|Paite (ใปเต/ใปเต ปัว)|
|Paite pau / Paite|
|Native to||Burma, India|
|64,000 (2001 census)|
Roman alphabet/Latin alphabet,
Burmese script andThai script(which is rarely used and not known by most Paite people )
Paite is a language spoken by the Paite people. There are different Paite dialects.There are about 64,000 Paites in India(according to the 2001 census) , about 100,000 Paites in Myanmar(2005-2006), and about 89,000 in Thailand and Laos (2014). The language exhibits mutual intelligibility with the other languages of the region including Thadou, Hmar, Vaiphei, Simte, Kom, Gangte and other languages. The name Paite literally means 'Go-people' and can be translated as 'Leavers' , 'Marchers' or 'simply the people who went.'
Paite was influence by a number of languages such as Japanese, Bengali, Hindi, Manipuri, Burmese, Thai and others as the Paite people like to mimick other people(who speak different languages)which alse led to the creation of new words.
The Paite spoken in Myanmar and Thailand( also in Laos) is called Paite-Teddim or Paite-Chin and the Paite spoken in India is called Paite-Zomi or Paite-Mizo.
The Paite language is written in the Roman alphabet(there are two types) , simplified version of the PauCinHau alphabet, Burmese script and the Thai script.In India, Paite speakers use the Roman alphabet, in Myanmar the Burmese script and PauCinHau alphabet is used and in Thailand and most parts of Southeast Asia, they use the Thai script.
The Paite language was written with a script that is similar to the Burmese alphabet and Meitei mayek and that script is called Tuallai / Paite laimal but is wasn't used since the missionaries came to Colonial India.
The letters Hs and Sh are removed to make the alphabet more simple.
Even though the Paite language is a tonal language, the usage of tones can be neglected and Paite speakers will understand even if you use a flat tone in every word.The tonal indicators are thought to have been removed due to this reason.
Paite literature is written in the Lamjang dialect, which is indistinguishable from the Tedim languagewhile there are some written in other dialects too.
First Paite alphabet(Roman)
The alphabet is based on the Roman alphabet and has 15 Consonants and 7 vowels.There are 19 consonant phomemes in Paite. 11 of them are glottal stops, 4 fricatives, 3 nasal and 1 lateral.
This version of the Paite alphabet is called 'Paitelaimal'.This alphabet is used presently.
A is pronounced as u in under, E as e in end, I as e in electric, O as a short aw and U as oo in Moon.
'iai'(yai) and 'uau'(wao) are the Triphthongs of Paite language.
Second Paite alphabet(Roman)
This version of the Paite alphabet is called 'Laimal-ni-na'.
|Nuai(khat)||Hundred thousand/One lakh in Indian English|
|Tuklehdingawn sawm||Ten billion|
|Tuklehdingawn za||Hundred billion|
This Paite script is taken from the Thai alphabet to write the Paite/Teddim language but didn't gain popularity so it was forgotten .It was created in 2002 and has 31 consonants and 21 vowels . Unlike Thai, the spaces in between words do not indicate the end of a sentence .Each consonant doen not inherit any vowel sound.
|Gh||ฅ||Gha(used for borrowed words)|
|Zh||ซ||Zha/Jha (used in borrowed words)|
|T||ต||Ta(sometimes spelled as dta)|
|Th||ฒ||Tha(borrowed words from Thai)|
|Dh||ธ||Dha (used in borrowed words )|
|S||ศ||Sa (verbs )|
|Sh||ศห||Sha (verbs )|
|h||ห||-h(aspirated and will become a glottal stop if it comes after a vowel)|
|Silent/?||อ||Gingneilou (vowel bearer)|
Vowels (Lai-aw ใล-อ็)
The following is a sample text in Paite of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
|Mi tengteng zalena piang ihi ua, zahomna leh dikna tanvou ah kibangvek ihi. Sia leh pha theihna pilna neia siam ihihziakun imihingpihte tungah unauna lungsim feltak iputngai ahi.
มีเตงเตง ชัเลนอะ ปิยัง ยิฮี วะ, ชัหโอํนะ เลห ดิกนั ตันบห็ว อัห กิบังเบหก ยิฮี. สหิยั เล ผั เถยหนั ปิฬนั เนยอั ศิยะํ ยิฮีห ซิยักักวุน ยิ มิฮิงปิหเต ตุงอัห วุนัวนั ลุงสิม เฝฬตัก ยิปุตใง อัฮี.
|All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
Here is a sample text of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paite(Thailand):Mee teng ciareng in dokanet iy wa , shaomna lek khodo mai kardirap in kibangwek iyi. Mai le di hteihna cholot mī a kartha iyih hsiakun imee penmanut pihte muo a pi-ong lungsim khit sakhei ayi.
Paite grammar is fairly complex because of a number of word modification and a bit complex noun structure.
|Vasa Ka mu
I see a bird
|Sing a puá
He carries wood
But even if the word order and grammar isn't followed, sentences and phrases won't loose its meaning.
Example: "Laya(or Laia) gelh'' which means He writes can also be written as ''Gelh a Lay(or Lai)'' but still doesn't loose it's meaning.
There are some words in which it is confusing to read without tonal indicators, for example Sù(punch), Sú (genital), Sū(another way of addressing rain) , Sü(snatch) and Sû(also Fu, which means push).
Confusing words in Paite when using the modern alphabet. Si(which can mean death-Shī and blood-Si), Thu(which can mean fermented-thù and word-htu), Fan(which can mean fan and the past tense of walk-fän), etc.
Lamjang and Dapjar
One in Lamjang dialect is Khat but in Dapjar it is called Pa'Khat
In Lamka Town there is a mix of the dialects which formed the Standard Paite most people speak today. An example of some words:
|Fuh||good quality(describes the physical appearance)|
Paite is spoken mainly in the following locations (Ethnologue).
- Manipur: CCpur Bazar(Lamka Bazar), Khuga valley(Lamka phaizang), Churachandpur district
- Mizoram: 20 villages of Champhai subdivision, Aizawl district
- ChinState , Myanmar
- Northern Thailand and Laos
Ethnologue lists the following dialects of Paite.There are various dialects not mentioned here, mainly because some of them are not used anymore.
- Bukpi (Bukpui)
- Dapzal (Dapzar)also written as Dapjar
- Lamzang also written as Lamjang
- Telzang (Teizang)
- Paite (ใปเต/ใปเต ปัว) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Paite Chin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Singh, Chungkham Yashawanta (1995). "The linguistic situation in Manipur" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 18 (1): 129–134. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Singh, Naorem Saratchandra Singh (2006). A Grammar of Paite. Mittal Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-8183240680. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- Singh, Naorem Saratchandra. 2006. A grammar of Paite. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
- Muivah, Esther T. 1993. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: Paite Tribe Council.
- Tualkhothang, Naulak. 2003. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: The Tualkhothang Naulak Memorial Trust.
- Tawmbing, Chinzam. 2014. English-Paite dictionary. Lamka, Manipur: Hornbill Publication.
- Paite Tribe Council. 2013. Paite customary law & practices / Paite pupa ngeina dan leh a kizatnate. Lamka, Manipur: Paite Tribe Council.
- Thuamkhopau, T. 2009. Paite paunaak leh pau upate. Manipur: Tribal Research Institute.