List of military occupations
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This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 are included In this article.
Military occupation is a type of effective control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign, and provisional in nature. Military occupation is distinguished from annexation[a] by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.
Ongoing military occupations
|Territory occupied||Since||Occupied state||Occupying state||Status|
|East Jerusalem||1967||Palestine[b] (declared in 1988)||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law|
|Gaza Strip||Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel. The United Nations “continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory”.[c][dubious ]|
|West Bank||Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration. The Oslo II Accord, officially signed on 28 September 1995, divided the West Bank into the Area C administered by Israel and the Area A and B administered by the Palestinian National Authority.|
|Golan Heights||Syria||Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law. Lebanon also claims the Shebaa farms and sees the territory as being under Israeli occupation.|
|Northern Cyprus||1974||Cyprus||Turkey||Declared state: Northern Cyprus
Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition
(80% of Western Sahara)
|1975||Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (declared in 1976)||Morocco||Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Transnistria||1992||Moldova||Russia||Declared state: Transnistria
(and surrounding territories)
|1994||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Declared state: Artsakh
|Abkhazia||2008||Georgia||Russia||Declared state: Abkhazia
|South Ossetia||Declared state: South Ossetia
|Parts of Donetsk region||2014||Ukraine||Russia||Declared states: Donetsk People's Republic; Lugansk People's Republic
|Parts of Luhansk region|
|Northern parts of Aleppo Governorate||2016||Syria||Turkey||See Turkish military intervention in Syria and Syrian Civil War|
Past military occupations
Events before the Hague Convention of 1907 are out of scope.
|Occupied territory||Years||Occupied state||Occupying state||Conflict||Part of war(s)||Subsequently annexed?|
|Falkland Islands||1982||United Kingdom||Argentina||Occupation of the Falkland Islands||Falklands War||No|
|Grenada||1983||Grenada||United States||Invasion of Grenada||Grenadian Revolution||No|
|Northern Province||1987–1990||Sri Lanka||India||Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War||Sri Lankan Civil War||No|
|Maldives||1988||Maldives||1988 Maldives coup d'état||No|
|Panama||1989–1990||Panama||United States||Invasion of Panama||War on Drugs||No|
|Kuwait||1990–1991||Kuwait||Iraq||Invasion of Kuwait||Gulf War||No|
|Haiti||1994–1995||Haiti||Operation Uphold Democracy||1991 Haitian coup d'état||No|
|Lesotho||1998–1999||Lesotho||Operation Boleas||Lesotho general election riots||No|
|Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998–2002||Democratic Republic of the Congo||Foreign support to the DR Congo||Second Congo War||No|
|Kargil District||1999||India||Pakistan||Kargil War||Indo-Pakistani Wars||No|
|Occupied territory||Years||Occupied state||Occupying state||Conflict||Part of war(s)||Subsequently annexed?|
|2000–2018||Eritrea||Ethiopia||Regions were seized at the end of the Eritrean–Ethiopian War in 2000, and subsequently delimited and demarcated by the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague to be Eritrean territory.
Ethiopia returned all occupied territories in July 2018 following a peace summit between the two states.
|Iraq||2003–2011||Iraq||United States||2003 Invasion of Iraq, Occupation of Iraq||Iraq War||No|
|Parts of Somalia||2006–2009||Somalia||Ethiopia||War in Somalia (2006–09)||Somali Civil War||No|
|Gori and Poti||2008||Georgia||Russia||Occupation of Gori and Poti||Russo-Georgian War||No|
|Perevi||2008–2010||Occupation of Perevi||No|
|Crimea||2014||Ukraine||Russia||Annexation of Crimea||2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine||Yes|
|Socotra||2018||Yemen||United Arab Emirates||Takeover of Socotra||Yemeni Civil War||No|
- Military occupations by the Soviet Union
- Peacekeeping – military deployments for peace-keeping purposes
- CSDP missions – foreign non-belligerent military missions of the European Union
- For a list of states that have seceded unilaterally see List of states with limited recognition
- For a list of cases where territory is disputed between countries, see List of territorial disputes
Footnotes and references
- Annexation refers to de jure annexation or annexation as defined under international law.
- East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have been occupied by Israel since 1967. The State of Palestine, which claims these territories, did not declare its independence until 1988. See Palestinian Declaration of Independence. The State of Palestine is, as of November 2015, recognised by 136 countries and is a non-member observer state at the United Nations.
- In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
- Most of the Allies had withdrawn by 1920, Japan continued to occupy Northern Sakhalin until 1925
- On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
- On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
- On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls. Cite error: Invalid
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- From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognise the occupation, the United States acted with a consistency and a tenacity of which we can all be proud. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognised in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands. Cite error: Invalid
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- The Tokara Islands were restored to Japan in 1952. The Amami Islands were restored in 1953.
- The All-Palestine government was de facto controlled by Egypt. Formal occupation occurred only from 1959–1967 after that government was dissolved.
- Israel withdrew from Taba in 1989.
- Government control ended with the Velvet Revolution in late 1989, and stationed Soviet troops departed peacefully over 1990–1991
- Past Military Occupations
- See also Manchukuo
- See also Second Sino-Japanese War#Full scale invasion of China
- See also Shanghai#History
- "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L. 84: 47. doi:10.2307/2203016.
- Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3.
- Eran Halperin; Daniel Bar-Tal; Keren Sharvit; Nimrod Rosler; Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research. 47: 47; 59. doi:10.1177/0022343309350013.
- David M. Edelstein (2004). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". International Security. 29: 49–91. doi:10.1162/0162288041762913.
- Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 10. ISBN 9781584778608.
The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each
- Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716.
The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation
- "Palestinian territories - Timeline". 8 July 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "Amid violence, 'glaring lack of hope,' UN deputy chief urges action to break Israeli-Palestinian impasse". UN News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Hugo Kerchnawe; Rudolf Mitzka; Felix Sobotka; Hermann Leidl; Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4.
- Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
- "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of State. June 14, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard. U.K. Parliament. 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation.
- Benvenisti, Eyal (2012-02-23). The International Law of Occupation. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199588893.
- "CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "Decision regarding delimitation of the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- "Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission". Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- "Ethiopia Marks Yearlong Occupation in Somalia". Retrieved June 20, 2015.