List of military occupations

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This article is about territorial occupations. For military ranks, see List of comparative military ranks.

This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907[1] are included In this article.

Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.[2][3][4] Military occupation is distinguished from annexation[5] by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[3][6][7][8]

Past military occupations[edit]

20th Century[edit]

1907-1919[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
parts of Libya 1911–1912  Ottoman Empire  Italy Invasion of Libya Italo-Turkish War
Albania 1912–1913  Albania  Serbia Occupation of Albania Balkan Wars
Nicaragua 1912–1933  Nicaragua  United States Occupation of Nicaragua Banana Wars
Albania 1914–1918[9]  Albania  Austria-Hungary Occupation of Albania World War I
Eastern Galicia 1914–1918  Austria-Hungary  Russia Occupation of Eastern Galicia
Belgium 1914–1918  Belgium  Germany Invasion of Belgium
Northeastern France 1914–1918  France Invasion of Northeastern France
Luxembourg 1914–1918  Luxembourg Occupation of Luxembourg
Veracruz 1914  Mexico  United States Occupation of Veracruz Mexican Revolution
Montenegro 1914–1918[9]  Montenegro  Austria-Hungary Christmas Uprising World War I
Lublin 1915–1918  Russia  Austria-Hungary,  Germany Invasion of Lublin
Parts of Russia 1914–1919  Germany Invasion of Baltic Russia
Serbia 1914–1918  Serbia  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Serbia
Albania 1915–1917  Albania  Bulgaria Occupation of Albania
German South-West Africa 1914–1915  Germany  South Africa South-West Africa campaign
Haiti 1915–1934  Haiti  United States Occupation of Haiti Banana Wars
Dominican Republic 1916–1924  Dominican Republic Occupation of the Dominican Republic
Cuba 1917–1922  Cuba Sugar Intervention
Northeastern Italy 1917–1918  Italy  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Northeastern Italy World War I
Parts of Turkey 1919–1922[10]  Ottoman Empire  France Occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna
 Greece
 Italy
 United Kingdom

1920-1939[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
Transcaucasia 1920 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic  Russian SFSR Invasion of Azerbaijan Russian Civil War
1921  Democratic Republic of Georgia Invasion of Georgia
Ruhr 1923–1924  Germany  Belgium
 France
Occupation of the Ruhr Aftermath of World War I
Manchuria[(PMO) 1] 1931–1945  Republic of China  Japan Invasion of Manchuria Second Sino-Japanese War
Xinjiang 1934  Soviet Union Invasion of Xinjiang Kumul Rebellion
Ethiopia 1935–1941  Ethiopia  Italy Invasion of Ethiopia Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Parts of China[(PMO) 2] 1937–1945  Republic of China  Japan Second Sino-Japanese War World War II
Shanghai[(PMO) 3] 1937–19
Czechoslovakia 1938–1945  Czechoslovakia  Germany Occupation of Czechoslovakia Interwar period
Albania 1939–1945  Albania  Italy Invasion of Albania
Carpatho-Ukraine 1939–1944  Czechoslovakia  Hungary Invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine
parts of Finland 1939–1940  Finland  Soviet Union Winter War World War II
Poland 1939–1945  Poland  Germany Invasion of Poland
Eastern Poland 1939–1941  Soviet Union Annexation of Polish territories

1940-1959[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
Belgium 1940–1945  Belgium  Germany Invasion of Belgium World War II
Denmark 1940–1945  Denmark Invasion of Denmark
Faroe Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of the Faroe Islands
Hankoniemi 1940–1941  Finland  Soviet Union Winter War
Iceland[(N) 1] 1940–1945  Denmark  United Kingdom Invasion of Iceland
 Iceland  United States[(N) 2]
Estonia 1940–1941  Estonia[(N) 3][(N) 4]  Soviet Union Occupation of the Baltic states
Northern France 1940–1944  France  Germany Invasion of Northern France
Southeastern France 1940–1943  Italy Italian invasion of France
Vietnam 1940–1945  Japan Invasion of French Indochina
Latvia 1940–1941  Latvia[(N) 3][(N) 4]  Soviet Union Occupation of the Baltic states
Lithuania 1940–1941  Lithuania[(N) 3][(N) 4]
Luxembourg 1940–1945  Luxembourg  Germany Occupation of Luxembourg
Netherlands 1940–1945  Netherlands Invasion of the Netherlands
Norway 1940–1945  Norway Invasion of Norway
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940  Romania  Soviet Union Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
Channel Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom  Germany Occupation of the Channel Islands
Cambodia 1941–1945  France  Japan Invasion of Cambodia
Greece 1941–1944  Greece  Bulgaria Occupation of Greece
 Italy
 Germany
Iran 1941–1946  Iran  Soviet Union,  United Kingdom Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Belarus 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Germany Occupation of Belarus
Estonia 1941–1944 Occupation of Estonia
 Estonia[(N) 3][(N) 4]
Latvia 1941–1944  Soviet Union Occupation of Latvia
 Latvia[(N) 3][(N) 4]
Lithuania 1941–1944  Soviet Union Occupation of Lithuania
 Lithuania[(N) 3][(N) 4]
Eastern Karelia 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Finland Occupation of Eastern Karelia Continuation War
Guam 1941–1944  United States  Japan Occupation of Guam World War II
Transnistria 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Romania Operation Barbarossa
Borneo 1941–1945  United Kingdom  Japan Occupation of British Borneo
Hong Kong 1941–1945 Occupation of Hong Kong
Malaya 1941–1945 Occupation of Malaya
Yugoslavia 1941–1945  Yugoslavia  Bulgaria Military operations in the territory of Yugoslavia
 Hungary
 Italy
 Germany
New Guinea 1942–1945  Australia  Japan New Guinea campaign
Nauru 1942–1945  Australia,  New Zealand,  United Kingdom Occupation of Nauru
Andaman Islands 1942–1945  British Raj Occupation of the Andaman Islands
Dutch East Indies 1942–1945  Netherlands Occupation of Dutch East Indies
Philippines 1942–1945  Philippines Occupation of the Philippines
Burma (Myanmar) 1942–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of Burma
Singapore 1942–1945 Occupation of Singapore
Kiska 1942–1943  United States Occupation of Kiska
Attu 1942–1943 Occupation of Attu
Italian Libya 1943–1951  Libya  United Kingdom,  France Allied occupation of Libya
Italy 1943–1945  Italy  Germany Occupation of Italy
Bulgaria 1944–1947  Bulgaria  Soviet Union Occupation of Bulgaria
Porkkalanniemi 1944–1956  Finland Moscow Armistice Continuation War
Estonia 1944–1991  Estonia[(N) 3][(N) 4] Occupation of the Baltic states World War II
Hungary 1944–1945  Hungary  Germany Occupation of Hungary
Latvia 1944–1991  Latvia[(N) 3][(N) 4]  Soviet Union Occupation of the Baltic states
Lithuania 1944–1991  Lithuania[(N) 3][(N) 4]
Romania 1944–1958  Romania Occupation of Romania
Austria 1945–1955  Austria  United Kingdom,  United States,  Soviet Union and  France Allied-occupied Austria
Czechoslovakia 1945  Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union Occupation of Czechoslovakia
Manchuria 1945–1946  Manchukuo Occupation of Manchuria Soviet–Japanese War
Germany 1945–1949  Germany  United Kingdom,  United States,  Soviet Union and  France Allied-occupied Germany World War II
West Berlin and East Berlin 1945–1990
Northern Iran 1945–1946  Iran  Soviet Union Iran crisis of 1946
Japan 1945–1951  Japan  United States Occupation of Japan
Taiwan 1945–1952[13]  Republic of China Invasion of Taiwan
Korea 1945–1948  Korea  United States and  Soviet Union Occupation of Korea
Parts of Vietnam 1945–1946  Vietnam  United Kingdom War of Vietnam
West Bank 1948–1967  All-Palestine  Jordan Occupation of West Bank Arab–Israeli conflict
Sinai 1956[14][15]  Egypt  France,  Israel, and  United Kingdom Suez Crisis Arab–Israeli conflict
Hungary 1956  Hungary  Soviet Union Hungarian Uprising Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Gaza Strip 1959–1967  All-Palestine  Egypt Occupation of the Gaza Strip 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Laos 1959–1975  Laos  North Vietnam Invasion of Laos Laotian Civil War

1960-1979[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
Dominican Republic 1965–1966  Dominican Republic  United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic Dominican Civil War
Sinai 1967–1982  Egypt  Israel Six-Day War Israeli-Arab conflict
Czechoslovakia 1968–1991  Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union,  Bulgaria  Bulgaria,  People's Republic of Poland,  East Germany, Hungary Invasion of Czechoslovakia Prague Spring
East Pakistan 1971  Pakistan  India Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War
Parts of Angola 1975–1976  Angola  South Africa South African invasion of Angola South African Border War
East Timor 1975–1999  East Timor  Indonesia Indonesian occupation of East Timor Invasion of East Timor
Aouzou Strip 1976–1987  Chad  Libya Occupation of the Aouzou Strip Chadian–Libyan conflict
Parts of Lebanon 1976– 2005  Lebanon  Syria Occupation of Lebanon Lebanese Civil War
Kagera Region 1978  Uganda  Tanzania Ugandan invasion of Kagera Uganda–Tanzania War
South Lebanon and Southern Lebanon 1978– 1984  Lebanon Free Lebanon State 1978 South Lebanon conflict Lebanese Civil War
1984-2000  Israel Occupation of Southern Lebanon 1982 Lebanon War
Cambodia 1979–1989  Cambodia  Vietnam Invasion of Kampuchea Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Afghanistan 1979–1989 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan  Soviet Union Invasion of Afghanistan Soviet–Afghan War
Parts of Vietnam 1979  Vietnam  China Invasion of Vietnam Sino-Vietnamese War

1980-1999[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
Grenada 1983  Grenada  United States Invasion of Grenada Grenadian Revolution
Falkland Islands 1982  United Kingdom  Argentina Occupation of the Falkland Islands Falklands War
Northern Province 1987–1990  Sri Lanka  India Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Sri Lankan Civil War
Maldives 1988  Maldives 1988 Maldives coup d'état Sri Lankan Civil War
Panama 1989–1990  Panama  United States Invasion of Panama War on Drugs
Kuwait 1990–1991  Kuwait  Iraq Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War
Haiti 1994–1995  Haiti  United States,  Poland,  Argentina Operation Uphold Democracy 1991 Haitian coup d'état
Lesotho 1998–1999  Lesotho  South Africa and  Botswana Operation Boleas Lesotho general election riots
Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998– 2002[16]  Democratic Republic of the Congo  Uganda,  Rwanda,  Zimbabwe,  Angola,  Namibia,  Chad, and  Sudan Foreign support to the DR Congo Second Congo War
Kargil District 1999  India  Pakistan Kargil War Indo-Pakistani Wars

Former occupied territories in 21st century[edit]

Occupied Territory From- To Occupied State Occupying State Conflict Part of War(s)
Iraq 2003–2004  Iraq  United States  United Kingdom 2003 Invasion of Iraq Iraq War
Parts of Somalia 2006–2009[17]  Somalia  Ethiopia War in Somalia (2006–09) Somali Civil War
Gori and Poti 2008  Georgia  Russia Occupation of Gori and Poti Russo-Georgian War
Perevi 2008–2010 Occupation of Perevi

Current military occupations[edit]

Territory occupied Since Occupied state Occupying state Status
East Jerusalem 1967 Palestinian territories

 Palestine[(N) 5] (declared in 1988)

 Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
Gaza Strip Palestinian territories

 Palestine[(N) 5] (declared in 1988)

Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel.[(N) 6]
Golan Heights  Syria Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law
West Bank Palestinian territories

 Palestine[(N) 5] (declared in 1988)

Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration. The Oslo II Accord, officially signed on 28 September 1995, divided the West Bank into the Area C administered by Israel and the Area A and B administered by the Palestinian National Authority.
Northern Cyprus 1974  Cyprus  Turkey
 TRNC
Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition
Southern Provinces
(80% of Western Sahara)
1975 Spain Spanish Sahara

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (claimed) [(N) 7]

 Morocco Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Karki 1992  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province
Nagorno-Karabakh
(and surrounding territories)
1994 Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Barxudarlı 1994 Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province
Yuxarı Əskipara 1994  Armenia  Azerbaijan Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province
Artsvashen 1994 Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District
Kosovo 1999  Serbia  Kosovo (de facto) Serbian state that was seized by the NATO-led Kosovo Force to cease hostilities with Serbia and two days after they were authorized to do so by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. The Republic of Kosovo has recognition from 109 countries and various international institutions.
Badme 2002  Eritrea  Ethiopia Ruled to be a part of Eritrea by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission at the Hague. Ethiopia continues to militarily occupy the territory and surroundings of the town in spite of the ruling. Boundary Commission was created at the end of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, which was triggered around the town.
Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
South Ossetia 2008 Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
Donetsk Oblast, Luhansk Oblast 2014  Ukraine Lugansk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
See Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Crimea  Russia

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
  2. ^ On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[11]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation, the United States acted with a consistency and a tenacity of which we can all be proud. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands. [12]
  5. ^ a b c East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have been occupied by Israel since 1967.[18] The State of Palestine, which claims these territories, did not declare its independence until 1988. See Palestinian Declaration of Independence. The State of Palestine is, as of November 2015, recognized by 136 countries.[19]
  6. ^ In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
  7. ^ The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic did not declare its independence until 1976.
Past Military Occupations
References
  1. ^ "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  2. ^ A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L. 84: 47. doi:10.2307/2203016. 
  3. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3. 
  4. ^ Eran Halperin; Daniel Bar-Tal; Keren Sharvit; Nimrod Rosler; Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research. 47: 47; 59. doi:10.1177/0022343309350013. 
  5. ^ Annexation refers to de jure Annexation or annexation as defined under international law.
  6. ^ David M. Edelstein (2010). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". Journal of Peace Research: 47; 59. 
  7. ^ Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 10. ISBN 9781584778608. The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each 
  8. ^ Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716. The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation 
  9. ^ a b Hugo Kerchnawe; Rudolf Mitzka; Felix Sobotka; Hermann Leidl; Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4. 
  10. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  11. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. 
  12. ^ "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of State. June 14, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard. U.K. Parliament. 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation. 
  14. ^ "1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  15. ^ Philippe Rekacewicz. "The occupation of Sinai". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  16. ^ "CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  17. ^ "Ethiopia Marks Yearlong Occupation in Somalia". Retrieved June 20, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Palestinian territories - Timeline". 8 July 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Amid violence, 'glaring lack of hope,' UN deputy chief urges action to break Israeli-Palestinian impasse". UN News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.