The Foundation Group LLC
- Richard Dennis, President, Dennis Trading Group
- Peter N. Goettler, President and CEO, Cato Institute; former Managing Director, Barclays Capital
- Ethelmae C. Humphreys, Chair, Tamko Roofing Products, Inc.
- James M. Kilts, Partner, Centerview Capital Holdings; former CEO, The Gillette Company
- David H. Koch, Executive vice-president, Koch Industries, Inc.
- James M. Lapeyre, Jr., President, Laitram, LLC
- Robert A. Levy, Chairman, Cato Institute
- John C. Malone, Chairman, Liberty Media
- Nancy Pfotenhauer, consultant, Washington, D.C.
- Lewis E. Randall, former Director, E-Trade Financial Corporation
- Howard Rich, Chairman, Americans for Limited Government
- Donald G. Smith, President, Donald Smith & Co.
- Nestor R. Weigand, Jr., Chairman and CEO, JP Weigand & Sons, Inc.
- Jeffrey S. Yass, Managing Director, Susquehana International Group, LLP
- Fred Young, former owner, Young Radiator Company
Notable Cato experts
Notable scholars associated with Cato include the following:
- Swaminathan Aiyar, Research Fellow, Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Doug Bandow, Senior Fellow
- Jason Bedrick, Policy Analyst
- David Boaz, Executive Vice President
- Mark A. Calabria, Director of Financial Regulation Studies
- Edward H. Crane, Founder and President Emeritus
- Steve H. Hanke, Senior Fellow and Director, Troubled Currencies Project
- Gene Healy, Vice President
- Nat Hentoff, Senior Fellow
- Andrei Illarionov, Senior Fellow, Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Brink Lindsey, Distinguished Senior Fellow, Center for the Study of Science
- Patrick J. Michaels, Director, Center for the Study of Science
- Jeffrey A. Miron, Senior Fellow
- Daniel J. Mitchell, Senior Fellow
- John Mueller, Senior Fellow
- Johan Norberg, Senior Fellow
- Alex Nowrasteh, Immigration Policy Analyst
- Walter Olson, Senior Fellow
- Randal O'Toole, Senior Fellow
- Tom G. Palmer, Senior Fellow and Director of Cato University
- Roger Pilon, Vice President for Legal Affairs
- José Piñera, Co-chairman, Project on Social Security Choice
- William Poole, Senior Fellow
- Alan Reynolds, Senior Fellow
- Nicholas Quinn Rosenkranz, Senior Fellow in Constitutional Studies
- Julian Sanchez, Research Fellow
- Jerry Taylor, Vice President
- Ian Vásquez, Director, Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Patrick Basham (Democracy Institute)
- David E. Bernstein (George Mason University School of Law)
- Donald J. Boudreaux (George Mason University)
- Robert L. Bradley, Jr. (Institute for Energy Research)
- Bryan Caplan (George Mason University)
- John H. Cochrane (University of Chicago Booth School of Business)
- Robert Corn-Revere (Davis Wright Tremaine (law firm))
- Tyler Cowen (George Mason University)
- Anthony de Jasay (Nuffield College, Oxford)
- Kevin Dowd (University of Nottingham)
- Richard A. Epstein (New York University School of Law)
- Enrique Ghersi (University of Lima)
- Robert Higgs (The Independent Institute)
- Daniel B. Klein (George Mason University)
- Arnold Kling (George Mason University)
- Chandran Kukathas (London School of Economics)
- Loren Lomasky (University of Virginia)
- Jonathan R. Macey (Yale Law School)
- Tibor R. Machan (Auburn University and Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics)
- Michael Munger (Duke University)
- David G. Post (Temple University Beasley School of Law)
- Alvin Rabushka (Hoover Institution)
- Harvey Silverglate (Foundation for Individual Rights in Education)
- Ilya Somin (George Mason University School of Law)
- Richard L. Stroup (The Independent Institute)
- James Tooley (Newcastle University)
- Lawrence H. White (George Mason University)
- Glen Whitman (Royal Society)
- Walter E. Williams (George Mason University)
- Leland B. Yeager (Auburn University and University of Virginia)
- Radley Balko, Media Fellow
- Randy E. Barnett, Senior Fellow
- James M. Buchanan (1919–2013)
- Vladimir Bukovsky, Senior Fellow
- Tucker Carlson, Senior Fellow
- F. A. Hayek (1899–1992)
- Penn Jillette, H.L. Mencken Research Fellow
- Václav Klaus, Distinguished Senior Fellow
- Deepak Lal, Senior Fellow
- Christopher Layne, Visiting Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies
- P. J. O'Rourke, H.L. Mencken Research Fellow
- Jim Powell, Senior Fellow
- Richard W. Rahn, Senior Fellow
- George Selgin, Senior Fellow
- Vernon L. Smith, Senior Fellow
- Teller, H.L. Mencken Research Fellow
- Cathy Young, Media Fellow
- Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Koch is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Kansas Secretary of State Business Entity Name Search for "Cato Foundation" gives entity no. 0385872, established in Kansas December 19, 1974.
- "Cato's Mission". Cato Institute. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "Board of Directors". Cato Institute. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- Cato Institute website profile of David Boaz, accessed September 6, 2012.
- "Cato Institute 2013 Annual Report". Cato Institute. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2013. OCLC 52255585
- "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- Cobane, Craig T. (2005). "Think Tanks". Americans at War. Gale. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- James G. McGann (Director) (February 4, 2015). "2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Retrieved February 14, 2015. Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include # 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, #5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, #4 (of 55) in Education Policy, #17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, #8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, #14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, #18 (of 80) in International Development, #14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, #8 (of 50) in Social Policy, #8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, #17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, #3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, #9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, #2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, #12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, #5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, #11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy, and #9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs.
- http://www.cgdev.org/blog/cgds-think-tank-public-profile-rankings-are-back. Retrieved July 17, 2015. Missing or empty
- "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Burris, Charles (February 4, 2011). "Kochs v. Soros: A Partial Backstory". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- The essays, named after Cato the Younger, the defender of republican institutions in Rome, expounded on the political views of philosopher John Locke, that had a strong influence on the American Revolution's intellectual environment. See: Mitchell, Annie (July 2004). "A Liberal Republican "Cato"". American Journal of Political Science 48 (3): 588. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00089.x.
- Rossiter, Clinton (1953). Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty. New York: Harcourt, Brace. p. 141.
No one can spend any time the newspapers, library inventories, and pamphlets of colonial America without realizing that Cato's Letters rather than John Locke's Civil Government was the most popular, quotable, esteemed source for political ideas in the colonial period.
- Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 741. ISBN 978-1-58648-350-0. OCLC 76141517.
- "The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program 2009" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- ISSN 0273-3072
- Academic Search Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCO
- ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International, ProQuest
- ISSN 0147-0590
- Business Source Complete: Journals & Magazines Only, EBSCO
- ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International, ProQuest
- OCLC 464445035 and 51687065
- ISSN 1936-0398
- ISSN 0743-605X
- ISSN 0148-5008; OCLC 3456688
- ISSN 0161-7303; OCLC 4007467 (Literature of Liberty ended publication in 1982.)
- Cato's Spanish language website
- Downsizing the Federal Government
- Cato Daily Podcast
- Bleier, Karen (October 27, 2008). "International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato". Getty Images. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
file photo taken on November 30, 2006
- Wilson, Mark (November 20, 2003). "Alan Greenspan Speaks About Euro in Washington". Getty Images. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Jones, Caleb. "Bernanke". AP Images. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke speaks at the Cato Institute's annual Monetary Conference...
- "President of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus Delivers Remarks at the Cato Institute". Federal Document Clearing House, Inc. Washington Transcript Service. September 19, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "Cato's Mission". The Cato Institute (accessed August 22, 2013)
- Gene Healy and Timothy Lynch, "Power Surge: The Constitutional Record of George W. Bush", Cato Institute, May 1, 2006
- Christopher Preble, "Exiting Iraq: Why the U.S. Must End the Military Occupation and Renew the War against Al Qaeda", Cato Institute
- Stephen Slivinski, Buck Wild: How Republicans Broke the Bank and Became the Party of Big Government, August 2006
- Michael D. Tanner, Leviathan on the Right: How Big-Government Conservatism Brought Down the Republican Revolution, February 2007
- Daniel Griswold, "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States", Cato Institute, October 15, 2002[dead link]
- Jim VandeHei and Zachary A. Goldfarb, "Immigration Deal at Risk as House GOP Looks to Voters", Washington Post, May 28, 2006, p. A01
- Hidalgo, Juan Carlos. "Barack Obama: The Enthusiastic Drug Warrior". Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Shapiro, Ilya. "One Cheer for Obama’s New Immigration Policy". Cato@Liberty. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel (September 5, 2008). "Bipartisan Nonsense on "Energy Independence" and Trade". Cato@Liberty. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Pilon, Roger. "Government Shouldn't Police Morals – or Sexual Practices". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Preble, Christopher. "Obama Right on "Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell"". Cato@Liberty. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Crane, Edward H.; and William A. Niskanen. "Upholding Liberty in America". Financial Times. June 24, 2003.
- Crane, Edward H. "The Government Habit". Cato Policy Report. November/December 1995.
- Preble, Christopher and Justin Logan. "Neocons Forced to Face Reality". July 26, 2004.
- Lindsey, Brink. "Should We Invade Iraq?". Reason Magazine (January 2003). Reason Magazine. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Lindsey, Brink. "Liberaltarians". December 4, 2006.
- "Cato on "How to Label Cato"". The Cato Institute. Cato Institute. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- Jane Mayer, The Kochs v. Cato: Winners and Losers, The New Yorker, July 3, 2012.
- Klein, Ezra (March 7, 2012). "Why Do the Kochs Want to Kill the Cato Institute?". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- William Niskanen, "House Faces the Dumbest Bill of the Year (So Far): A $2.10 Increase in the Minimum Wage", Cato@Libery, June 14, 2006
- Gryphon, Marie. "The Affirmative Action Myth". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Lichtblau, Eric (March 6, 2012). "Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Malou Innocent and Ted Galen Carpenter (September 14, 2009). "Escaping the 'Graveyard of Empires': A Strategy to Exit Afghanistan". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Overthrow Saddam? Be Careful What You Wish For". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Lozada, Carlos (May 3, 2009). "The Big Idea – The Power Problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- "Defense Execs Say Deeper DoD Budget Cuts, Higher Taxes OK."
- Thomas C. O'Brien, "Constitutional and Antitrust Violations of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement", Policy Analysis no. 371, Cato Institute, May 18, 2000
- Griswold, Daniel (December 3, 2004). "Beyond the Barbed Wire: Bush won a mandate for immigration reform". Reason.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Cato's link
- Anthony Hawks, "The Balanced Budget Veto: A New Mechanism to Limit Federal Spending", Policy Analysis no. 487, Cato Institute, September 4, 2003
- "539 U.S. 558 LAWRENCE et al. v. TEXAS No. 02-102. Supreme Court of United". bulk.resource.org. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Carpenter, Dale (June 1, 2006). "The Federal Marriage Amendment: Unnecessary, Anti-Federalist, and Anti-Democratic". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Radley Balko (July 17, 2006). "Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America". Cato Institute.
- Lambert, Thomas A. "The Case Against Smoking Bans" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Yale Brozen: The High Cost of Government Regulation, in: Toward Liberty: The Idea that is Changing the World, ed. by David Boaz, Cato Institute, 2002, p. 131
- "Drug Reimportation: The Free Market Solution", Policy Analysis no. 521, Cato Institute, August 4, 2004
- James Bovard, "Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare", Policy Analysis no. 241, September 26, 1995
- Stephen Moore and Dean Stansel, "Ending Corporate Welfare As We Know It", Policy Analysis no. 225, May 12, 1995
- Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare Budget: Bigger Than Ever", Policy Analysis no. 415, October 10, 2001
- Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare State: How the Federal Government Subsidizes U.S. Businesses", Policy Analysis no. 592, May 14, 2007
- Pope, Carl; Crane, Ed (July 30, 2002). "Fueled by Pork". The Washington Post. p. A.17. Retrieved August 21, 2013. (subscription required). Cato's link
- Jerry Taylor and Daniel Becker, "Energy Bill Blues", July 2, 2005
- Gigi Sohn, "A Welcome Voice on the Right", Public Knowledge, March 21, 2006
- "The Cato Institute Page on Energy and the Environment". Cato Institute. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "The Cato Institute Official web site page on Global Warming". Cato Institute. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Energy and Environment". Cato Institute (2008). Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- PolitiFact.com: Cato Institutes claim on global warming disputed by most experts. April 1, 2009.
- Cato was criticized for publishing an alleged misleading Addendum: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. See: Fischer, Douglas; The Daily Climate (October 22, 2012). "Fake Addendum by Contrarian Group Tries to Undo U.S. Government Climate Report". Scientific American. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Michaels, Patrick J. "Global Warming" (PDF). Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress. p. 474. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (November 19, 2003). "Mighty Porking Power Rangers: Scanning the energy bill". National Review Online. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (January 27, 2007). "Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Ball, Terence (2003). "Takings". Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- McCluskey, Neal. "Feds in the Classroom". Cato Institute.
- "Downsizing the Federal Government". Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Cannon, Michael F (October 21, 2009). "Yes, Mr. President, A Free Market Can Fix Health Care" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Allen, Mike (January 23, 2005). "Semantics Shape Social Security Debate: Democrats Assail 'Crisis' While GOP Gives 'Privatization' a 'Personal' Twist". Washington Post. p. A04.
- Biggs, Andrew; Macguineas, Maya (January 6, 2003). "Cutting Corporate Welfare Could Fund a Bush Social Security Plan". CATO Institute.
- Moore, Stephen; Kerpen, Phil (October 12, 2004). "Show Me the Money! Dividend Payouts after the Bush Tax Cut". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel (May 18, 2006). "America Needs Real Immigration Reform". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel. "Illegal Immigration: Will Congress Finally Solve It?". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel. "Immigration Reform Must Include a Temporary Worker Program". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Samples, John (January 15, 2008). "McCain vs. Madison". The American Spectator (The American Spectator Foundation). Retrieved August 20, 2013. Cato's link
- Carpenter, Ted Galen (July 7, 2008). "John McCain on Foreign Policy: Even Worse Than Bush". Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture (Rockford Institute). Cato's link
- Mitchell, Dan. "Obama’s New Stimulus Schemes: Same Song, Umpteenth Verse". Cato @ Liberty. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Healy, Gene (November 24, 2009). "Obamacare is unconstitutional". Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 20, 2013., Cato's link
- "Obama's War Without Policy in Libya". Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Cato Institute 2007 Annual Report, p. 46 (Figures are for fiscal year ending March 31, 2008.)
- Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- "Directory SPN Members". State Policy Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Koch Brothers File Lawsuit Over The Ownership Of the Cato Institute, March 1, 2012, AP via The Huffington Post, retrieved March 1, 2012
- Kochs launch court fight over Cato, Mike Allen, POLITICO, March 1, 2012, retrieved March 1, 2012
- Battle for control of Cato Institute highlights unusual structure, March 3, 2012, The Washington Post, Retrieved December 3, 2012
- Yadron, Danny (June 25, 2012). "Koch Brothers, Cato Institute Settle Dispute". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Cato Institute and Shareholders Reach Agreement in Principle, Cato Institute press release, June 25, 2012.
- Lichtblau, Eric (June 25, 2012). "Cato Institute and Koch Brothers Reach Agreement". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- 2010 Cato Fndn Annual Report p. 37. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- Kroll, Andy (February 5, 2013). "Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conservative Movement". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Kroll, Andy (February 11, 2013). "Exclusive: Donors Trust, The Right's Dark-Money ATM, Paid Out $30 Million in 2011". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Ball, Whitney L. (2010). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax" (PDF). Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. p. 33-35.
- Ball, Whitney L. (2011). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax" (PDF). Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. p. 24.
- "Cato Institute: 2011 Annual Report". Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights: "The Cato Institute". 2008
- Ames, Mark (20 April 2012). "Independent and Principled? Behind the Cato Myth". The Nation (The Nation Company, L.P.). Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Cato Institute" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Greenhouse, Linda (November 12, 2007). "Supreme Court May Take Gun Case – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Armentano, Dom (February 8, 2008). "Intelligent extraterrestrial life: The other inconvenient truth?". TC Palm (Stuart, FL). Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Cox, Billy (January 30, 2008). "Cato caves on UFOs". Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, FL). Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Nobel Laureates at Cato".
- Ronall, Joachim O.; Saxena, Rohan; Beloff, Ruth (2007). "Friedman, Milton". Encyclopaedia Judica (2nd ed.). Thomson Gale. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "The Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Institute. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- "Peter Bauer, 86; Economist Fought Foreign Aid". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. May 19, 2002. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- Konrad, Rachel (May 6, 2004). "Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto receives Friedman Prize". Associated Press. Retrieved December 23, 2010
- "Mart Laar Receives Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Policy Report (Cato Institute). July–August 2006. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- "Student wins $500,000 for challenging Chavez". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 23, 2008.
- "Iranian writer Akbar Ganji wins Milton Friedman Prize". Arabianbusiness.com. April 13, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- 联合早报网 (2012). "茅于轼获美国傅利曼自由奖". realtime.zaobao.com. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Dorn, James (2014). "Leszek Balcerowicz Transformed Poland Through An Embrace Of Economic Freedom". Forbes. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Cato Institute: Policy Scholars