European Parliament election, 2014 (Spain)
All 54 Spanish seats to the European Parliament
The 2014 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 25 May 2014, to elect the country's 7th MEP delegation to the European Parliament. All 54 seats allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were up for election, an increase of four compared to the previous election before the 2011 reapportionment of seats in the European Parliament.
The People's Party (PP) emerged as the largest party overall, albeit with its worst election result since the times of the People's Alliance with a mere 26.1% of the share and 16 seats, losing 2.6 million votes and 8 seats from its 2009 result. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) lost 9 seats and 2.5 million votes, obtaining just 23% of the total party vote and 14 seats. This would represent the party's worst election result in recent history until the 2015 general election, in which it scored a new low. Up to 8 additional political forces obtained representation. Pablo Iglesias' newly formed Podemos party (Spanish for "We can") turned into the election night surprise by winning 5 seats and 1,253,837 votes (7.98% of the share), an unprecedented result for a party only 4 months old and contesting an election for the first time. Podemos's surge and the extent of PP and PSOE collapse were not foreseen by opinion polls during the campaign, which had predicted higher support for the two dominant parties and a weaker performance of Podemos.
United Left's Plural Left coalition and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) obtained some of their best historical results, with 10.0% and 6.5% of the vote and 6 and 4 seats, respectively. However, this was far from the major election breakthrough that polls had predicted throughout 2013 and in early 2014. From this point onwards both parties would lose support in opinion polls and in successive regional and local elections. The Citizens (C's) party of Albert Rivera, then marginalized as a Catalonia-only party and after several failed attempts to jump into national politics, managed to obtain 3.16% of the share and 2 seats. Just as Podemos, it would grow in support in the run up to the next general election and become a major political actor by 2015.
So far, this time marked the first and only occasion to date in which Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) has attained victory in Catalonia in an election of any kind since the times of the Second Spanish Republic.
The European Parliament MEP delegation for Spain was elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation. Under the Treaty of Lisbon, Spain was entitled to 54 seats, allocated to a single multi-member district—comprising the entire national territory—. No threshold was applied in order to be entitled to enter seat distribution.
Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage, with all nationals and European citizens over eighteen and in the full enjoyment of all political rights entitled to vote. Parties, coalitions and groups of electors were required to obtain the signatures of at least 15,000 registered electors in order to be able to field candidates. However, parties and coalitions could replace this requirement with the signatures of at least 50 elected officials—deputies, senators, MEPs or members from the legislative assemblies of autonomous communities or from local city councils—.
The electoral campaign started at 12:00 AM on 9 May. However, a traffic accident in Badajoz resulting in the deaths of 5 people (1 adult and 4 children) and 12 injured forced the suspension of the start of the campaign in Extremadura.
On Monday 12 May, Isabel Carrasco, president of the provincial government of Leon and member of the PP, was shot dead in the street. Policial investigation concluded that the crime's motive were of vengeance, since the two women arrested for committing the crime, wife and daughter of the Chief Inspector of the Police of the nearby town of Astorga, were affilied to the PP; one of them having been previously fired from the Provincial Deputation presided by Carrasco.
- People's Party (PP): "What is at stake is the future (Lo que está en juego es el futuro)"
- Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE): "You move Europe (Tú mueves Europa)"
- Coalition for Europe (CEU)
- Plural Left (IP): "The power of people (El poder de la gente)"
- Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD): "Unity is strength (La Unión hace la fuerza)"
- Left for the Right to Decide (EPDD): "Let us begin the new country. Now, in Europe (Comencem el nou país. Ara a Europa.)"
- The Peoples Decide (LPD)
- European Spring (PE): "The Europe of people (La Europa de las personas)"
- Citizens (C's): "The strength of the union (La fuerza de la unión)"
- We Can (Podemos): "Another Europe is possible, together We Can (Otra Europa es posible, juntos Podemos)", "When was the last time you voted with hope? (¿Cuándo fue la última vez que votaste con ilusión?)" & "Of course We Can! (¡Claro que Podemos!)"
- Vox (VOX): "The solution is to change (La solución es cambiar)"
Poll results are listed in the table below in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed in bold, and the background shaded in the leading party's colour. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is shaded. The lead column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the two parties with the highest figures. Poll results use the date the survey's fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. However, if such date is unknown, the date of publication will be given instead.
- Color key:
Multi-scenario poll Exit poll
|Polling Firm/Link||Last Date
|EP Election||May 25, 2014||26.1||23.0||5.4||10.0||6.5||4.0||2.1||3.2||1.9||1.6||8.0||3.1|
|gaceta.es||May 25, 2014||32.3||30.8||4.4||9.7||5.4||3.3||1.5||2.7||0.9||1.4||1.5||1.5|
|DYM||May 18, 2014||33.5||25.7||7.9||12.2||7.0||3.5||1.7||0.3||2.0||2.4||7.8|
|NC Report||May 17, 2014||32.5||29.7||4.5||11.8||6.1||±3.3 pp||900||2.8|
|Celeste-Tel[CV]||May 16, 2014||30.9||29.9||4.2||9.7||5.9||2.6||2.0||3.4||2.3||1.4||2.0||±3.1 pp||1,100||1.0|
|GAD3||May 16, 2014||33.8||27.9||5.0||8.9||5.3||3.2||1.8||2.9||1.4||0.9||3.5||±2.9 pp||1,200||5.9|
|Sigma Dos||May 15, 2014||33.8||25.7||5.2||10.3||6.2||2.8||1.6||2.9||1.5||1.3||3.1||±3 pp||1,111||8.1|
|Metroscopia||May 15, 2014||32.6||31.1||4.3||11.0||4.5||5.6||2.3||1.7||2.4||±2.9 pp||1,200||1.5|
|Invymark||May 12, 2014||35.4||28.6||5.6||10.2||6.9||4.1||2.0||1.5||6.8|
|GESOCLAB||May 11, 2014||31.0||28.8||5.4||10.5||6.3||4.4||1.5||1.3||1.1||0.6||1.5||2.2|
|NC Report||May 11, 2014||32.8||29.9||11.9||6.2||2.9|
|Celeste-Tel[CV]||May 8, 2014||31.1||30.2||4.2||10.0||6.0||2.4||2.0||2.8||2.4||1.6||1.9||±3.1 pp||1,100||0.9|
|Feedback||May 8, 2014||33.1||29.8||5.6||10.3||6.3||3.4||1.8||2.9||±3.0 pp||1,100||3.3|
|Sigma Dos||May 8, 2014||34.9||28.4||5.5||8.8||5.6||1.6||2.3||1.8||±3.2 pp||1,000||6.5|
|Sigma Dos||April 30, 2014||34.3||29.7||4.9||8.5||5.9||2.8||1.7||1.6||±3.2 pp||1,000||4.6|
|Demoscopia y Servicios||April 30, 2014||32.7||30.5||4.5||12.4||7.8||2.3||1.8||1.9||<1.0||1.8||<1.0||2.2|
|Sondea Investigación Social||April 30, 2014||28.7||24.8||3.9||13.5||7.6||4.1||1.2||3.6||2.2||1.0||4.7||±2 pp||1,995||3.9|
|Random EOMS[HT]||April 28, 2014||29.5||23.6||5.6||13.6||9.2||3.7||1.5||2.4||2.3||1.3||2.9||±3.2 pp||1,000||5.9|
|Random EOMS[LT]||April 28, 2014||32.2||29.9||4.0||12.0||6.5||3.8||0.9||2.1||1.7||0.9||2.5||±3.2 pp||1,000||2.3|
|CIS||April 26, 2014||33.7||31.0||5.5||9.3||5.3||3.7||2.1||1.2||1.2||0.5||1.8||±1.5 pp||4,737||2.7|
|GAD3||April 25, 2014||33.2||28.6||4.9||10.7||6.7||2.3||2.2||1.4||1.3||0.7||1.0||±3.2 pp||1,007||4.6|
|Metroscopia||April 24, 2014||32.6||32.2||4.7||12.0||4.6||4.2||2.1||1.8||±2.9 pp||1,200||0.4|
|Sigma Dos||April 24, 2014||33.8||30.3||9.6||7.0||3.0||±2.6 pp||1,500||3.5|
|Sigma Dos||April 15, 2014||33.1||30.2||4.2||10.4||7.2||3.2||1.3||2.3||1.1||1.1||1.2||±3.2 pp||1,000||2.9|
|Invymark||April 7, 2014||32.8||30.4||13.0||9.0||2.4|
|NC Report||March 22, 2014||30.4||28.3||4.5||12.1||7.3||3.9||2.8||3.2||2.2||±3.3||900||2.1|
|Metroscopia||March 19, 2014||25.7||29.0||4.0||14.1||8.4||4.5||1.8||2.0||1.2||0.9||0.8||±2.5||1,600||3.3|
|Invymark||March 17, 2014||32.6||30.9||13.2||9.2||1.7|
|Metroscopia||February 20, 2014||26.3||28.1||5.1||14.5||8.1||3.3||1.7||±2.9||1,200||1.8|
|Sondeos R.A.||February 15, 2014||28.3||29.0||5.0||12.6||8.7||3.2||3.5||±4||400||0.7|
|GAD3||February 13, 2014||31.2||29.2||5.1||11.1||7.7||3.4||1.3||1.4||±3.2 pp||1,000||2.0|
|DYM||February 10, 2014||28.2||30.3||3.0||13.5||6.3||4.8||±3.1||1,165||2.1|
|Demoscopia y Servicios||February 9, 2014||30.1||27.3||13.7||3.8||2.8|
|Invymark||February 3, 2014||33.3||30.0||12.7||9.4||2.5||3.3|
|NC Report||January 31, 2014||29.9||28.1||4.6||12.4||7.7||4.2||2.7||3.1||2.2||1.8|
|GESOP||January 23, 2014||31.6||28.0||5.2||11.5||9.3||3.4||3.1||±3.1 pp||1,000||3.6|
|Metroscopia||January 23, 2014||26.4||28.0||5.3||14.5||8.0||5.1||2.0||±2.9||1,200||1.6|
|Invymark||December 16, 2013||34.5||31.7||12.4||9.0||2.8|
|GESOP||November 28, 2013||32.4||27.9||4.8||9.9||8.3||4.8||3.5||±3.1 pp||1,000||4.5|
|Metroscopia||November 14, 2013||29.0||27.9||4.3||14.3||8.2||5.5||±1.7 pp||3,600||1.1|
|NC Report||November 4, 2013||32.0||27.9||5.0||12.7||8.9||4.8||2.8||4.1|
|GESOP||June 28, 2013||32.1||28.5||3.5||12.4||9.0||4.0||±3.1 pp||1,000||3.6|
|DYM||June 25, 2013||31.6||27.9||6.0||18.1||5.5||5.9||±3.1 pp||1,051||3.7|
|Simple Lógica||June 11, 2013||33.6||25.9||5.5||11.6||11.1||4.4||±3.1 pp||1,018||7.7|
|Metroscopia||June 6, 2013||27.2||26.0||4.8||14.7||10.3||5.1||±3.2 pp||1,000||1.2|
|Sondaxe||April 19, 2013||29.6||26.7||11.0||9.0||2.9|
|General Election||November 20, 2011||44.6||28.8||6.9||6.9||4.7||3.3||2.1||1.5||3.3|
|EP Election||June 7, 2009||42.1||38.8||5.1||3.7||2.9||2.5||1.1||0.1||3.3|
- HT Identifies multi-scenario opinion polls which hypothesize on a high turnout.
- LT Identifies multi-scenario opinion polls which hypothesize on a low turnout.
- CV Identifies polling firms that explicitly show their top-line results projected over "candidacy votes", that is, votes going for political parties, excluding blank ballots. This is in contrast to "valid votes", which is the most frequent method of vote projection by opinion pollsters and which do account for blank ballots. In order to obtain data comparable to both the official results projected over "valid votes" as well as projections from other pollsters, a rule of three is applied, considering a comparison between 2011 election results calculated both over "candidacy" and "valid votes". The results of such calculation are shown instead.
Opinion polls showing seat projections are displayed in the table below. The highest seat figures in each polling survey have their background shaded in the leading party's colour. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is shaded.
|25 May 2014||EP Election||16||14||3||6||4||2||1||2||1||0||5||0|
|25 May||La Gaceta||19 / 20||18 / 19||3||5 / 6||3 / 4||2||0 / 1||1 / 2||0||1||1 / 2||0|
|25 May||COPE||18 / 19||15 / 16||2||5||4 / 5||2||0||1||1||0 / 1||2 / 3||0|
|25 May||DyS||18 / 20||15 / 17||1 / 2||7 / 8||3 / 4||2 / 3||0 / 1||1 / 2||0 / 1||0||1 / 2||0|
|23 May||GAD3||18 / 19||15||3||5||4||2||1||1 / 2||1||0 / 1||2 / 3||0|
|19 May||Invymark||21 / 22||16 / 17||3||5 / 6||3 / 4||2||1||0||0||0||0 / 1||0|
|18 May||DYM||19||15 / 16||3 / 4||6 / 7||3 / 4||2||0||0 / 1||0||1||1 / 2||0 / 1|
|8–17 May||NC-Report||19 / 20||18 / 19||2||6 / 7||3||1 / 2||0 / 1||1||1||0||0 / 1||0|
|12–16 May||GAD3||21 / 22||17 / 18||3||5||3||1 / 2||1||1 / 2||0 / 1||0||1 / 2||0|
|13–15 May||Sigma-2||21 / 22||15 / 16||3||6||3 / 4||1||0 / 1||1||0 / 1||0||1 / 2||0|
|11 May||NC-Report||19 / 20||17 / 18||2 / 3||7 / 8||3 / 4||1 / 2||1||1||1||0||0 / 1||0|
|2–8 May||Celeste-Tel||19 / 20||18 / 19||2||6||3 / 4||1||1||1||1||0 / 1||1||0|
|30 Apr–8 May||Feedback||20||18||3||6||3||2||1||1||0||0||0||0|
|28 Apr–8 May||Sigma-2||21 / 22||17 / 18||3||5||3||1||1||1||0||0||1||0|
|3 May||PP & PSOE||20 / 22||17 / 19||2||7||4||1||0 / 1||1 / 2||0 / 1||0||0 / 1||0|
|22–30 Apr||Sigma-2||21 / 22||18 / 19||3||5||3||1||0||1||0||0||1||0|
|9–30 Apr||Sondea||17 / 19||14 / 16||1 / 2||8 / 9||4 / 5||2 / 3||0 / 1||1 / 2||0 / 1||0||2 / 3||0|
|22–28 Apr||Random||18 / 19||14 / 18||2 / 3||7 / 9||3 / 5||2||0||1||1||0||1||0|
|7–26 Apr||CIS||20 / 21||18 / 19||3||5||3||2||1||0||0||0||1||0|
|21–25 Apr||GAD3||21||18||3||6||4||1||1||0 / 1||0 / 1||0||0||0|
|10–24 Apr||Sigma-2||21 / 22||18 / 19||2||6||4||1||0||1||0||0||0||0|
|10–15 Apr||Sigma-2||20 / 21||18 / 19||2||6||4||2||0||1||0||0||0||0|
|17–22 Mar||NC-Report||18 / 19||16 / 17||2 / 3||7 / 8||4 / 5||2||0||1||1 / 2||1||0||0|
|13–15 Feb||Sondeos R.A.||17 / 18||18 / 19||2 / 3||7 / 8||4 / 5||1 / 2||0||0 / 2||0||0||0||0|
|27 Jan–10 Feb||DYM||17||19||1||7||3||2||5|
|9 Feb||DyS||19||17||4||1||1 / 2||11 / 12|
|27–31 Jan||NC-Report||18 / 19||17 / 18||2 / 3||7 / 8||4 / 5||2||0||1||1 / 2||1||0||0|
|25–28 Nov||GESOP||20 / 21||17 / 18||2||6 / 7||4 / 5||2||0||1 / 2||0||Did not exist||Did not exist||0|
|7 Oct–14 Nov||Metroscopia||18||17||2||9||5||3||0||0||0||0|
|4 Nov||NC-Report||19 / 20||16 / 17||2 / 3||7 / 8||5 / 6||2 / 3||0||0||1 / 2||0|
|25–28 Jun||GESOP||20 / 21||17 / 18||1 / 2||7 / 8||5 / 6||2||0||0||0||0|
|20 Nov 2011||General Election||(26)||(16)||(4)*||(4)||(2)||(1)*||(1)*||N/A||(0)*||(0)|
|7 Jun 2009||EP Election||24||23||3||2||1||1||0||0||0|
|People's Party (PP)||4,098,339||26.09||–16.03||16||–8|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||3,614,232||23.01||–15.77||14||–9|
|Plural Left (IP)1||1,575,308||10.03||+6.32||6||+4|
|We Can (Podemos)||1,253,837||7.98||New||5||+5|
|Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)||1,022,232||6.51||+3.66||4||+3|
|Coalition for Europe (CEU)2||851,971||5.42||+0.61||3||±0|
|Left for the Right to Decide (EPDD)3||630,072||4.01||+1.52||2||+1|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's)4||497,146||3.16||+3.02||2||+2|
|The Peoples Decide (LPD)5||326,464||2.08||+0.96||1||+1|
|European Spring (PE)6||302,266||1.92||+1.65||1||+1|
|Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)||177,499||1.13||+0.87||0||±0|
|Parties with less than 1.0% of the vote||752,450||4.79||—||0||±0|
|Blank Seats (EB)||115,682||0.74||New||0||±0|
|Citizens' Democratic Renewal Movement (RED)||105,666||0.67||New||0||±0|
|X Party, Party of the Future (Partido X)||100,561||0.64||New||0||±0|
|Andalusian Party (PA)7||49,523||0.32||+0.15||0||±0|
|Pirate Confederation–European Pirates (Piratas)||38,690||0.25||New||0||±0|
|Asturias Forum (FAC)||32,962||0.21||New||0||±0|
|Electors' Group for the Disabled and Rare Diseases (DER)||32,833||0.21||New||0||±0|
|Zero Cuts (Recortes Cero)||30,827||0.20||New||0||±0|
|Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE)||29,324||0.19||+0.09||0||±0|
|Feminist Initiative (IFem)||23,140||0.15||+0.09||0||±0|
|Spanish Falange of the JONS (FE–JONS)||21,687||0.14||+0.08||0||±0|
|United Free Citizens (CILUS)||18,287||0.12||New||0||±0|
|Social Impulse (Impulso Social)||17,879||0.11||New||0||±0|
|Spain Forward (LEM)||17,035||0.11||New||0||±0|
|Humanist Party (PH)||14,896||0.09||+0.05||0||±0|
|National Democracy (DN)||13,079||0.08||+0.02||0||±0|
|Europe Project (ACNV–BAR–PRAO–REPO–UNIO)||11,502||0.07||New||0||±0|
|Land Party (PT)||9,940||0.06||New||0||±0|
|Individual Freedom Party (P–LIB)||9,670||0.06||New||0||±0|
|Republican Social Movement (MSR)||8,909||0.06||+0.02||0||±0|
|United Extremadura (EU)||8,821||0.06||+0.03||0||±0|
|Republican Alternative (ALTER)||8,593||0.05||New||0||±0|
|For the Republic, for the Rupture with the European Union (RRUE)8||8,309||0.05||–0.03||0||±0|
|Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn)||6,929||0.04||±0.00||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)||6,759||0.04||+0.01||0||±0|
|Extremadurans for Europe (IPEx–PREx–CREx)||5,967||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Red Stream Movement (MCR)||4,980||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Votes cast / turnout||15,998,141||43.81||–1.09|
|Source(s): Ministry of the Interior, historiaelectoral.com|
Distribution by European group
The election resulted in a massive loss of support for the two main political parties of Spain, which together fell from a combined total of 80.9% in the previous European election to a record-low 49.1% of the vote (a net total of –31.8 pp, about –16.0 each one). Podemos, a party founded four months previously running on an anti-austerity platform, won an unprecedented 8.0% of the vote and 5 out of 54 seats to the European Parliament; the best result ever scored in Spain by a newly created party in its first electoral test.
The People's Party (PP) came out on top in most autonomous communities except in Andalusia, Asturias and Extremadura, where the PSOE won; the Basque Country, where the PNV prevailed; and Catalonia, where ERC scored first place for the first time in 80 years. In these last two communities the PP polled in fourth and fifth places, respectively. Significant were, however, their results in Madrid, Valencian Community and Murcia; in the first two it polled below the 30% mark for the first time in 25 years, while in the latter it experienced a spectacular drop in support, falling from the 60% mark it had maintained since the 2000 general election to below 40% of the vote. Also, except for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, it didn't surpass the 40% mark in any region, not even its strongholds of Galicia (where it polled a mere 35%), Castile and León or Castile-La Mancha (38% in both of them).
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), except for those communities where it won, experienced a significant drop in support. It suffered most notably in Catalonia and Basque Country (where it finished in 3rd place). In Catalonia in particular, the PSOE's sister party, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia, had previously won all general and European elections held in the region–except for those of 1994 and 2011, where it polled second just behind Convergence and Union–. Until this election, the worst result of the party in this region in such elections had been the 2011 result of 26.7%; in this election it fell to 14.3%.
Other parties benefiting from the collapse in support for the PP and PSOE parties were United Left-led Plural Left (IP) coalition, which with a 10.0% obtained its best results nationally since 1996, and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), whose 6.5% would remain the highest the party would win in a nationwide election before their decline throughout 2015. The Citizens party (C's) entered the European Parliament with 2 seats and 3.2% of the vote.
The election backlash had immediate consequences on the Socialist party (PSOE), which scored its worst result ever in an election held at a nationwide scale: a bare 23.0% of the vote, compared to the already dismaying results the party had obtained in the general election of 2011, with 28.8%. Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, which had won the party's leadership on a 2012 party federal congress, announced his intention to resign from his post after his party holds an extraordinary Federal Congress on 19–20 July to elect a new Secretary-General, ahead of the scheduled November Socialist primaries to elect the party's candidate for the 2015 election. Rubalcaba also announced his intention not to run in these primaries. Several regional party leaders followed suit and announced their intention to hold regional extraordinary party congresses as well.
On the other hand, People's Party (PP) leaders refused to publicly acknowledge the negative results of the party in the election, despite losing 40% of its 2009 vote and scoring the worst result the party has obtained in a national election since 1989, instead opting to highlight the fact that they had won the election. Despite this, the party had to cancel the victory celebration that was to be held in their national headquarters in Madrid due to the poor affluence of party supporters which went to the place, a result of election results much worse than expected. Concerns arose among party regional leaders on the prospects of such electoral results being displayed at the local and regional level in the May 2015 elections, something which could potentially force the PP out from the government of party strongholds' such as Madrid and Valencia.
On 26 May El País ran the headline "Harsh punishment to PP and PSOE", whilst El Mundo declared that "Bipartisanship crumbles". International media focused instead on the rise of Podemos party, with the BBC headlining that "Spain's 'we can' party proves it can" or "Spain's Podemos party challenges system", while others stated how the final election results "stunned analysts and pollsters".
Abdication of King Juan Carlos I
One week after the election, Spanish King Juan Carlos I announced his intention to abdicate in favour of his son, Felipe. Allegedly, the election results had no influence in the King's abdication. Rather, the elderly monarch had taken the decision the day of his 76th birthday in January and had spoken about it with Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy on 31 March and with opposition leader Rubalcaba three days later, but it was not until after the election that he announced it in order not to affect the electoral process. However, abdication was not regulated under the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and thus required the approval of an Organic Law on the matter. PP, PSOE, UPyD, CC, FAC and UPN all pledged their support for the law's approval. Attention then turned to the PSOE leader Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba as rumours spread about him not resigning right away the day after the election in order to keep controlling the party so as to ensure the affirmative vote of its parliamentary group on the law. This was received with criticism from several of the party's regional federations but also from its members and the Socialist Youth, openly republican, who demanded the party ask for a referendum on the monarchy issue.
Furthermore, there was speculation on the opportunity of the King abdicating at the time he did. In fact, due to the crisis of the bipartisanship self-evidenced by the European election results, the idea of the King announcing his decision before the 2015 general election, when the election results could translate into PP and PSOE losing a host of seats in the Congress of Deputies, making the building of large majorities more difficult, became extended among public opinion. The fact that the future of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's position on the monarchy, as well as the future of the party itself, looked uncertain after the debacle in the European election and Rubalcaba's resignation seemed to have also played a key part in precipitating the King's decision. PM Rajoy said, on the day the King announced he would abdicate, that "This is the best time [for it to happen], within a short time the Prince shall be proclaimed King".
- General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985, Organic Law No. 5 of June 19, 1985 Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved on 6 March 2017.
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