List of military occupations

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This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907[1] are included In this article.

Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.[2][3][4] Military occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[3][5][6][7]


Past military occupations[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state Conflict
Albania 1912 1913  Albania  Serbia Balkan Wars
Nicaragua 1912 1933  Nicaragua  United States United States occupation of Nicaragua
Albania 1914 1918[8]  Albania  Austria-Hungary World War I
Eastern Galicia 1914 1918  Austria-Hungary  Russian Empire World War I
Belgium 1914 1918  Belgium  German Empire World War I
Northeastern France 1914 1918  France  German Empire World War I
Luxembourg 1914 1918  Luxembourg  German Empire World War I
Veracruz 1914 1914  Mexico  United States United States occupation of Veracruz
Montenegro 1914 1918[8]  Montenegro  Austria-Hungary World War I
Lublin 1914 1918  Russian Empire  Austria-Hungary World War I
Parts of Russia 1914 1919  Russian Empire  German Empire World War I
Serbia 1914 1918  Serbia  Austria-Hungary World War I
Albania 1915 1917  Albania  Bulgaria World War I
German South-West Africa[(N) 1] 1915 1994  German Empire South Africa World War I
(Namibia)
Haiti 1915 1934  Haiti  United States United States occupation of Haiti
Dominican Republic 1916 1924  Dominican Republic  United States United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–24)
Cuba 1917 1922  Cuba  United States Sugar Intervention
Northeastern Italy 1917 1918  Italy  Austria-Hungary World War I
Parts of Turkey[(N) 2] 1919 1922[9]  Ottoman Empire  France World War I
 Greece
 Italy
 United Kingdom
Ruhr 1923 1924  Weimar Republic  Belgium
 France
Occupation of the Ruhr
Manchuria 1931 1945  China  Japan Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Ethiopia 1935 1941  Ethiopia  Italy Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Parts of China 1937 1945  Republic of China  Japan World War II
Shanghai 1937 1945  Republic of China  Japan World War II
Czechoslovakia 1938 1945  Czechoslovakia  Nazi Germany German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Albania 1939 1945  Albania  Italy
Carpatho-Ukraine 1939 1944  Czechoslovakia  Hungary
Finland 1939 1940  Finland  Soviet Union Winter War
Poland 1939 1945  Poland  Nazi Germany World war II
Eastern Poland 1939 1941  Poland[(N) 3]  Soviet Union World War II
Belgium 1940 1945  Belgium  Nazi Germany World War II
Denmark 1940 1945  Denmark  Nazi Germany World War II
Faroe Islands 1940 1945  Denmark  United Kingdom World War II
Iceland 1940 1945  Denmark  UK World War II
 Iceland[(N) 4]  USA[(N) 5]
Estonia 1940 1941  Estonia[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Northern France 1940 1944  France  Nazi Germany World War II
Southeastern France 1940 1943  France  Italy World War II
Vietnam 1940 1945  France  Japan World War II
Latvia 1940 1941  Latvia[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Lithuania 1940 1941  Lithuania[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Luxembourg 1940 1945  Luxembourg  Nazi Germany World War II
Netherlands 1940 1945  Netherlands  Nazi Germany World War II
Norway 1940 1945  Norway  Nazi Germany World War II
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940 1941  Romania  Soviet Union World War II
Channel Islands 1940 1944  United Kingdom  Nazi Germany World War II
Cambodia 1941 1945  France  Japan World War II
Greece 1941 1944  Greece  Bulgaria World War II
 Italy
 Nazi Germany
Iran 1941 1946  Iran Allies World War II
Belarus 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Nazi Germany World War II
Estonia 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Nazi Germany World War II
 Estonia[(N) 6][(N) 7]
Latvia 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Nazi Germany World War II
 Latvia[(N) 6][(N) 7]
Lithuania 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Nazi Germany World War II
 Lithuania[(N) 6][(N) 7]
Parts of the Soviet Union 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Finland Continuation War
British Borneo 1941 1945  UK  Japan World War II
Hong Kong 1941 1945  UK  Japan World War II
Malaya 1941 1945  UK  Japan World War II
Yugoslavia 1941 1945  Yugoslavia  Bulgaria World War II
 Hungary
 Italy
 Nazi Germany
New Guinea 1942 1945  Australia[(N) 8]  Japan World War II
Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) 1942 1945  Netherlands  Japan World War II
Philippines 1942 1945  Commonwealth of the Philippines  Japan World War II
Burma (Myanmar) 1942 1945  UK  Japan World War II
Singapore 1942 1945  UK  Japan World War II
Kiska 1942 1943  USA  Japan World War II
Libya 1943 1951  Libya Allies World War II
Italy 1943 1945  Italy  Nazi Germany World War II
Bulgaria 1944 1947  Bulgaria  Soviet Union World War II
Estonia 1944 1991  Estonia[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Hungary 1944 1945  Hungary  Nazi Germany World War II
Latvia 1944 1991  Latvia[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Lithuania 1944 1991  Lithuania[(N) 6][(N) 7]  Soviet Union World War II
Romania 1944 1958  Romania  Soviet Union World War II
Austria 1945 1955  Austria Allied Control Council World War II
Czechoslovakia 1945 1945  Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union World War II
Allied-occupied Germany 1945 1949  Germany Allied Control Council World War II
Berlin 1945 1990  Germany[(N) 9] Allied Control Council World War II
Hungary 1945 1991  Hungary  Soviet Union World War II
Northern Iran 1945 1946  Iran  Soviet Union
Japan 1945 1951  Japan Allies World War II
Taiwan 1945 1952[12]  Japan  Republic of China World War II
Korea 1945 1948  Korea  USA and  Soviet Union World War II
Parts of Vietnam 1945 1946  Vietnam  UK World War II
Gaza Strip 1948 1956 Gaza Strip  Egypt 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Sinai 1956 1956[13][14]  Egypt  France,  Israel, and  UK Suez Crisis
Gaza Strip 1957 1967 Gaza Strip  Egypt Arab–Israeli conflict
Laos 1959 1975  Laos  North Vietnam North Vietnamese invasion of Laos
Dominican Republic 1965 1966  Dominican Republic  USA and The Organization of American States American occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66)
Sinai 1967 1982  Egypt  Israel Six-Day War
Czechoslovakia 1968 1968  Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
East Pakistan 1971 1971  Pakistan  India Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
East Timor 1975 1999  East Timor  Indonesia Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Aouzou Strip 1976 1987  Chad  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Occupation of the Aouzou Strip
Parts of Lebanon 1976 2005  Lebanon  Syria Lebanese Civil War
Parts of Uganda 1978 1978  Uganda  Tanzania Uganda–Tanzania War
Cambodia 1979 1989  Cambodia  Vietnam Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Parts of Vietnam 1979 1979  Vietnam  China Sino-Vietnamese War
Falkland Islands 1982 1982  UK  Argentina Occupation of the Falkland Islands
Southern Lebanon 1982 2000  Lebanon  Israel 1982 Lebanon War
Northern Sri Lanka 1987 1990  Sri Lanka  India Sri Lankan Civil War
Maldives 1988 1988  Maldives  India 1988 Maldives coup d'état
Panama 1989 1990  Panama  USA United States invasion of Panama
Kuwait 1990 1991  Kuwait  Iraq Invasion of Kuwait
Haiti 1994 1995  Haiti  USA  Poland Argentina Operation Uphold Democracy
Lesotho 1998 1999  Lesotho  South Africa and Southern African Development Community Operation Boleas
Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2002[15]  Democratic Republic of the Congo  Uganda,  Rwanda,  Zimbabwe,  Angola,  Namibia,  Chad, and  Sudan Second Congo War
Kargil District 1999 1999  India  Pakistan Kargil War
Iraq 2003 2004  Iraq Coalition Provisional Authority 2003 Invasion of Iraq
Parts of Somalia 2006 2009[16]  Somalia  Ethiopia War in Somalia (2006–09)
Gori and Poti 2008 2008  Georgia  Russia Russo-Georgian War
Perevi 2008 2010  Georgia  Russia Russo-Georgian War
Isla Calero 2010 2011  Costa Rica  Nicaragua

Current military occupations[edit]

Territory occupied Since Occupied state Occupying state Status
Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
Artsvashen 1994  Armenia  Azerbaijan Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District
Barxudarlı 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province
Crimea 2014  Ukraine  Russia Annexed in 2014 during Crimean crisis
East Jerusalem 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
Gaza Strip 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel.[(N) 10]
Golan Heights 1967  Syria  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law
Karki 1992  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province
Nagorno-Karabakh
(and surrounding territories)
1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Northern Cyprus 1974  Cyprus  Turkey Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition
South Ossetia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition
West Bank 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration and the Palestinian National Authority
Western Sahara 1975  Morocco Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Yuxarı Əskipara 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Now the country of Namibia
  2. ^ See Occupation of Constantinople and Occupation of Smyrna.
  3. ^ On August 16, 1945 the Communist-dominated Polish government signed a treaty with the USSR to formally cede these territories.
  4. ^ On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
  5. ^ On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[10]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[11]
  8. ^ League of Nations mandate administered by Australia.
  9. ^ Berlin remained under formal military occupation until September 12, 1990 when the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany was signed
  10. ^ In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
References
  1. ^ "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  2. ^ A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L.: 47. 
  3. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3. 
  4. ^ Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research: 47; 59. 
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein (2010). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". Journal of Peace Research: 47; 59. 
  6. ^ Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 10. ISBN 9781584778608. The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each 
  7. ^ Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716. The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation 
  8. ^ a b Hugo Kerchnawe, Rudolf Mitzka, Felix Sobotka, Hermann Leidl, Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4. 
  9. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  10. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. 
  11. ^ "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of State. June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard (U.K. Parliament) 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation. 
  13. ^ "1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  14. ^ Philippe Rekacewicz. "The occupation of Sinai". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  15. ^ "CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  16. ^ "Ethiopia Marks Yearlong Occupation in Somalia". Retrieved June 20, 2015.