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Central Board of Secondary Education

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Central Board of Secondary Education
Logo of Central Board of Secondary Education
AbbreviationCBSE
Formation3 November 1962 (58 years ago) (1962-11-03)
TypeGovernmental Board of Education
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNew Delhi, India
Official language
Chairperson
Manoj Ahuja, IAS
Parent organisation
Ministry of Education
Affiliations21,271 schools (2019)[1]
Websitewww.cbse.gov.in

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India. There are approximately 21,271 schools in India and 220 schools in 28 foreign countries affiliated to the CBSE.[1][2] From 309 schools in year 1962, as on year 2019, CBSE has 21,271 schools and 228 schools in 25 foreign countries. All schools affiliated to CBSE follow the NCERT curriculum.[3]

History

The first education board to be set up in India was the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education in 1921, which was under the jurisdiction of Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior.[4] In 1929, the government of India set up a joint Board named "Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana". This included Ajmer, Merwara, Central India, and Gwalior. Later it was confined to Ajmer, Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh. In 1952, it became the "Central Board of Secondary Education".

Affiliations

CBSE affiliates all Kendriya Vidyalayas, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, private schools, and most of the schools approved by central government of India. There are 1,138 Kendriya Vidyalayas, 3,011 Government Schools, 16,741 Independent School, 595 Jawahar Novodaya Vidyalaya and 14 Central Tibetan School.[2]

Examinations

CBSE conducts the final examinations for Class 10 and Class 12 every year in the month of March. The results are announced by the end of May.[5] The board earlier conducted the AIEEE Examination for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in colleges across India. However, the AIEEE exam was merged with the IIT-Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) in 2013. The common examination is now called JEE (Main) and is henceforth conducted by National Testing Agency.

CBSE also conducts AIPMT (All India Pre Medical Test) for admission to major medical colleges in India. In 2014, the conduct of the National Eligibility Test for grant of a junior research fellowship and eligibility for assistant professor in institutions of higher learning was outsourced to CBSE.[6] Apart from these tests, CBSE also conducts the Central Teacher Eligibility Test and the Class X optional proficiency test.[6] With the addition of NET in 2014, the CBSE has become the largest exam conducting body in the world.[6][7]

On 10 November 2017, the Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi cleared a proposal for the creation of a National Testing Agency (NTA) serving as the premier autonomous body for conducting entrance examinations in the country. Beginning in 2018 various exams previously conducted by the CBSE were transferred to the NTA including National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate), Joint Entrance Examination – Main, National Eligibility Test, Central Universities Common Entrance Test and others.[8]

Promotion criteria

Class 10

For promotion from Secondary level (Class IX-X) to Senior Secondary level (Class XI-XII), a student must obtain, for all subjects (or best 5 if 6 subjects are taken), 33% overall, without any minimum theory mark requirement. Originally, the passing criteria were set such that a student had to get 33% in both the theory and practical components. However, an exemption was initially granted for students writing the exam in 2018 as they went through the old CCE system in the previous year.[9] However, CBSE later extended this relief for students writing the exam from 2019 and later as well.[10] For a student who does not manage to pass up to two subjects, he/she can write the compartment in those subjects in July. For those who fail the compartment, or those who fail in three subjects or more, he/she must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year.

Class 12

For class 12 students the promotion criteria are 33% overall, with 33% in both theory and practical examinations (if applicable). For a student who does not manage to pass on exactly one subject, he/she can write the compartment for that subject in July. For those who fail the compartment, or those who fail in two subjects or more, he/she must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year.

Grading

For the Class 10 and Class 12 exams, CBSE (along with the marks obtained) includes the positional grade obtained by the student, which is dependent on the average performance of the students in that subject. Consequently, the cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade vary every year.

Grading system by CBSE [11]
Grade Criteria
A1 Top 1/8 of passed students in that subject
A2 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
B1 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
B2 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
C1 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
C2 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
D1 Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
D2 Last 1/8 of passed students in that subject
E Failed students (in either theory, practical or overall)

The cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade in 2018 are listed below:[12]

Class 12 (2018)
Grade English Core Mathematics Chemistry Physics Biology Biotechnology Engineering Drawing Computer Science Economics Accountancy Business Studies Informatics Practices Multimedia/Web Tech Psychology Sociology
A1 89 95 91 90 90 95 98 93 92 84 93 94 95 87
A2 84 84 81 82 84 91 95 88 85 73 83 91 78
B1 78 73 73 75 79 86 92 83 78 65 75 87 82 84 73
B2 72 63 67 69 74 83 89 78 70 59 67 78 79 66
C1 65 55 63 64 68 76 85 72 63 55 60 79 74 73
C2 57 46 60 61 62 80 55 49 67 67
D1 45 42 52 54 55 47 45 57
D2 33 33 Variable (33% theory and practical pass required)
Class 10 (2018)
Grade English Language & Literature Mathematics Science Social Science Malayalam Hindi French
A1 92 92 87 90 96 93 97
A2 87 81 76 82 93 88 95
B1 83 70 67 74 90 83 92
B2 78 60 58 66 87 78 87
C1 73 50 49 58 84 72 82
C2 66 42 41 49 80 65 74
D1 56 34 34 41 73 54 62
D2 33 (minimum for all subjects)

During CCE

During 2010–2017, when CBSE implemented a CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) for Class X students, only the grades obtained by the student were mentioned in the report card in a 9-point grading scale, which translates as below:

Former grading scale (CCE)
Grade Criteria
A1 >90%
A2 81–90%
B1 71–80%
B2 61–70%
C1 51–60%
C2 41–50%
D 33–40%
E1 21–32%
E2 0–20%

Results

2016

Number of (passed) students obtaining a particular CGPA in Class 10 by gender[13]
CGPA MALE FEMALE TOTAL
10 85,316 83,225 1,68,541
9.8 26,313 24,545 50,858
9.6 28,522 24,223 52,745
9.4 35,587 25,882 61,469
9.2 33,674 25,171 58,845
9 35,167 26,270 61,437
8.8 36,453 26,154 62,607
8.6 37,532 25,945 63,477
8.4 38,590 25,383 63,973
8.2 37,681 24,663 62,344
8 38,248 24,217 62,465
7.8 38,560 23,607 62,167
7.6 37,804 22,680 60,484
7.4 36,814 21,410 58,224
7.2 35,287 20,497 55,784
7 34,755 19,803 54,558
6.8 33,824 18,677 52,501
6.6 32,099 17,559 49,658
6.4 29,774 16,428 46,202
6.2 27,367 15.509 42,876
6 25,542 14,472 40,014
5.8 22,568 13,094 35,662
5.6 18,126 11,128 29,254
5.4 13,206 8,684 21,890
5.2 9,120 6,142 15,262
5 6,116 4,036 10,152
4.8 3,582 2,360 5,942
4.6 2,074 1,182 3,256
4.4 893 527 1,420
4.2 294 151 445
4 50 31 81
TOTAL 8,40,938 5,73,655 14,14,593
AVERAGE 7.91 8.14 8.00
Number of (passed) students obtaining a particular CGPA in Class 10 by exam mode[13]
CGPA BOARD SCHOOL TOTAL
10 92,816 75,725 1,68,541
9.8 32,372 18,486 50,858
9.6 32,115 20,630 52,745
9.4 32,302 29,167 61,469
9.2 33,725 25,120 58,845
9 36,361 25,076 61,437
8.8 36,673 25,934 62,607
8.6 36,026 27,451 63,477
8.4 35,232 28,741 63,973
8.2 35,362 26,982 62,344
8 35,185 27,280 62,465
7.8 33,969 28,198 62,167
7.6 31,825 28,659 60,484
7.4 29,836 28,388 58,224
7.2 28,045 27,739 55,784
7 26,238 28,320 54,558
6.8 23,913 28,588 52,501
6.6 21,284 28,374 49,658
6.4 18,782 27,420 46,202
6.2 16,785 26,091 42,876
6 14,365 25,649 40,014
5.8 12,150 23,512 35,662
5.6 9,351 19,903 29,254
5.4 6,861 15,029 21,890
5.2 4,978 10,284 15,262
5 3,628 6,524 10,152
4.8 2,278 3,664 5,942
4.6 1,236 2,020 3,256
4.4 549 871 1,420
4.2 137 308 445
4 17 64 81
TOTAL 7,24,396 6,90,197 14,14,593
AVERAGE 8.21 7.79 8.00

Moderation

It is the practice adopted by CBSE of 'tweaking' candidates' marks to account for paper difficulties and variations. This has been criticized in the past for inflating students' marks in a hyper-competitive society where even one mark counts,[15] and CBSE is in the process of ending it.[when?] In 2017, CBSE informed that it would end moderation entirely, but its decision was challenged by a court case at the Delhi High Court, which ruled that moderation should continue for that year.[16]

With the exception of 2018, moderation was applied to account for variations in region sets (as then students in different regions would be answering different question papers). In 2018, when everyone around the world answered the same questions,[17] this practice was renamed as standardization, with the CBSE gradually phasing out the practice with the reduction on subjects which were given the offset.

In 2018, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Accountancy were given offset of +9, Business Studies gave +6, and English has given a +3 offset. In 2019, moderation took the effect of giving up to 11 extra marks:[18]

Offset applied for CBSE Class 12 exams (Delhi) [18] [0 = no moderation]
Subject Offset (2019) Offset (2018) Offset (2017) Offset (2016)
Mathematics 11 9 10 15
Physics 11 9 9 8
Chemistry 10 9 9 7
Biology 5 0 3 0
Political Science 6 0 5 5
Economics 5 0 3 6
Business Studies 5 6 6 11
Sociology 2 0 0 6
Geography 1 0 0 8

The total mark obtained by a student through moderation cannot exceed 95; if so, it is capped at 95 unless the student's actual mark is 96 or more. This is the reason a mark of 95 is relatively common for such subjects, and why it is much tougher to get 96 than to get a 95.

Moderation was also applied in the infamous CBSE Class 12 mathematics papers of 2015 and 2016, wherein the paper created a huge furor as students and teachers complained that the paper was too tough.[19] Despite a reportedly heavy offset of +16 (+15 for Delhi),[20] students' marks reduced (especially for 2016), as while the A1 cutoff was stable (90), the A2 cutoff reduced to 77, with other grades also experiencing a dip in the cutoff.

Moderation can also take the form of giving grace marks to enable students who have scored near the pass mark to pass. This is the reason marks between 25 and 33 are unheard of in subjects like Mathematics, and also explains why the difference between D1 and D2 cutoff is sometimes very small.

Changes for the 2019 exam

Earlier duration for vocational exams

The CBSE has decided that vocational exams (which very few students take) are to be held earlier – in mid/late February compared to March for most other exams. This is to ensure the exams finish earlier.[21][22]

More internal options

For many core subjects, the number of internal choices (wherein students pick one to answer out of two) has increased.[23]

English paper modifications

The English (Core) paper of Class 12 has been modified in a bid to make it less 'speedier'.[24]

Changes for 2020 Exam

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will conduct two separate examinations for mathematics in class 10 board examination starting from 2020 session. The current Mathematics exam is now Mathematics Standard, and an easier version of Mathematics has been introduced (called Mathematics Basic). Students taking the latter version may not study Mathematics to any further level.

The option of choosing mathematics will be mentioned in the registration form for class 10 CBSE board examination. Candidates will be required to select their choice of the test while filling the registration form for CBSE Class 10 board examination 2020.[25]

Minister of Human Resource Development (HRD) amid the coronavirus outbreak had ordered rescheduling of pending examinations. The exams rescheduled were to be conducted between 1 and 15 July.[26][27] On 26 June, CBSE released as circular which cancelled the remaining exams and give scores based on the scores of the exams already taken by students. For some students of Delhi, who were able to give 3 or less exams were scored as per their performance in internal exams.[28] This decision came after a judicial ruling.[29]

Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on 2021 Exams

Due to rapid increse in COVID-19 cases in country, CBSE cancelled the exams of 10th class & postponed the 12th class exams.[30]

Like 10th class 12th exam has also been cancelled. Prime Minister Narendra Modi took a decision on this after a long meeting on June 1 2021.[31][32]

2018 question paper leak

In March 2018, there were reports that CBSE Class 10 mathematics and Class 12 economics question papers were leaked.[33] In response, CBSE announced that these exams will be cancelled and re-exams will be conducted.[33] However, CBSE later announced that there will be no re-exam for Class 10 mathematics paper because the paper leak may have been confined to a few alleged beneficiaries.[34]

On 7 April 2018, Rakesh Kumar (an economics teacher) and two other employees of a private school in Una, Himachal Pradesh were arrested for leaking the Class 12 economics paper.[35] According to the police, Rakesh Kumar had gone inside the strong room of a bank to pick up packets of computer science question papers but also picked up a packet of economics question paper.[35] He asked a student to make a handwritten copy of the question paper (to avoid being traced from the handwriting).[35] He then sent photos of the handwritten copy of the paper on WhatsApp to a relative in Punjab.[35] This relative shared the photos with her son and nephew, who shared them with their friends on WhatsApp groups, from where it was forwarded to other Whatsapp groups.[35] On 12 April 2018, the police said that Rakesh Kumar, who leaked the class 12 economics paper, had leaked class 10 mathematics paper also.[36] Consequently, the Central Board of Secondary Education has put in place a system of "encrypted" question papers, which are supposed to be printed by the schools half an hour before the exam starts.[37]

Regional offices

CBSE Regional Offices[38]
Regional Office Address States/UT's/Areas covered
Ajmer Todarmal Marg, Ajmer-305030 Rajasthan & Gujarat
Bengaluru Degree College Building No. 57, Heserghatta Main Road, Near Sapthagiri Hospital, Chimney Hills, Chikkabanavara, Bengaluru - 560090 Karnataka
Bhopal Rohit Nagar, Phase-II, Ward No.53, Bawadia Kalan, Bhopal-462039 Madhya Pradesh
Bhubaneswar Plot No. 4(PT), Saileshree Vihar, Chandrasekharpur, District Khordha - 751 021, Odisha West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh
Chandigarh SCO-34 To 37, Jubilee Square, Block E, Aerocity, SAS Nagar, Mohali, Punjab U.T. of Chandigarh, Punjab, J&K, U.T. of Ladakh
Chennai New No-3, Old No. 1630 A, "J" Block, 16th Main Road Anna Nagar West, Chennai-600040 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Puducherry and Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Dehradun 99, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun - 248001, Uttarakhand Uttarakhand and Districts of Uttar Pradesh - Badaun, Bijnour, J.P.Nagar/ Amroha, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Rampur, Saharanpur and Sambhal
Delhi East PS-1-2, Institutional Area, I.P.Extn. Patparganj, Delhi-110 092. East Delhi, South East Delhi, South Delhi, South West Delhi, New Delhi, Shahdara and Foreign Schools
Delhi West C-128 & C-129, Mangolpuri Industrial Area, Phase-1, Delhi – 110083 West Delhi, North West Delhi, North Delhi, North East Delhi and Central Delhi
Guwahati Shilpo gram Road (Near Sankar dev Kalakshetra), Panjabari, Guwahati-781037 Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram
Noida A-83, Sector -136, Noida, G.B. Nagar (U.P.) – 201305 Agra, Aligarh, Baghpat, Bareilly, Bulandshahar, Etah, Firojabad, Gautam Budh Nagar, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Hathras, Kasganj / Kashi Ram Nagar, Mainpuri, Mathura, Meerut, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur and Shamli
Panchkula Sector- 5 , Panchkula - 134109 (Haryana) Haryana,U.T.of Chandigarh, Punjab, J&K, Himachal Pradesh
Patna Ambika Complex, Behind State Bank Colony, Near Brahmsthan, Sheikhpura, Raza Bazar, Bailey Road Patna-800 014 Bihar, Jharkhand
Prayagraj (Allahabad) 35 B, Civil Station, M.G. Marg, Civil Lines, Prayagraj (Allahabad) - 211001 Ambedkar Nagar, Amethi, Auraiya, Ayodhya, Azamgarh, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda, Barabanki, Basti, Bhadohi, Chandauli, Chitrkoot, Deoria, Etawah, Farukkhabad, Fatehpur, Ghazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Hardoi, Jalaun, Jaunpur, Jhanshi, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kaushambi, Kushi Nagar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mau, Mirjapur, Pratapgarh, Prayagraj, RaiBareilly, Sant Kabir Nagar, Shrabasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sonbhadra, Sultanpur, Unnao and Varanasi
Pune RLM Business Park, SR. NO. 28/4/A, Old Kharadi Mundava Road, Opposite to Bollywood Multiplex, Kharadi, Pune – 411014, Maharashtra Maharashtra, Goa, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli
Thiruvananthapuram Block - B, 2nd floor, LIC Divisional Office Campus, Pattom, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM - 695004, Kerala Kerala & Lakshadweep

Foreign Schools

According to the official website of CBSE, there are 28 government as well as private affiliated schools in different countries outside India. The reason for their establishment is largely serving the Indian community abroad, or at least, children or relatives of Indian diplomats.

Present Countries

For countries where the population of Indian nationals even surpasses the country's native population or in countries where they form a substantial share of the population, like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, etc., Indian embassies have set up CBSE schools and have allowed Indians or locals to set up private CBSE schools serving the needs of Indians in that particular country.

But, however, in countries where Indians do not reside, the Indian diplomatic missions have set up schools in countries like Russia and Iran which mainly serves children of diplomats.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "About CBSE".
  2. ^ a b "CBSE introduction".
  3. ^ "Only NCERT books at all CBSE schools".
  4. ^ "History (and the Expansion) of the Central Board of Secondary Examination". studypost.com. 16 December 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  5. ^ "CBSE Results Announcement Dates: Class 12 on May 25, Class 10 on May 27". news.biharprabha.com. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "After UGC's failure, CBSE to conduct NET". Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  7. ^ "NET to be held under CBSE's watch". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  8. ^ "National Testing Agency". www.nta.ac.in. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  9. ^ "CBSE says overall 33% marks enough to pass Class 10 this year". hindustantimes.com. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  10. ^ "CBSE Eases Class 10 Passing Marks Criteria as Combined Marks Extended from 2019 Board Exams". News18. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  11. ^ "Grading info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in.
  12. ^ Not publicly released by CBSE, but can be verified by looking at students' grades
  13. ^ a b "Press Note for Class 10" (PDF). CBSE. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  14. ^ For the given dataset, if students took improvement exams (i.e, rewrote them) and hence wrote fewer than five subjects, the average of those subjects alone were taken. In all other cases like absenteeism in an exam for which the student has been registered, a score is 0 is taken in this case. This means that it is not possible to distinguish from the graph - though it is from the dataset - whether a student actually scored zero or did not show up for the exam itself.
  15. ^ "CBSE Result 2018: The Curious Case of 'Magic Mark 95'".
  16. ^ "CBSE moderation row: Board awarded up to 11 extra marks in this year's Class 12th exams – Firstpost". firstpost.com.
  17. ^ This article shows evidence that CBSE reverted to the past practice in 2019: Chakrabarty, Roshni (7 March 2019). "CBSE Class 10 Mathematics paper analysis: Board examiner says the moderate paper, check student reactions and full question paper." IndiaToday.in. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  18. ^ a b 5; if so, it is capped at 95 unless the student's actual mark is 96 or more. This is the reason a mark of 95 is relativel
  19. ^ "A CBSE Maths Paper So Tough, It Made Students Cry". 16 March 2016.
  20. ^ "With no more 'marks moderation', CBSE Class XII results likely to dip; will bring down DU cutoffs". 18 May 2017.
  21. ^ "CBSE 10th, 12th board exams 2019 date sheet released, check it now". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  23. ^ "Info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  24. ^ "Notification" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  25. ^ https://www.business-standard.com/article/education/cbse-class-10-exam-2020-2-separate-examination-to-be-held-for-mathematics-119081000615_1.html
  26. ^ "CBSE Board Exams Postponed Over Coronavirus Outbreak". NDTV.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  27. ^ "CBSE Board Class 10, 12 Exam Date Sheet 2020 HIGHLIGHTS: 'Step is inappropriate', parents oppose move". The Indian Express. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  28. ^ Bharadwaj, Dr Shayam (25 June 2020). "CBSE/CE/SPS/2020" (PDF). CBSE. CBSE. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  29. ^ "सीबीएसई 10वीं-12वीं के जुलाई में होने वाले एग्जाम रद्द होंगे, जानिए अब स्टूडेंट्स के पास क्या हैं विकल्प". News18 India. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  30. ^ "CBSE Board Exams 2021: Class 10 exams cancelled, Class 12 postponed". Hindustan Times. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  31. ^ "Covid-19: Centre cancels CBSE Class 12 exams, CISCE follows suit - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  32. ^ "12th Board Exam 2021 LIVE Updates: CBSE, ISC 12th Exam Cancelled; Assessment Criteria Soon". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  33. ^ a b "CBSE paper leak: Board announces re-exam; HRD initiates probe". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  34. ^ Shihabudeen Kunju S (3 April 2018). "No Re-Exam For Class 10 Maths Paper: CBSE". NDTV. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  35. ^ a b c d e Sikdar, Shubhomoy (8 April 2018). "How a Punjab housewife led Delhi cops to source of CBSE Economics paper leak". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Una teacher leaked both CBSE economics and maths question papers: Police". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Contacts". CBSE. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  38. ^ "Contact Us". Central Board of Secondary Education. Retrieved 21 March 2021.

External links