Comparison of orbital launch systems

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This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families.

Spacecraft propulsion[note 1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[note 2] Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[note 3] have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[note 4]

Legend for orbit abbreviations in table:

Launch system status legend
  Under development
  Operational
  Retired
Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to… (kg) Launches Status Date of flight
Low Earth orbit Other First Last
Angara 1.2  Russia Khrunichev 3,800[1] 0 Development 2014, suborbital test flight [2]
Angara A5  Russia Khrunichev 24,500[3][4] 7,500 to GTO with KVTK[5] 5,400 to GTO with Briz-M 1 Operational 2014
Antares 110  United States Orbital 5,100[6] 2[7] Retired 2013 2013
Antares 120  United States Orbital 4,600[8] 1,500 to SSO[8] 2[7] Retired 2014 2014
Antares 130  United States Orbital 5,100[8] 1 Retired 2014 2014
Antares 230  United States Orbital 6,500[9] 3,600 to SSO[9] 0 Development
Antares 232  United States Orbital 1,800 to GTO[9] 0 Development
Ariane 1  Europe Aérospatiale 1,400 1,830 to GTO[10] 11[10] Retired 1979 1986
Ariane 2  Europe Aérospatiale 2,270 to GTO[10] 6[10] Retired 1986 1989
Ariane 3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,650 to GTO[10] 11[10] Retired 1984 1989
Ariane 4 40  Europe Aérospatiale 4,600[10] 2,740 to SSO
1,900 to GTO[10]
3[10] Retired 1990 1993
Ariane 4 40 H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,020 to GTO[10] 1[10] Retired 1995 1995
Ariane 4 40 H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,105 to GTO[10] 3[10] Retired 1995 1999
Ariane 4 42L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 4,500 to SSO
3,200 to GTO[10]
1[10] Retired 1993 1993
Ariane 4 42L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 3,350 to GTO[10] 1[10] Retired 1994 1994
Ariane 4 42L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 3,480 to GTO[10] 11[10] Retired 1995 2002
Ariane 4 42P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,000[10] 3,400 to SSO
2,600 to GTO[10]
2[10] Retired 1990 1992
Ariane 4 42P H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 2,740 to GTO[10] 4[10] Retired 1992 1994
Ariane 4 42P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,930 to GTO[10] 9[10] Retired 1994 2002
Ariane 4 44L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 6,000 to SSO
4,200 to GTO[10]
11[10] Retired 1989 1992
Ariane 4 44L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 4,460 to GTO[10] 5[10] Retired 1992 1994
Ariane 4 44L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 4,720 to GTO[10] 24[10] Retired 1995 2003
Ariane 4 44LP  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 5,000 to SSO
3,700 to GTO[10]
7[10] Retired 1988 1993
Ariane 4 44LP H10+  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 4,030 to GTO[10] 6[10] Retired 1992 1995
Ariane 4 44LP H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[10] 4,220 to GTO[10] 13[10] Retired 1995 2001
Ariane 4 44P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,500[10] 4,100 to SSO
3,000 to GTO[10]
2[10] Retired 1991 1991
Ariane 4 44P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale 3,465 to GTO[10] 9[10] Retired 1995 2001
Ariane 5ECA  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[11] 10,730 to GTO[12] 54[13] [note 5] Operational 2002
Ariane 5ES  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[11] 8,000 to GTO[13] 5[13] Operational 2008
Ariane 5G  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[13] 6,900[13] 16[13] Retired[14] 1996 2003
Ariane 5G+  Europe EADS Astrium 7,100 to GTO [13] 3[13] Retired[14] 2004 2004
Ariane 5GS  Europe EADS Astrium 16,000[15] 6,600 to GTO [13] 6[13] Retired[14] 2005 2009
Ariane 6 A62  Europe Airbus Safran Launchers 5,000 to GTO
7,000 to SSO
0 Development
Ariane 6 A64  Europe Airbus Safran Launchers 11,000 to GTO 0 Development
ASLV  India ISRO[16] 150[17] 4[17] Retired 1987 1994
Athena I  United States Lockheed Martin 795[18] 515 to GTO 4[19] Retired 1995 2001
Athena Ic [20]  United States ATK
Lockheed Martin
300 to SSO[21] 0 Development
Athena II  United States Lockheed Martin 1,800[22] 3[23] Retired[24] 1998 1999
Athena IIc [20]  United States ATK
Lockheed Martin
1,000 to SSO [25] 0 Development
Atlas-Centaur  United States Lockheed 1,134[26] 2,222 to GTO [27] 148 Retired 1962 1983
Atlas G  United States Lockheed 5,900[28] 2,222 to GTO
1,179 to HCO[28]
7[28] Retired 1984 1989
Atlas H/MSD  United States Lockheed 3,630 [29] 5 Retired 1983 1987
Atlas I  United States Lockheed Martin 5,900[28] 2,340[28] 11[28] Retired 1990 1997
Atlas II  United States Lockheed Martin 6,780[28] 2,810 to GTO
2,000 to HCO[28]
10[28] Retired 1991 1998
Atlas IIA  United States Lockheed Martin 7,316[28] 3,180 to GTO
2,160 to HCO[28]
23[28] Retired 1992 2002
Atlas IIAS  United States Lockheed Martin 8,618[28] 3,833 to GTO
2,680 to HCO[28]
30[28] Retired 1993 2004
Atlas IIIA  United States Lockheed Martin 8,686[28] 4,060 to GTO
2,970 to HCO[28]
2[28] Retired 2000 2004
Atlas IIIB/DEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,759[28] 4,609 to GTO[28] 1[28] Retired 2002 2002
Atlas IIIB/SEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,218[30] 4,193 to GTO [28] 3[28] Retired 2003 2005
Atlas V 401  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[31] 6,670 to SSO
4,950 to GTO[31]
26[31] Operational 2002
Atlas V 411  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[31] 8,495 to SSO
6,075 to GTO[31]
3[31] Operational 2006
Atlas V 421  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[31] 9,050 to SSO
7,000 to GTO[31]
3[31] Operational 2007
Atlas V 431  United States United Launch Alliance 9,050[31] 9,050 to SSO
7,800 to GTO[31]
2[31] Operational 2005
Atlas V 501  United States United Launch Alliance 8,250[31] 5,945 to SSO
3,970 to GTO
1,500 to GEO[31]
5[31] Operational 2010
Atlas V 511  United States United Launch Alliance 10,950[31] 7,820 to SSO
5,370 to GTO
1,750 to GEO[31]
0[31] Operational
Atlas V 521  United States United Launch Alliance 13,300[31] 9,585 to SSO
6,485 to GTO
2,760 to GEO[31]
2[31] Operational 2003
Atlas V 531  United States United Launch Alliance 15,300[31] 11,160 to SSO
7,425 to GTO
3,250 to GEO[31]
3[31] Operational 2010
Atlas V 541  United States United Launch Alliance 17,100[31] 12,435 to SSO
8,240 to GTO
3,730 to GEO[31]
3[31] Operational 2011
Atlas V 551  United States United Launch Alliance 18,500[31] 12,435 to SSO
8,700 to GTO
3,960 to GEO[31]
5[31] Operational 2006
Black Arrow  United Kingdom RAE 73[32] 2 Retired 1969[note 6] 1971
Titan IIICommercial Titan III  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[33] 4 Retired 1990 1992
Delta 0300  United States McDonnell Douglas 747 to SSP[34]340 to GTO [35] 3[36] Retired[37] 1972 1973
Delta 0900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,300[38] 818 to SSO[36] 2[36] Retired 1972 1972
Delta 1410  United States McDonnell Douglas 340[39] 1[36] Retired 1975 1975
Delta 1604  United States McDonnell Douglas 390[40] 2[36] Retired 1972 1973
Delta 1900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,800[36] 1[36] Retired 1973 1973
Delta 1910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,066[41] 1[36] Retired 1975 1975
Delta 1913  United States McDonnell Douglas 328[42] 1[36] Retired 1973 1973
Delta 1914  United States McDonnell Douglas 680 to GTO[43] 2[36] Retired 1972 1973
Delta 2310  United States McDonnell Douglas 336[44] 3[36] Retired 1974 1981
Delta 2313  United States McDonnell Douglas 243 to GEO [45] 3[36] Retired 1974 1977
Delta 2910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,887[36] 6[36] Retired 1975 1978
Delta 2913  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,000[46] 700 to GTO[46] 6[36] Retired 1975 1976
Delta 2914  United States McDonnell Douglas 724 to GTO[36] 30[36] Retired 1974 1979
Delta 3910  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,494[36] 1,154 to GTO with PAM-D[36] 10[36] Retired 1980 1988
Delta 3913  United States McDonnell Douglas 816[47] 1[36] Retired 1981 1981
Delta 3914  United States McDonnell Douglas 954 to GTO[36] 13[36] Retired 1975 1987
Delta 3920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,452[36] 1,284 to GTO with PAM-D[36] 10[36] Retired 1982 1989
Delta 3924  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,104 to GTO[36] 4[36] Retired 1982 1984
Delta 4925  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,400[48] 1,312 to GTO[36] 2[36] Retired 1989 1990
Delta 5920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,848[49] 1[36] Retired 1989 1989
Delta II 6920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,983[36] 3[36] Retired 1990 1992
Delta II 6925  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,447 to GTO[36] 14[36] Retired 1989 1992
Delta II 7320  United States United Launch Alliance 2,865[note 7][36] 1,651 to SSO[note 7][36] 10[36] Operational 1999 2014[50]
Delta II 7326  United States Boeing IDS 934 to GTO
636 to TLI
629 to HCO[note 7][36]
3[36] Retired 1998[51]
Delta II 7420  United States United Launch Alliance 3,185[note 7][36] 1,966 to SSO[note 7][36] 13[36] Retired 1998 2010
Delta II 7425  United States Boeing IDS 1,100 to GTO
804 to HCO[note 7][36]
4[36] Retired 1998 2002
Delta II 7426  United States Boeing IDS 1,058 to GTO
734 to TLI
711 to HCO[note 7][36]
1[36] Retired 1999 1999
Delta II 7920  United States United Launch Alliance 5,030[note 7][36] 3,123 to SSO[note 7][36] 27[36] Operational 1998 2011
Delta II 7925  United States Boeing IDS 1,819 to GTO
1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO[note 7][36]
69[36] Retired 1990 2009
Delta II-H 7920H  United States United Launch Alliance 6,097[note 7][36] 3[36] Retired 2003 2011
Delta II-H 7925H  United States United Launch Alliance 2,171 to GTO
1,508 to HCO[note 7][36]
3[36] Retired 2003 2007
Delta III 8930  United States Boeing IDS 8,292[36] 3,810 to GTO[36] 3[36] Retired 1998 2000
Delta IV Heavy  United States United Launch Alliance 28,790[52] 14,220 to GTO [52] 8[53] Operational 2004 2016
Delta IV-M  United States Boeing IDS 9,440[52] 4,440 to GTO[52] 3[53] Operational 2003
Delta IV-M+(4,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 13,140[52] 6,390 to GTO[52] 12[53] Operational 2002
Delta IV-M+(5,2)  United States United Launch Alliance 11,470[52] 5,490 to GTO[52] 1[53] Operational 2012
Delta IV-M+(5,4)  United States United Launch Alliance 14,140[52] 7,300 to GTO[52] 4[53] Operational 2009[54]
Diamant  France SEREB 107[55][56] 12 Retired 1965 1975
Dnepr  Ukraine Yuzhmash 3,700[57] 21[57] Operational 1999
Electron  United States/ New Zealand Rocket Lab 150 to SSO[58] 0 Development
Energia[note 8]  Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000[59] 20,000 to GEO[59]
32,000 to TLI[59]
1(Failed to orbit)[60] Retired 1987 1988
Energia-Buran  Soviet Union NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
30,000[59]
[note 9]
1 Retired 1988 1988
Epsilon  Japan IHI Aerospace[61]      1,200[62] 1 Operational[62] 2013
Falcon 1  United States SpaceX 420[63] 5 Retired[64] 2006 2009
Falcon 1e  United States SpaceX 1,010 to LPEO [65] 0 Retired[64]
Falcon 9 v1.0  United States SpaceX 10,450[66][67][68] 5[69] Retired[70] 2010 2013
Falcon 9 v1.1  United States SpaceX 13,150[note 10][71][72] 4,850 to GTO[71] 15[73] Retired 2013 2016
Falcon 9 v1.1FT  United States SpaceX 22,800 [74] 8,300 to GTO

4,020 to TMI[75]

8[73] Operational 2015
Falcon Heavy  United States SpaceX 54,400[76] 22,200 to GTO
13,600 to TMI[77]
0 Development
GSLV Mk.I(a)  India ISRO[78] 5,000[79] 1 Retired 2001 2001
GSLV Mk.I(b) [78][80]  India ISRO 5,000[78] 2,500 to GTO[81] 4[82] Retired 2003 2007[82]
GSLV Mk.I(c)  India ISRO 5,000[78] 2,500 to GTO[78] 1[82] Retired 2010 2010[82]
GSLV Mk.II  India ISRO 5,000[78] 2,500 to GTO[78] 3[82] Operational 2010 2015
GSLV Mk.III (LVM3)  India ISRO[83] 8,000[84] 4,000 to GTO[84] 0 Development (suborbital test flight w/o CUS(cryogenic upper stage)) 2014
H-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1,400[85] 9 Retired 1986 1992
H-II  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 10,060[86] 5[87][note 11] Retired 1994 1998
H-IIA 202  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 10,000[88] 3,800 to GTO[88] 15[88] Operational 2001
H-IIA 204  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 5,800 to GTO[88] 1[88] Operational 2006 2006
H-IIA 2022  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 4,200 to GTO [88] 3[88] Retired 2005 2007
H-IIA 2024  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 11,000[89] 7[88] Retired 2002 2008
H-IIB 304  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 16,500[90] 8,000[91] 4[92] Operational 2009
H-II/SSB  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 3,930 to GTO [93] 1[87] Retired 1995 1995
H-IIS  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 4,000 to GTO[94] 1[note 12][87] Retired 1999 1999
ITS launch vehicle  United States SpaceX 550,000[95][96] 450,000 to TMI[note 13][97][98] 0 Development
J-I  Japan IHI Corporation
Nissan Motors[99]
1,000[100] 0(+1) Retired 1996 1996
Kaituozhe-1  China CALT 100[101] 2 Operational 2002 2003[citation needed]
Kosmos-3M  Soviet Union
 Russia
NPO Polyot 1,500[102] 442[103] Retired 1967 2010
Kuaizhou  China CALT[citation needed] 400[104] 2[104] Operational 2013[104] 2014[104]
Lambda 4S  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 26[62] 5 Retired 1966 1970[citation needed]
Long March 1 (CZ-1)  China CALT 300[105] 2[106] Retired[107] 1970[106] 1971[106]
Long March 1D(CZ-1D)  China CALT 740[108] 0(+3) Retired 1995[note 14] 2002
Long March 2A (CZ-2A)  China CALT 2,000[109] 4[110] Retired 1974[110] 1978[110]
Long March 2C  China CALT 3,850 44[110] Operational 1982[110]
Long March 2D  China CALT 3,500 22 [110] Operational 1992[110]
Long March 2E  China CALT 9,500 7[110] Retired 1990 1995[110]
Long March 2F  China CALT 8,400 7[110] Operational 1999[110] 2008[110]
Long March 2F/G  China CALT 8,400 4[110] Operational 2011[110]
Long March 3  China CALT 5,000 14[111] Retired 1984[111] 2000[111]
Long March 3A  China CALT 6,000[112] 2,600 to GTO[112] 24[111] Operational 1994[111]
Long March 3B  China CALT 11,200[112] 5,100 to GTO[112] 12[111] Operational 1996[111] 2009
Long March 3B/E  China CALT 11,500[112] 5,500 to GTO[112] 23[111] Operational 2007[111]
Long March 3C  China CALT 9,100[112] 3,800 to GTO[112] 13
[111]
Operational 2008[111]
Long March 4A  China CALT 4,000 2[113] Retired 1988[113] 1990[113]
Long March 4B  China CALT 4,200[114] 24[114] Operational 1999[114]
Long March 4C (CZ-4C )  China CALT 4,200[115] 16[113] Operational 2006[113]
Long March 5  China CALT 25,000 [116] 14,000 to GTO [116] 0 Development[citation needed]
Long March 6  China SAST 1,080 to SSO[117] 1 Operational 2015[117]
Long March 7  China CALT 13,500[118] 5,500 to SSO[118] 1 Operational 2016[119]
Long March 9  China CALT 130,000[120] 50,000 to TLI[121] 0 Development[122]
Long March 11  China CALT 700[123] 1 Operational 2015[124]
M-V  Japan Nissan Motors[99] (-2000)
IHI AEROSPACE[61] (-2006)
1,800 - 1,850[62] 7 Retired 1997 2006
Minotaur I  United States Orbital 580[125] 10[126] Operational 2000 2013
Minotaur IV  United States Orbital 1,735[127] 3(+2)[128] Operational 2010[128] 2011[128]
Minotaur V  United States Orbital 640 to GTO
447 to TLI
1[128] Operational 2013[128]
Minotaur-C  United States Orbital 1,450[129] 1,050[129] to SSO 9[130] Operational[131] 1994 2011[130]
Molniya  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,800[132] 24[133] Retired 1960 1965[133]
Molniya-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
RSC Energia 2,400[134][135] 275 Retired 1964 2010
Mu-3C  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 195[62] 4 Retired 1974 1979
Mu-3H  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 300[62] 3 Retired 1977 1978
Mu-3S  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 300[62] 4 Retired 1980 1984[citation needed]
Mu-3SII  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 770[62] 8 Retired 1985 1995
Mu-4S  Japan Nissan Motors[99] 180[62] 4 Retired 1971 1972
N1  Soviet Union NPO Energia 95,000 [136][137][138][note 15] (never reached orbit) 4 [139] Retired 1969 1972
N-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 1,200[140] Retired 1975 1982[citation needed]
N-II  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 2,000[141] 8 Retired 1981 1987[citation needed]
Naro-1  South Korea
 Russia
KARI/Khrunichev 100[142] 3 Retired 2009 2013
Paektusan  North Korea KCST 700[143] Retired 1998
Pegasus  United States Orbital 443[144] 42[145] Operational 1990 2013[145]
Polyot  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,400 Retired 1963 1964[citation needed]
Proton-K  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 19,760[146] 4,930 to GTO [147] 311 [148] Retired 1965 2012[citation needed]
Proton-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 21,600[149] 6,150 to GTO[149] 96[150][151][152] Operational 1999[152]
PSLV  India ISRO 3,200[153] 1,050 to GTO[153]

1,600 to SSO

11[153] Operational 1993[153]
PSLV-CA  India ISRO 2,800[153] 1,100 to SSO[153] 10[153] Operational 2007
PSLV-XL  India ISRO 3,800[153] 1,300 to GTO[153]

1,750 to SSO

10[153] Operational 2008[153]
Rokot  Russia Khrunichev 1,950[154] 1,200 to SSO 25[155][156] Operational 1990
Safir  Iran Iranian Space Agency 50[157] 4[158][159] Operational 2008 2015[159]
Saturn I  United States Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
9,000[160] 10[161] Retired 1961 1965[161]
Saturn IB  United States Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
18,600[162] 9[163] Retired 1966 1975
Saturn V  United States Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
140,000[164][165] 47,000 to TLI[166] 13[167][168][note 16] Retired 1967 1973
Scout  United States US Air Force/NASA 174[169] 125 Retired 1961 1994
Shavit  Israel IAE 160[170] 9 Operational 1988 2014
Shtil'  Russia Makeyev 280 - 420 [171] 2[172] Operational 1998 2006
Simorgh  Iran Iranian Space Agency 100-350[173] 0 Development
SLS Block 1  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[174]

70,000[175] 25,000 to TLI[176] 0 Development
SLS Block 1B  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[174]

105,000[177] 0 Development
SLS Block 2  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[174]

130,700[175] 52,000 to TLI[178] 0 Development
SLV  India ISRO 40[179] 4[179] Retired 1979 1983[179]
Soyuz  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,450 30 Retired 1966 1975
Soyuz-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 5,500 3 Retired 1970 1971
Soyuz-M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,600 8 Retired 1971 1976
Soyuz-U  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 6,650 from Baikonour[180]

6,150 from Plesetsk[180]

771[181] Operational 1973
Soyuz-U2  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 7,050 72[181] Retired 1982 1995
Soyuz-FG  Russia TsSKB-Progress 6,900[182] 50[133][181] Operational 2001
Soyuz-2.1a  Russia TsSKB-Progress 7,020 from Baikonour[183] 21(+1)[184][185][186] Operational 2004[note 17]
Soyuz-2.1b  Russia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 from Baikonour[183] 2,400 to GTO from Baikonour[187] 20[188][189][190] Operational 2006
Soyuz-ST-A  Russia/ Europe TsSKB-Progress ESA 7,800 from Kourou[191] 2,810 to GTO with Fregat[192] 3[193] Operational 2011
Soyuz-ST-B  Russia/ Europe TsSKB-Progress ESA 9,000 from Kourou[194] 3,250 to GTO with Fregat-MT[192] 10[195] Operational 2011
Soyuz-2.1v  Russia TsSKB-Progress 2,850[196] 2[197] Operational 2013
Space Shuttle  United States Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (ET)
Rockwell International (Orbiter)
24,400[note 9] 4,944 to GTO with IUS[198]

3,550 to escape with IUS[198] 1,200 to GTO with PAM-D[199]

135[200] Retired 1981 2011
Sputnik 8K71PS  Soviet Union RSC Energia 500[201] 2 Retired 1957 1957
Sputnik 8A91  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,327 2 Retired 1958 1958
Start-1  Russia MITT 532[citation needed] 350 to SSO[202] 5[203] Operational 1993 2006
StratoLaunch  United States Stratolaunch Systems 6,100[204] 0 Development[204] 2016[205]
Strela  Russia Khrunichev 1,400[206] 3[207] Operational[207] 2003 2014
Super Haas  Romania ARCA 2,600 0 Development
Titan II GLV  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[208] 11(+1) Retired 1964 1966
Titan II(23)G  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[209] 13 Retired 1988 2003
Titan IIIA  United States Martin Marietta 3,100[210] Retired 1964 1965
Titan IIIB  United States Martin Marietta 3,000[211] 70 Retired 1966 1987
Titan IIIC  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[212] 36 Retired 1965 1982
Titan IIID  United States Martin Marietta 12,300[213] 22 Retired 1971 1982
Titan IIIE  United States Martin Marietta 15,400[214] 7 Retired 1974 1977
Titan 34D  United States Martin Marietta 4,515[215] 15 Retired 1982 1989
Titan IVA  United States Martin Marietta 17,110[216] 4,944 to GTO with IUS[216]

4,540 to GSO with Centaur[216]

14,090 to SSO[216]

3,550 to escape with IUS[216]

22[217] Retired 1989 1998
Titan IVB  United States Lockheed Martin 21,682[218] 5,761 to GTO [218]
(9,000 with upper stage)
17[217] Retired 1997 2005
Tronador II  Argentina CONAE 250[219] 0 Development
Tsyklon-2A  Soviet Union Yuzhmash 3,350[220] 8[221] Retired 1967 1969
Tsyklon-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 2,820[222] 106[223] Retired 1969 2006[223]
Tsyklon-3  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 1,920[224] 122[225] Retired 1977 2009[225]
Tsyklon-4  Ukraine Yuzhmash 5,500 [226] 1,700 to GTO [226] 0 Development
Unha  North Korea KCST 100[227] 3 Operational 2009
ULV  India ISRO 15,000[228] 6,000 to GTO 0 Development
Vanguard  United States Martin 9[229] 11(+1) Retired 1957 1959
Vega  Europe ESA/ASI 1,430 to polar[230]

1,330 to SSO[230]

6[231] Operational 2012 [232]
VLS-1  Brazil AEB, INPE 380[233] 2[note 18] Retired 1997 2003
Volna  Russia Makeyev 100[234] 1(+5)[172] Operational 1995[note 19] 2005[172]
Voskhod  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[235] 306 Retired 1963 1976
Vostok-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 390 to TLI[236] 4 Retired 1960 1960
Vostok-K  Soviet Union RSC Energia 2,460 [237] 16 Retired 1960 1964[citation needed]
Vostok-2  Soviet Union RSC Energia 4,730[238] 45 Retired 1962 1967[citation needed]
Vostok-2M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,300[239] 93[citation needed] Retired 1964 1991[citation needed]
Soyuz/Vostok  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[240] Retired 1965 1966[citation needed]
Zenit-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhnoye 13,740[241] 37[92] Retired 1985 2004[242]
Zenit-2M (2SLB)  Ukraine Yuzhnoye 13,920[241] 1 Operational 2007
Zenit-3F  Ukraine Yuzhnoye[note 20] 1,740 to GEO[243] 2[244] Operational 2011
Zenit-3SL  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 21]
6,000 to GTO [245] 36[244] Operational 1999
Zenit-3SLB  Ukraine Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 20]
3,750 to GTO[244] 5[244] Operational 2008

Proposed and design concepts[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
  2. ^ The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in warfare as early as the 13th century.
  3. ^ Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
  4. ^ Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
  5. ^ A full listing of the Ariane 5 launch history is in its main article.
  6. ^ Suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l With 9.5 foot (2.9 metre) fairing
  8. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  9. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  10. ^ The SpaceX website lists the F9 payload to LEO as 13,150kg. The payload to GTO is listed as 4,850kg. However, SpaceX has stated that these numbers include a 30% margin to accommodate re-usability.
  11. ^ Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
  12. ^ Only launch failed to achieve orbit
  13. ^ with transfer on orbit
  14. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  15. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90—95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  16. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  17. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006
  18. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  19. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005
  20. ^ a b Operated by Land Launch
  21. ^ Operated by Sea Launch

References[edit]

[59] [60] [121] [136] [137] [138] [139] [166] [167] [168] [175]

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