List of military occupations

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This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907[1] are included In this article.

Military occupation is a type of effective control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign, and provisional in nature.[2][3][4] Military occupation is distinguished from annexation[a] by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[contradictory][3][failed verification][5][6]

Contemporary occupations[edit]

Current military occupations and their occupying powers
Territory Since Occupied state/territory Occupying state Declared state/territory Status
East Jerusalem[7][8][9][10] 1967 Palestinian territories;
 Palestine (since 1988 declaration)[b]
 Israel Israel part of Jerusalem District (effectively annexed in 1980) Occupation by a foreign power with illegal annexation[15][c]
West Bank[16] N/A Occupation by a foreign power[17][d]
Gaza Strip[e] Occupation by a foreign power[17][f]
Golan Heights[20][21][22]  Syria Israel part of Northern District (effectively annexed in 1981) Occupation by a foreign power with illegal annexation[15][g] Recognized by the United States as part of Israel.[23]
Northern Cyprus[24] 1974  Cyprus  Turkey  Northern Cyprus Occupation by an armed group under the influence of a foreign power[25][h]
Majority of Western Sahara[26] 1975  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (declared in 1976)  Morocco Morocco Southern Provinces
since the 1991 ceasefire
Occupation by a foreign power with illegal annexation[15][i]
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia  Transnistria Occupation by an armed group under the influence of a foreign power[j]
Nagorno-Karabakh
(and surrounding territories)
1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia  Artsakh Occupation by an armed group under the influence of a foreign power[k]
Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia  Abkhazia Occupation by an armed group under the influence of a foreign power[l]
South Ossetia  South Ossetia
Parts of Donetsk Oblast 2014  Ukraine  Donetsk People's Republic Occupation by an armed group under the influence of a foreign power[25][m]
Parts of Luhansk Oblast  Lugansk People's Republic
Crimea[27][28] Occupation by a foreign power with illegal annexation[n]
Northern parts of Aleppo Governorate[29][30] 2016  Syria  Turkey N/A Occupation by a foreign power[o]

Historic occupations[edit]

Events before the Hague Convention of 1907 are out of scope.

1907–1919[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Korea 1905–1910  Korean Empire  Japan Japan–Korea treaties of 1905, 1907, and 1910 Russo-Japanese War Yes
Libya 1911–1912  Ottoman Empire  Italy Invasion of Libya Italo-Turkish War Yes
Albania 1912–1913[31]  Albania  Serbia Occupation of Albania Balkan Wars No
Nicaragua 1912–1933  Nicaragua  United States Occupation of Nicaragua Banana Wars No
Veracruz 1914  Mexico  United States Occupation of Veracruz Mexican Revolution No
Albania 1914–1918[32]  Albania  Austria-Hungary Occupation of Albania World War I No
Eastern Galicia 1914–1915  Austria-Hungary  Russia Occupation of Eastern Galicia No
Belgium 1914–1918  Belgium  Germany Occupation of Belgium No
Northeastern France 1914–1918  France Invasion of Northeastern France No
Luxembourg 1914–1918  Luxembourg Occupation of Luxembourg No
Congress Poland 1914–1918  Russia Invasion of Russian Poland No
Parts of Russia 1914–1919  Germany Invasion of Baltic Russia No
German South West Africa 1914–1915  Germany  South Africa South West Africa campaign Yes
Serbia 1915–1918  Serbia  Austria-Hungary
 Bulgaria
Invasion of Serbia No
Albania 1915–1917[32]  Albania  Bulgaria Occupation of Albania No
Montenegro 1916–1918  Montenegro  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Montenegro No
Haiti 1915–1934  Haiti  United States Occupation of Haiti Banana Wars No
Dominican Republic 1916–1924  Dominican Republic Occupation of the Dominican Republic No
Cuba 1917–1922  Cuba Sugar Intervention No
Northeastern Italy 1917–1918  Italy  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Northeastern Italy World War I No
Ukraine 1918 Ukraine  Germany
 Austria-Hungary
Invasion of Ukraine No
1918–1925[p]  Russian SFSR
 Soviet Union
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Russian Civil War No
Constantinople 1918–1923  Ottoman Empire Occupation of Constantinople Aftermath of World War I No
Smyrna 1919–1922  Greece Occupation of Smyrna No
Rhineland 1918–1930  Germany  France
 United Kingdom
 Belgium
 United States
Occupation of the Rhineland No
Eastern Galicia and Volhynia 1918–1919 West Ukrainian People's Republic  Poland Polish-Ukrainian War Yes

1920–1939[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Transcaucasia 1920 Azerbaijan  Russia Invasion of Azerbaijan Russian Civil War Yes
1921  Georgia Invasion of Georgia Yes
Ruhr 1923–1924  Germany Occupation of the Ruhr Aftermath of World War I No
Manchuria / Manchukuo 1931–1945  China  Japan Invasion of Manchuria Second Sino-Japanese War No
Xinjiang 1934  Soviet Union Invasion of Xinjiang Kumul Rebellion No
Ethiopia 1935–1941  Ethiopia  Italy Invasion of Ethiopia Second Italo-Ethiopian War No
Parts of China 1937–1945  China  Japan Second Sino-Japanese War World War II No
Shanghai 1937–1945 No
Austria 1938  Austria  Germany Anschluss Interwar period Yes
Sudetenland 1938  Czechoslovakia Munich Agreement Yes
Bohemia and Moravia 1939–1945 Occupation of Czechoslovakia No
Memel Territory 1939–1945  Lithuania Occupation of Memel Yes
Albania 1939–1945  Albania  Italy Invasion of Albania No
Carpatho-Ukraine 1939–1944  Czechoslovakia  Hungary Invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Yes
Poland 1939–1945  Poland  Germany Invasion of Poland World War II Partial
Eastern Poland 1939–1941  Soviet Union Annexation of Polish territories Partial
Parts of Finland 1939–1940  Finland Winter War Partial

1940–1959[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Belgium 1940–1945  Belgium  Germany Invasion of Belgium World War II No
Denmark 1940–1945  Denmark Invasion of Denmark No
Faroe Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of the Faroe Islands No
Greenland 1940–1945  United States Greenland in World War II No
Hankoniemi 1940–1941  Finland  Soviet Union Winter War No
Iceland[q] 1940–1945  Kingdom of Iceland  United Kingdom Occupation of Iceland No
 United States[r] No
Northern France 1940–1944  France  Germany Invasion of Northern France No
Southeastern France 1940–1943  Italy Italian invasion of France No
Vietnam 1940–1945  Japan Invasion of French Indochina No
Baltic states 1940–1941[s][t]  Estonia  Soviet Union Soviet occupation of the Baltic states Yes
 Latvia
 Lithuania
Luxembourg 1940–1945  Luxembourg  Germany Occupation of Luxembourg No
Netherlands 1940–1945  Netherlands Invasion of the Netherlands No
Norway 1940–1945  Norway Invasion of Norway No
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940  Romania  Soviet Union Occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Yes
Channel Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom  Germany Occupation of the Channel Islands No
Cambodia 1941–1945  France  Japan Invasion of Cambodia No
Greece 1941–1944  Greece Occupation of Greece No
Iran 1941–1946  Iran Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran No
Belarus 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Germany Occupation of Belarus No
Ukraine Occupation of Ukraine
Baltic states Occupation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (de jure independent, de facto under Soviet rule)
Western Russia Eastern Front
Eastern Karelia  Finland Continuation War No
Guam 1941–1944  United States  Japan Occupation of Guam No
Transnistria 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Romania Operation Barbarossa No
Borneo 1941–1945  United Kingdom  Japan Occupation of British Borneo No
Hong Kong 1941–1945 Occupation of Hong Kong No
Malaya 1941–1945 Occupation of Malaya No
Yugoslavia 1941–1945  Yugoslavia Military operations in the territory of Yugoslavia No
New Guinea 1942–1945  Australia  Japan New Guinea campaign No
Nauru 1942–1945 Occupation of Nauru No
Andaman Islands 1942–1945  British Raj Occupation of the Andaman Islands No
Dutch East Indies 1942–1945  Netherlands Occupation of Dutch East Indies No
Philippines 1942–1945  Philippines Occupation of the Philippines No
Burma (Myanmar) 1942–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of Burma No
Singapore 1942–1945 Occupation of Singapore No
Kiska 1942–1943  United States Occupation of Kiska No
Attu 1942–1943 Occupation of Attu No
Italian Libya 1943–1951  Libya Allied occupation of Libya No
Italy 1943–1945  Italy  Germany Occupation of Italy No
Hungary 1944–1945  Hungary Occupation of Hungary No
Baltic states 1944–1991[s][t]  Estonia  Soviet Union 1944 Soviet re-occupation,
Baltic states under Soviet rule
Yes
 Latvia
 Lithuania
Bulgaria 1944–1947  Bulgaria Occupation of Bulgaria No
Romania 1944–1958  Romania Occupation of Romania No
Poland 1944–1956[u]  Poland Soviet presence in Poland No
Hungary 1944–1949[v]  Hungary Occupation of Hungary No
Porkkalanniemi 1944–1956  Finland Continuation War No
Carpathian Ruthenia 1944–1945  Czechoslovakia Annexation of Carpathian Ruthenia Yes
Manchuria 1945–1946  Manchukuo Soviet–Japanese War No
Austria 1945–1955  Austria Allied-occupied Austria Aftermath of World War II No
East Germany, incl. East Berlin 1945–1949  Germany  Soviet Union Allied-occupied Germany No
West Germany 1945–1949
West Berlin 1945–1990
Saarland 1945–1957  France Saar Protectorate No
Northern Iran 1945–1946  Iran  Soviet Union Iran crisis of 1946 No
Japan (mainland) 1945–1951  Japan  United States Occupation of Japan No
Iwo Jima and the Bonin Islands 1945–1968
Ryukyu Islands[w] 1945–1972
Taiwan, Pescadores, and Itu Aba 1945–1952[35]  Japan[35]  China History of Taiwan since 1945 Yes
Korea 1945–1948  Korea Occupation of Korea No
Parts of Vietnam 1945–1946  Vietnam  United Kingdom War of Vietnam No
East Jerusalem 1948–1967[36] Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)  Jordan Jordanian annexation of the West Bank 1948 Arab–Israeli War Yes
West Bank[b] 1948–1967[37]  Palestine
Gaza Strip[b] 1948–1956
1957–1967[x]
 Egypt Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt No
Tibet 1949–1951  Tibet  China Annexation of Tibet N/A Yes
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1954–1974  Portugal  India Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli Decolonisation of Portuguese India Yes
Suez Canal Zone 1956  Egypt Suez Crisis Arab–Israeli conflict No
Sinai 1956–1957  Israel No
Gaza Strip  All-Palestine No
Hungary 1956  Hungary  Soviet Union Hungarian Uprising Hungarian Revolution of 1956 No
Laos 1959–1975  Laos  North Vietnam Invasion of Laos Laotian Civil War No

1960–1979[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Goa, Daman and Diu 1961–1974  Portugal  India Annexation of Goa Decolonisation of Portuguese India Yes
Dominican Republic 1965–1966  Dominican Republic  United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic Dominican Civil War No
Sinai 1967–1982[y]  Egypt  Israel Six-Day War Arab–Israeli conflict No
Czechoslovakia 1968–1989[z]  Czechoslovakia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Prague Spring No
East Pakistan
(became Bangladesh)
1971  Pakistan  India Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War No
Parts of Angola 1975–1976  Angola  South Africa South African invasion of Angola South African Border War No
Tiris al-Gharbiyya 1975–1979  Western Sahara  Mauritania Battles of La Güera and Tichla (1975) Western Sahara War No
East Timor 1975–1999  East Timor  Indonesia Invasion of East Timor Indonesian occupation of East Timor Yes
Aouzou Strip 1976–1987  Chad  Libya Occupation of the Aouzou Strip Chadian–Libyan conflict No
Parts of Lebanon 1976–2005  Lebanon  Syria Syrian occupation of Lebanon Lebanese Civil War No
Kagera Region 1978  Uganda  Tanzania Ugandan invasion of Kagera Uganda–Tanzania War No
Southern Lebanon 1978–1984  Lebanon Free Lebanon State 1978 South Lebanon conflict Lebanese Civil War No
1984–2000  Israel 1982 Lebanon War 1982 Lebanon War No
Parts of Vietnam 1979  Vietnam  China Invasion of Vietnam Sino-Vietnamese War No
Cambodia 1979–1989  Cambodia  Vietnam Invasion of Kampuchea Cambodian–Vietnamese War No
Afghanistan 1979–1989 Afghanistan  Soviet Union Invasion of Afghanistan Soviet–Afghan War No

1980–1999[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Falkland Islands 1982  United Kingdom  Argentina Occupation of the Falkland Islands Falklands War No
Grenada 1983  Grenada  United States Invasion of Grenada Grenadian Revolution No
Northern Province 1987–1990  Sri Lanka  India Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Sri Lankan Civil War No
Maldives 1988  Maldives 1988 Maldives coup d'état No
Panama 1989–1990  Panama  United States Invasion of Panama War on Drugs No
Kuwait 1990–1991  Kuwait  Iraq Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War No
Haiti 1994–1995  Haiti Operation Uphold Democracy 1991 Haitian coup d'état No
Lesotho 1998–1999  Lesotho Operation Boleas Lesotho general election riots No
Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998–2002[38]  Democratic Republic of the Congo Foreign support to the DR Congo Second Congo War No
Kargil District 1999  India  Pakistan Kargil War Indo-Pakistani Wars No

2000–2019[edit]

Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Event Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Gash-Barka, Southern, Northern Red Sea and Southern Red Sea
regions of Eritrea
2000–2018  Eritrea  Ethiopia Regions were seized at the end of the Eritrean–Ethiopian War in 2000, and subsequently delimited[39] and demarcated[40] by the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague to be Eritrean territory.

Ethiopia returned all occupied territories in July 2018 following a peace summit between the two states.

Eritrean–Ethiopian War No
Iraq 2003–2011  Iraq Iraq War No
Parts of Somalia 2006–2009[42]  Somalia  Ethiopia War in Somalia (2006–09) Somali Civil War No
Gori and Poti 2008  Georgia  Russia Occupation of Gori and Poti Russo-Georgian War No
Perevi 2008–2010 Occupation of Perevi No
Socotra 2018  Yemen  United Arab Emirates Takeover of Socotra Yemeni Civil War No

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Secretariat of the European Parliament DG-EXPO (2015), Occupation/Annexation of a Territory: Respect for International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and Consistent EU Policy (PDF)

Footnotes and references[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Annexation refers to de jure annexation or annexation as defined under international law.
  2. ^ a b c The West Bank (including East Jerusalem) was occupied by Jordan[11] and the Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt[12] from 1948 until the 1967 and have been occupied by Israel since 1967.[13] The State of Palestine, which claims these territories, did not declare its independence until 1988. See Palestinian Declaration of Independence. The State of Palestine is, as of November 2015, recognised by 136 countries and is a non-member observer state at the United Nations.[14]
  3. ^ Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; effectively annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
  4. ^ The West Bank was seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan, and is administered by the Israeli Civil Administration. The Oslo II Accord, officially signed on 28 September 1995, divided the West Bank into the Area C administered by Israel and the Area A and B administered by the Palestinian National Authority.
  5. ^ Still considered occupied despite the 2005 Israeli disengagement from Gaza.[18] The system of control imposed by Israel has been described as an "indirect occupation".[19] Some other legal scholars have disputed the idea that Israel still occupies Gaza.[citation needed]
  6. ^ The Gaza Strip was seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt. In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel. As of 2012, the United Nations "continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."Spokesperson's Noon Briefing
  7. ^ Seized during the Six-Day War; effectively annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law. Lebanon also claims the Shebaa farms and sees the territory as being under Israeli occupation.
  8. ^ Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition
  9. ^ Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
  10. ^ Seized during the Transnistria War; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition.
  11. ^ Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; administered as the Republic of Artsakh, a state with limited international recognition
  12. ^ Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as states with limited international recognition.
  13. ^ See 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Russian military intervention in Ukraine, War in Donbass and Minsk Protocol
  14. ^ See Russian military intervention in Ukraine and Annexation of Crimea
  15. ^ See Turkish military intervention in Syria and Syrian Civil War
  16. ^ Most of the Allies had withdrawn by 1920, Japan continued to occupy Northern Sakhalin until 1925
  17. ^ On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
  18. ^ On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
  19. ^ a b On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[33]
  20. ^ a b From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognise the occupation, the United States acted with a consistency and a tenacity of which we can all be proud. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognised in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[34]
  21. ^ A status of forces agreement was signed in December 1956 to formally regulate the position of Soviet troops in Poland, which had been there since the end of the Second World War. After the end of the country's Soviet-backed Communist regime in 1989, the last Soviet contingent would leave the country in 1993.
  22. ^ A status of forces agreement was signed in 1947 to regulate the position of Soviet troops in Hungary, which was further confirmed by Hungary's later membership in Comecon in 1949. Soviet troops would remain stationed in Hungary until 1991.
  23. ^ The Tokara Islands were restored to Japan in 1952. The Amami Islands were restored in 1953.
  24. ^ The All-Palestine government was de facto controlled by Egypt. Formal occupation occurred only from 1959–1967 after that government was dissolved.
  25. ^ Israel withdrew from Taba in 1989.
  26. ^ Government control ended with the Velvet Revolution in late 1989, and stationed Soviet troops departed peacefully over 1990–1991
References
  1. ^ "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  2. ^ A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L. 84: 47. doi:10.2307/2203016.
  3. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3.
  4. ^ Eran Halperin; Daniel Bar-Tal; Keren Sharvit; Nimrod Rosler; Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research. 47: 47, 59. doi:10.1177/0022343309350013.
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein (2004). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". International Security. 29: 49–91. doi:10.1162/0162288041762913.
  6. ^ Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716. The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation
  7. ^ "BBC 2010". 9 November 2010.
  8. ^ https://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/palestine/ch12.pdf
  9. ^ "Israeli authorities back 600 new East Jerusalem homes". 26 February 2010.
  10. ^ "UNSC 298".
  11. ^ See also Jordanian annexation of the West Bank
  12. ^ See also Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt
  13. ^ "Palestinian territories - Timeline". 8 July 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  14. ^ "Amid violence, 'glaring lack of hope,' UN deputy chief urges action to break Israeli-Palestinian impasse". UN News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c Secretariat of the European Parliament DG-EXPO 2015, pp. 14-15: "An occupied territory may also be illegally annexed... Annexation means that the territory is incorporated into another state and is being regarded by that state as a part of its territory. Among contemporary examples, one finds the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem, Western Sahara and Crimea. Under current international law, annexation can only be carried out after a peace treaty, and preferably after a referendum. Annexations which do not correspond to this requirement - like those just mentioned - are illegal."
  16. ^ Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I. C. J. Reports. International Court of Justice. 2004.
  17. ^ a b Secretariat of the European Parliament DG-EXPO 2015, pp. 14-15: "Territory over which a foreign power has taken control is occupied.... An occupation is supposed to be a temporary status, but current reality shows that territory may be occupied for decades; the West Bank and Gaza have been occupied for 48 years."
  18. ^
    • Sanger, Andrew (2011). M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu, Tim McCormack (eds.). "The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom Flotilla". Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2010. Springer Science & Business Media. 13: 429. doi:10.1007/978-90-6704-811-8_14. ISBN 978-90-6704-811-8. Israel claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but rather it has 'sui generis' status. Pursuant to the Disengagement Plan, Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian presence in the territory. However the Plan also provided that Israel will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast of the Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence on the Egyptian-Gaza border. and reserving the right to reenter Gaza at will.
      Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in and out of the territory. Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings. Troops from the Israeli Defence Force regularly enter pans of the territory and/or deploy missile attacks, drones and sonic bombs into Gaza. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also dependent on Israel for water, electricity, telecommunications and other utilities, currency, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave the territory. Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker. Since 2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry.
      It is this direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza that has led the United Nations, the UN General Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza, International human rights organisations, US Government websites, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and a significant number of legal commentators, to reject the argument that Gaza is no longer occupied.
      CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
    • Scobbie, Iain (2012). Elizabeth Wilmshurst (ed.). International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-19-965775-9. Even after the accession to power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over the Rafah crossing until at least May 2011, its control of Gaza's maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the 'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene forcibly at will in Gaza.
    • Gawerc, Michelle (2012). Prefiguring Peace: Israeli-Palestinian Peacebuilding Partnerships. Lexington Books. p. 44. ISBN 9780739166109. While Israel withdrew from the immediate territory, it remained in control of all access to and from Gaza through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the airspace. In addition, Gaza was dependent upon Israel for water, electricity sewage communication networks and for its trade (Gisha 2007. Dowty 2008). ln other words, while Israel maintained that its occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and purposes still occupied.
  19. ^ Jerome Slater, Just War Moral Philosophy and the 2008–09 Israeli Campaign in Gaza, International Security 37(2):44-80 · October 2012
  20. ^
  21. ^ Occupied territory:
  22. ^ Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state."
  23. ^ Trump signs decree recognizing Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights, Reuters, 25 March 2019
  24. ^ UN Security Council resolutions 353, 357, 358, 359, 360, and 365.
  25. ^ a b Secretariat of the European Parliament DG-EXPO 2015, pp. 14-15: "Territory may further be controlled by an armed group. This could be a rebel group which wants to take over control of the government of the state in question or it could be a group that wants to secede from the state and form a new state or have the territory transferred to another state... There is no term in international law for such territory... In some cases, the armed group in power in such a territory may be under the control of or under the influence of a foreign power. As has been held by the European Court of Human Rights, Turkey is legally responsible for human rights violations committed in the non-recognised 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' (TRNC). It is possible that the situation is similar in the self-proclaimed peoples' republics in Donetsk and Lugansk."
  26. ^ "Military occupation of Western Sahara by Morocco".
  27. ^ Peter Bursens, Christ'l De Landtsheer, Luc Braeckmans, Barbara Segaert, eds. (2016). Complex Political Decision-Making: Leadership, Legitimacy and Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 170.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  28. ^ Robin Geiß (2015). "Russia's Annexation of Crimea: The Mills of International Law Grind Slowly but They Do Grind". International Law Studies. the Stockton Center for the Study of International Law. 91.
  29. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (2 March 2017). "Skirmishes Mar Fight Against IS in Northern Syria". Voice of America. Turkish occupation “is an existential threat to the Assad government's ability to reclaim the entirety of its territory, which is a key argument that regime loyalists make in their support of Bashar al-Assad's government,” Heras said.
  30. ^ Robert Fisk (29 March 2017). "In northern Syria, defeated Isis fighters leave behind only scorched earth, trenches – and a crucifixion stand". The Independent. You can’t mistake the front line between the Syrian army and Turkey’s occupation force east of Aleppo.
  31. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120504110038/http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts20_1/AH1913_1.html
  32. ^ a b Hugo Kerchnawe; Rudolf Mitzka; Felix Sobotka; Hermann Leidl; Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4.
  33. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
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