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The Sanyi teaching (Chinese: 三一教; pinyin: Sanyi jiao; literally: "teaching of the Three in the One") or Xia teaching or Xiaism (Chinese: 夏教; pinyin: Xia jiao; literally: "teaching of summer") is a sect of the Chinese folk religion primarily based on Confucian moral ideas and ancestral worship, but including Taoist meditation techniques and pursuit of enlightenment (typical of Buddhism). The "Three in One" is a philosophical concept expressing the original trinity proceeding from the Tao, the two principles, yin and yang, of the Great Pole. The Great Pole is the One that contains yin and yang, the Two, in the Three.
Xiaism was founded by Lin Zhao'en (1517–98), in Putian, Fujian. After his death, he was deified as the "Lord of the Three-in-One", and is worshipped in over a thousand temples in the Xinghua region of Fujian, and also in Taiwan and Southeast Asia's Chinese communities. Xiaist practices include the "heart method" of self-cultivation, which is still widely practised in Xinghua today.
Xiaism has its independent ritual tradition, similar to those of Taoism and Buddhism. Its ritual specialists perform communal offerings (jiao) and funeral services (gongde), along with individual rites. In some communities in the Xinghua region, the Sanyi temple has become the primary village temple, centre of collective life. Annual pilgrimages are made to the religion's central temple, the Zongkongtang, in Putian, Fujian. The religion had over 500,000 adherents in the Xinghua area in 1998.
- Kenneth Dean. Lord of the Three in One: The Spread of a Cult in Southeast China. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN 0691028818
- Edward L. Davis. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0415241294
- Hubert Michael Seiwert. Popular Religious Movements and Heterodox Sects in Chinese History. Brill, 2003. ISBN 9004131469
- Seiwert, 2003. p. 343
- Edward L. Davis. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. ¶ Sanyi jiao
- Dean, 1998. pp. 36-37
- Dean, 1998. p. 7