European Parliament election, 2014 (Spain)

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European Parliament election in Spain, 2014
Spain
← 2009 25 May 2014 2019 →

All 54 Spanish seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
Registered 36,514,084 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2.9%
Turnout 15,998,141 (43.8%)
Red Arrow Down.svg1.1 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Miguel Arias Cañete 2014 (cropped).jpg Elena Valenciano 2012 (cropped).jpg Willy Meyer 2014 (cropped).jpg
Leader Miguel Arias Cañete Elena Valenciano Willy Meyer
Party PP PSOE IP
Alliance EPP S&D GUE/NGL
Leader since 9 April 2014 10 February 2014 8 May 2004
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 24 seats, 42.1% 23 seats, 38.8% 2 seats, 3.7%
Seats won 16 14 6
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg8 Red Arrow Down.svg9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
Popular vote 4,098,339 3,614,232 1,575,308
Percentage 26.1% 23.0% 10.0%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg16.0 pp Red Arrow Down.svg15.8 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6.3 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Pablo Iglesias Turrión 2014 (cropped).jpg Sosa Wagner.jpg Ramon Tremosa 2014 (cropped).jpg
Leader Pablo Iglesias Francisco Sosa Wagner Ramon Tremosa
Party Podemos UPyD CEU
Alliance GUE/NGL ALDE ALDE
Leader since 3 April 2014 3 September 2008 24 January 2009
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election Did not contest 1 seat, 2.9% 3 seats, 4.8%
Seats won 5 4 3
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Popular vote 1,253,837 1,022,232 851,971
Percentage 8.0% 6.5% 5.4%
Swing New party Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3.6 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.6 pp

SpainProvinceMapEuropean2014.png
Provincial results map for the European Parliament in Spain

The 2014 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 25 May 2014, as part of the European-wide election to elect the 8th European Parliament. All 54 seats allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were up for election.

The People's Party (PP) emerged as the largest party overall, albeit with its worst election result since the times of the People's Alliance with a mere 26.1% of the share and 16 seats, losing 2.6 million votes and 8 seats from its 2009 result. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) lost 9 seats and 2.5 million votes, obtaining just 23% of the total party vote and 14 seats. This would represent the party's worst election result in recent history until the 2015 general election, in which it scored a new low. Up to 8 additional political forces obtained representation. Pablo Iglesias' newly formed Podemos party (Spanish for "We can") turned into the election night surprise by winning 5 seats and 1,253,837 votes (7.98% of the share), an unprecedented result for a party only 4 months old and contesting an election for the first time. Podemos's surge and the extent of PP and PSOE collapse were not foreseen by opinion polls during the campaign, which had predicted higher support for the two dominant parties and a weaker performance of Podemos.

United Left's Plural Left coalition and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) obtained some of their best historical results, with 10.0% and 6.5% of the vote and 6 and 4 seats, respectively. However, this was far from the major election breakthrough that polls had predicted throughout 2013 and in early 2014. From this point onwards both parties would lose support in opinion polls and in successive regional and local elections. The Citizens (C's) party of Albert Rivera, then marginalized as a Catalonia-only party and after several failed attempts to jump into national politics, managed to obtain 3.16% of the share and 2 seats. Just as Podemos, it would grow in support in the run up to the next general election and become a major political actor by 2015.

So far, this time marked the first and only occasion to date in which Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) has attained victory in Catalonia in an election of any kind since the times of the Second Spanish Republic.

Electoral system[edit]

The 54 members of the European Parliament allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with no threshold being applied in order to be entitled to enter seat distribution. However, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold dependant on the district magnitude.[1] Seats were allocated to a single multi-member constituency comprising the entire national territory. Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage, with all nationals and non-national European citizens over eighteen and in full enjoyment of all political rights entitled to vote.[2][3][4] Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Spaniards abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[5]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, they were required to secure at least the signature of 15,000 electors entered in electoral register. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Parties, federations and coalitions were allowed to replace this requirement with the signature of at least 50 elected officials—deputies, senators, MEPs or members from the legislative assemblies of autonomous communities or from local city councils—. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days from the election call.[2][3]

Campaign[edit]

The electoral campaign started at 12:00 AM on 9 May. However, a traffic accident in Badajoz resulting in the deaths of 5 people (1 adult and 4 children) and 12 injured forced the suspension of the start of the campaign in Extremadura.[6]

On Monday 12 May, Isabel Carrasco, president of the provincial government of Leon and member of the PP, was shot dead in the street.[7] Policial investigation concluded that the crime's motive were of vengeance, since the two women arrested for committing the crime, wife and daughter of the Chief Inspector of the Police of the nearby town of Astorga, were affilied to the PP;[8][9] one of them having been previously fired from the Provincial Deputation presided by Carrasco.[10]

This event forced another suspension of the campaign for 24 hours by most major political parties, except for some minoritary parties who chose not to stop their campaigns.[11][12]

Party slogans[edit]

  • People's Party (PP): "What is at stake is the future (Lo que está en juego es el futuro)"[13]
  • Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE): "You move Europe (Tú mueves Europa)"[13]
  • Coalition for Europe (CEU)
    • CiU: "Let us win Europe (Guanyem-nos Europa)"[13]
    • PNV: "More Euskadi, More Europe (Euskadi Gehiago, Europa Berrian / Más Euskadi, más Europa)"[13]
    • CC: "Be demanding for Canarias (Exigente por Canarias)"[13]
    • CxG: "The Europe we want (A Europa que queremos / La Europa que queremos)"[13]
  • Plural Left (IP): "The power of people (El poder de la gente)"[13]
  • Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD): "Unity is strength (La Unión hace la fuerza)"[13]
  • Left for the Right to Decide (EPDD): "Let us begin the new country. Now, in Europe (Comencem el nou país. Ara a Europa.)"[14]
  • The Peoples Decide (LPD)
    • EHB: "Peoples decide (Herriek erabaki / Los pueblos deciden)"[15]
    • BNG: "Rebel for your rights! (Rebélate polos teus dereitos!)"[16]
  • European Spring (PE): "The Europe of people (La Europa de las personas)"[13]
  • Citizens (C's): "The strength of the union (La fuerza de la unión)"[17]
  • We Can (Podemos): "Another Europe is possible, together We Can (Otra Europa es posible, juntos Podemos)", "When was the last time you voted with hope? (¿Cuándo fue la última vez que votaste con ilusión?)" & "Of course We Can! (¡Claro que Podemos!)"[13][18]
  • Vox (VOX): "The solution is to change (La solución es cambiar)"[13]

Opinion polls[edit]

Individual poll results are listed in the table below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first, and using the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. If such date is unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. In the instance of a tie, the figures with the highest percentages are shaded. in the case of seat projections, they are displayed in bold and in a different font. The lead column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the two parties with the highest figures.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 25 May 2014 European Parliament election results in Spain
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Won +/−
People's Party (PP) 4,098,339 26.09 –16.03 16 –8
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 3,614,232 23.01 –15.77 14 –9
Plural Left (IP)1 1,575,308 10.03 +6.32 6 +4
We Can (Podemos) 1,253,837 7.98 New 5 +5
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 1,022,232 6.51 +3.66 4 +3
Coalition for Europe (CEU)2 851,971 5.42 +0.61 3 ±0
Left for the Right to Decide (EPDD)3 630,072 4.01 +2.60 2 +1
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's)4 497,146 3.16 +3.02 2 +2
The Peoples Decide (LPD)5 326,464 2.08 –0.06 1 +1
European Spring (PE)6 302,266 1.92 +1.56 1 +1
Vox (Vox) 246,833 1.57 New 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 177,499 1.13 +0.87 0 ±0
Blank ballots 361,567 2.30 +0.91
Total 15,710,216 100.00 54 ±0
Valid votes 15,710,216 98.20 –1.18
Invalid votes 287,925 1.80 +1.18
Votes cast / turnout 15,998,141 43.81 –1.09
Abstentions 20,515,943 56.19 +1.09
Registered voters 36,514,084
Source(s): Ministry of the Interior, historiaelectoral.com
Popular vote
PP
  
26.09%
PSOE
  
23.01%
IP
  
10.03%
Podemos
  
7.98%
UPyD
  
6.51%
CEU
  
5.42%
EPDD
  
4.01%
C's
  
3.16%
LPD
  
2.08%
PE
  
1.92%
Vox
  
1.57%
PACMA
  
1.13%
Others
  
4.79%
Blank ballots
  
2.30%
Seats
PP
  
29.63%
PSOE
  
25.93%
IP
  
11.11%
Podemos
  
9.26%
UPyD
  
7.41%
CEU
  
5.56%
EPDD
  
3.70%
C's
  
3.70%
LPD
  
1.85%
PE
  
1.85%

Distribution by European group[edit]

Summary of political group distribution in the 8th European Parliament (2014–2019)[19]
Groups Parties Seats Total  %
European People's Party (EPP) 16
1
17 31.48
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) 14 14 25.93
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) 5
4
1
1
11 20.37
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) 4
2
1
1
8 14.81
The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens–EFA) 1
1
1
1
4 7.41
Total 54 54 100.00

Outcome[edit]

The election resulted in a massive loss of support for the two main political parties of Spain, which together fell from a combined total of 80.9% in the previous European election to a record-low 49.1% of the vote (a net total of –31.8 pp, about –16.0 each one).[20] Podemos, a party founded four months previously running on an anti-austerity platform, won an unprecedented 8.0% of the vote and 5 out of 54 seats to the European Parliament; the best result ever scored in Spain by a newly created party in its first electoral test.[21]

The People's Party (PP) came out on top in most autonomous communities except in Andalusia, Asturias and Extremadura, where the PSOE won; the Basque Country, where the PNV prevailed; and Catalonia, where ERC scored first place for the first time in 80 years. In these last two communities the PP polled in fourth and fifth places, respectively. Significant were, however, their results in Madrid, Valencian Community and Murcia; in the first two it polled below the 30% mark for the first time in 25 years, while in the latter it experienced a spectacular drop in support, falling from the 60% mark it had maintained since the 2000 general election to below 40% of the vote. Also, except for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, it didn't surpass the 40% mark in any region, not even its strongholds of Galicia (where it polled a mere 35%), Castile and León or Castile-La Mancha (38% in both of them).

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), except for those communities where it won, experienced a significant drop in support. It suffered most notably in Catalonia and Basque Country (where it finished in 3rd place). In Catalonia in particular, the PSOE's sister party, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia, had previously won all general and European elections held in the region–except for those of 1994 and 2011, where it polled second just behind Convergence and Union–. Until this election, the worst result of the party in this region in such elections had been the 2011 result of 26.7%; in this election it fell to 14.3%.

Other parties benefiting from the collapse in support for the PP and PSOE parties were United Left-led Plural Left (IP) coalition, which with a 10.0% obtained its best results nationally since 1996, and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), whose 6.5% would remain the highest the party would win in a nationwide election before their decline throughout 2015. The Citizens party (C's) entered the European Parliament with 2 seats and 3.2% of the vote.[22]

Aftermath[edit]

The election backlash had immediate consequences on the Socialist party (PSOE), which scored its worst result ever in an election held at a nationwide scale: a bare 23.0% of the vote, compared to the already dismaying results the party had obtained in the general election of 2011, with 28.8%. Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, which had won the party's leadership on a 2012 party federal congress, announced his intention to resign from his post after his party holds an extraordinary Federal Congress on 19–20 July to elect a new Secretary-General, ahead of the scheduled November Socialist primaries to elect the party's candidate for the 2015 election.[23] Rubalcaba also announced his intention not to run in these primaries.[24] Several regional party leaders followed suit and announced their intention to hold regional extraordinary party congresses as well.[25]

On the other hand, People's Party (PP) leaders refused to publicly acknowledge the negative results of the party in the election, despite losing 40% of its 2009 vote and scoring the worst result the party has obtained in a national election since 1989, instead opting to highlight the fact that they had won the election.[26] Despite this, the party had to cancel the victory celebration that was to be held in their national headquarters in Madrid due to the poor affluence of party supporters which went to the place, a result of election results much worse than expected.[27][28] Concerns arose among party regional leaders on the prospects of such electoral results being displayed at the local and regional level in the May 2015 elections, something which could potentially force the PP out from the government of party strongholds' such as Madrid and Valencia.[29]

On 26 May El País ran the headline "Harsh punishment to PP and PSOE",[30] whilst El Mundo declared that "Bipartisanship crumbles".[31] International media focused instead on the rise of Podemos party, with the BBC headlining that "Spain's 'we can' party proves it can" or "Spain's Podemos party challenges system",[32][33] while others stated how the final election results "stunned analysts and pollsters".[34][35]

Abdication of King Juan Carlos I[edit]

One week after the election, Spanish King Juan Carlos I announced his intention to abdicate in favour of his son, Felipe.[36] Allegedly, the election results had no influence in the King's abdication. Rather, the elderly monarch had taken the decision the day of his 76th birthday in January and had spoken about it with Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy on 31 March and with opposition leader Rubalcaba three days later, but it was not until after the election that he announced it in order not to affect the electoral process.[37][38] However, abdication was not regulated under the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and thus required the approval of an Organic Law on the matter.[39][40] PP, PSOE, UPyD, CC, FAC and UPN all pledged their support for the law's approval.[41] Attention then turned to the PSOE leader Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba as rumours spread about him not resigning right away the day after the election in order to keep controlling the party so as to ensure the affirmative vote of its parliamentary group on the law.[42] This was received with criticism from several of the party's regional federations but also from its members and the Socialist Youth, openly republican, who demanded the party ask for a referendum on the monarchy issue.[43][44]

Furthermore, there was speculation on the opportunity of the King abdicating at the time he did. In fact, due to the crisis of the bipartisanship self-evidenced by the European election results, the idea of the King announcing his decision before the 2015 general election, when the election results could translate into PP and PSOE losing a host of seats in the Congress of Deputies, making the building of large majorities more difficult, became extended among public opinion.[45] The fact that the future of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's position on the monarchy, as well as the future of the party itself, looked uncertain after the debacle in the European election and Rubalcaba's resignation seemed to have also played a key part in precipitating the King's decision.[46] PM Rajoy said, on the day the King announced he would abdicate, that "This is the best time [for it to happen], within a short time the Prince shall be proclaimed King".[47]

Opinion poll sources[edit]

  1. ^ "El PP gana las elecciones europeas por estrecho margen, según los sondeos a pie de urna". La Gaceta (in Spanish). 25 May 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Sondeos a pie de urna". Twitter (in Spanish). 25 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Big bang electoral". ABC Sevilla (in Spanish). 1 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "El PP saca 8 puntos al PSOE y Vox alcanza un escaño". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 18 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "El PP aventaja al PSOE en 2,8 puntos en la recta final". La Razón (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  6. ^ "Encuesta mayo 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "Se confirma la previsión de abstención récord y el desgaste de PP y PSOE". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  8. ^ "Barómetro Parlamento Europeo. Mes de mayo de 2014–Segunda oleada" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "El PP triunfaría en las elecciones europeas con casi siete puntos de ventaja sobre el PSOE". laSexta (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "La recuperación económica impulsa el voto del PP y hunde más al PSOE". ABC (in Spanish). 18 May 2014. 
  11. ^ "Encuesta elecciones europeas de GAD3 para ABC- 16 de mayo". GAD3 (in Spanish). 16 May 2014. 
  12. ^ "El auge de los minoritarios lastra al PSOE y a su líder". El Mundo (in Spanish). 19 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Abstención récord y resultado ajustado". El País (in Spanish). 17 May 2014. 
  14. ^ "GESOCLAB". GESOCLAB (in Spanish). 11 May 2014. 
  15. ^ "El PP ganaría las europeas al PSOE con casi tres puntos de ventaja". La Razón (in Spanish). 11 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "PP y PSOE perderán uno de cada tres votos en las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 13 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Barómetro Parlamento Europeo. Mes de mayo de 2014" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 13 May 2014. 
  18. ^ "El PP cae 9 puntos pero arranca la campaña con ventaja sobre el PSOE". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 11 May 2014. 
  19. ^ "El PP se dispara con 6,5 puntos sobre el PSOE". El Mundo (in Spanish). 11 May 2014. 
  20. ^ "El PP mantiene la tendencia al alza y aventaja ya al PSOE en 4,6 puntos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 3 May 2014. 
  21. ^ "Sin Complejos completo 03/05/2014". esRadio (in Spanish). 3 May 2014. 
  22. ^ "SPAIN (EP 2014), April 2014. Demoscopia y Servicios". Electograph (in Spanish). 3 May 2014. 
  23. ^ "Un sondeo acentúa la caída de los dos grandes partidos españoles". Público (in Spanish). 13 May 2014. 
  24. ^ "Intención de voto, estimación de resultados e interés por la campaña". Sondea Investigación Social (in Spanish). 13 May 2014. 
  25. ^ "Sondeo preelectoral sobre las elecciones europeas". IU (in Spanish). 28 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "Preelectoral Elecciones al Parlamento Europeo 2014 (Estudio nº 3022. Abril 2014)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 8 May 2014. 
  27. ^ "El PP recupera confianza y supera por tres escaños a un PSOE abatido". ABC (in Spanish). 27 April 2014. 
  28. ^ "Encuesta de GAD3 para ABC: Elecciones Europeas 25 de mayo". GAD3 (in Spanish). 26 April 2014. 
  29. ^ "Los sondeos dan un empate entre el PP y el PSOE con una abstención altísima". El País (in Spanish). 27 April 2014. 
  30. ^ "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: abril 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 28 April 2014. 
  31. ^ "El PP ajusta al alza su ventaja". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "PP y PSOE perderían más de 17 puntos en las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 April 2014. 
  33. ^ "El voto en las europeas está fragmentado y de momento no se perfila ganador claro". laSexta (in Spanish). 12 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "Encuesta abril 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 2 April 2014. 
  35. ^ a b "Al 85% de los españoles no les preocupa no conocer al candidato popular para las europeas". laSexta (in Spanish). 22 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "El PSOE arranca la movilización de sus electores para el 25-M". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 2014. 
  37. ^ "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: marzo 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 24 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Valenciano mantiene la mínima ventaja del PSOE frente al PP en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 22 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: febrero 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 24 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "ENCUESTA-TRACK ELECTORAL Elecciones Europeas en España (I)". Sondeos R.A. España (in Spanish). 17 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "El PP ganaría hoy las elecciones europeas con 20 escaños frente a 18 del PSOE". ABC Sevilla (in Spanish). 17 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "El PSOE ganaría las europeas: 19 escaños frente a 17 del PP, 'mordido' por VOX y C’S". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 14 February 2014. 
  43. ^ "Tertulia de Luis del Pino: Las estrategias judiciales de la Infanta". esRadio (in Spanish). 9 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "El PP ganaría las elecciones europeas". La Razón (in Spanish). 3 February 2014. 
  45. ^ "Encuesta enero 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 3 February 2014. 
  46. ^ "El PP sigue en cabeza para las europeas aunque pierde apoyos". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 3 February 2014. 
  47. ^ "El PSOE aventaja al PP en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 25 January 2014. 
  48. ^ "Elecciones al Parlamento Europeo 2014: estimación de voto". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 29 January 2014. 
  49. ^ "El PP ganaría las elecciones europeas según el barómetro de laSexta". laSexta (in Spanish). 29 December 2013. 
  50. ^ "Unas europeas poco atractivas". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 6 December 2013. 
  51. ^ "PP y PSOE empatarían en las elecciones a la Eurocámara de mayo". El País (in Spanish). 17 November 2013. 
  52. ^ "El clima político de cara a las Europeas de 2014: un reflejo del nacional". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 19 November 2013. 
  53. ^ "El PP aventaja en 4,1 puntos al PSOE a seis meses de las elecciones europeas". La Razón (in Spanish). 4 November 2013. 
  54. ^ "Las europeas solo motivan a uno de cada cinco españoles". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 5 July 2013. 
  55. ^ "La fidelidad de voto del PP se derrumba ante las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo". ZoomNews (in Spanish). 8 July 2013. 
  56. ^ "Índices de Opinión Pública. Parlamento Europeo". Simple Lógica (in Spanish). 11 June 2013. 
  57. ^ "Intención de voto". El País (in Spanish). 8 June 2013. 
  58. ^ "Clima Social de España (48ª oleada. Junio 2013)" (PDF). Metroscopia (in Spanish). 7 June 2013. 
  59. ^ "Las elecciones europeas preocupan a los políticos". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 19 April 2013. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985, Organic Law No. 5 of June 19, 1985 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 6 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  4. ^ Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, December 17, 2007 Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved on 21 July 2017.
  5. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017. 
  6. ^ "The start of the electoral campaign in Extremadura is suspended" (in Spanish). ABC. 2014-05-09. 
  7. ^ "Shot dead the president of the Deputation of the PP of Leon, Isabel Carrasco" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2014-05-12. 
  8. ^ "Those arrested for the murder of Isabel Carrasco are members of the PP" (in Spanish). Libertad Digital. 2014-05-12. 
  9. ^ "Two PP militants allegedly murder a PP leader" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 2014-05-13. 
  10. ^ "The two arrested for the crime of Isabel Carrasco are the wife and daughter of a police inspector but did not use his service weapon" (in Spanish). Diario de León. 2014-05-12. 
  11. ^ "Parties suspend their campaigns after the murder of Isabel Carrasco in Leon" (in Spanish). RTVE. 2014-05-12. 
  12. ^ "Bildu and BNG don't suspend their campaigns after the murder of Isabel Carrasco" (in Spanish). ABC. 2014-05-13. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "European electoral campaign: candidates, slogans and programs" (in Spanish). Mas Consulting. 2014-05-09. 
  14. ^ "Terricabras (ERC) wants to change the "merchant and mercenary" Europe and to obtain a Catalan state" (in Spanish). La Información. 2014-05-09. 
  15. ^ "PNV will open its campaign in Hondarribia, EH Bildu in Pamplona, PP and Vox in Vitoria and PSE-EE, UPyD and Ezker Anitza-IU in Bilbao" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 2014-05-07. 
  16. ^ "The BNG will not assume loans and renounces to grants and to send propaganda" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 2014-04-24. 
  17. ^ "UPyD and C's concur with two 'copied' slogans : 'Unity is strength' and 'The strength of the union'" (in Spanish). La Información. 2014-05-09. 
  18. ^ "When was the last time you voted with illusion? / Of course We Can!" (in Spanish). podemos.info. 
  19. ^ "Parlamento Europeo: Distribución de los Eurodiputados españoles en grupos parlamentarios". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  20. ^ "Bipartisanship loses after the harsh result of voters to PP and PSOE". El País. 2014-05-26. 
  21. ^ "Podemos turns out into a surprise and wins five seats in Strasburg" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-05-26. 
  22. ^ "IU y UPyD confirman su subida y se postulan como bisagras para 2015" [IU and UPyD confirm their rise and postulate as key for 2015] (in Spanish). El País. 2014-05-25. 
  23. ^ "Rubalcaba throws in the towel and calls for an extraordinary congress after the debacle" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-05-26. 
  24. ^ "Rubalcaba shall announce this Monday that he will not run for the primaries" (in Spanish). Libertad Digital. 2014-05-25. 
  25. ^ "Patxi López also leaves and asks for "a revolution"" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-05-27. 
  26. ^ "Cospedal highlights that has won the party supporting the Government" (in Spanish). ABC. 2014-05-25. 
  27. ^ "Neither balcony at Genova nor acclaim at Ferraz, thus ends the most bleak electoral night" (in Spanish). ABC. 2014-05-26. 
  28. ^ "The PP cancels the celebration in Génova, despite announcing its election victory" (in Spanish). La Sexta Noticias. 2014-05-26. 
  29. ^ "Aguirre and Fabra, worried about the PP results, call for thought" (in Spanish). El Confidencial. 2014-05-26. 
  30. ^ "Harsh punishment to PP and PSOE" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-05-26. 
  31. ^ "Bipartisanship crumbles" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2014-05-26. 
  32. ^ "Spain's 'we can' party proves it can". BBC News. 2014-05-26. 
  33. ^ "Spain's Podemos party challenges system". BBC News. 2014-05-26. 
  34. ^ "Spain's new left-wing party scored one of the most stunning victories in the European elections". Business Insider. 2014-05-26. 
  35. ^ "Spain's new leftwing party stuns pollsters". The Financial Times. 2014-05-26. 
  36. ^ "El Rey abdica". El País. 2014-06-02. 
  37. ^ "The King took the decision in January and commissioned a report on the process" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-06-02. 
  38. ^ "The election result had no influence in the King's abdication" (in Spanish). Estrella Digital. 2014-06-05. 
  39. ^ "The Government prepares an organic law in order to regulate the adbication of Juan Carlos" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 2014-06-02. 
  40. ^ "King Juan Carlos of Spain abdicates". BBC News. 2014-06-02. 
  41. ^ "The succession will have the support of 90% [of parliament]" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-06-03. 
  42. ^ "Rubalcaba did not resign in order to control the PSOE during the process of abdication" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 2014-06-02. 
  43. ^ "The King's farewell unleashes another schism in the ranks of PSOE" (in Spanish). El Boletín. 2014-06-02. 
  44. ^ "Rajoy, Rubalcaba and the Royal House did pact the Juan Carlos I's quiet takeover" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 2014-06-02. 
  45. ^ "The King abdicates in order to save the Monarchy from the institutional crisis" (in Spanish). El Confidencial. 2014-06-02. 
  46. ^ "The King tells his friends that Rubalcaba's fall precipitated the abdication" (in Spanish). Vozpópuli. 2014-06-09. 
  47. ^ "Rajoy: "This is the best time, within a short time the Prince shall be proclaimed King"" (in Spanish). El País. 2014-06-02. 

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