Basque mythology

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A reproduction of a Hilarri, a Basque gravestone, from 1736 with commonly found symbols. Translated into English, it reads, "Maria Arros Sagaray died on the 19th day of April, 1736".

The mythology of the ancient Basques largely did not survive the arrival of Christianity in the Basque Country between the 4th and 12th century AD. Most of what is known about elements of this original belief system is based on the analysis of legends, the study of place names and scant historical references to pagan rituals practised by the Basques.[1]

One main figure of this belief system was the female goddess Mari. According to legends collected in the area of Ataun, the other main figure was her consort Sugaar. However, due to the scarcity of the material, it is difficult to say if this would have been the "central pair" of the Basque pantheon. Based on the attributes ascribed to these mythological creatures, this would be considered a chthonic religion as all its characters dwell on earth or below it, with the sky seen mostly as an empty corridor through which the divinities pass[citation needed].

Historical sources[edit]

The main sources for information about non-Christian Basque beliefs are:[2]

  • Strabo, who mentions the sacrifice of male goats and humans
  • Arab writers from the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania
  • the 12th century diary of the pilgrim Aymeric Picaud
  • various medieval sources making references to pagan rituals, including the records of the Inquisition
  • 19th and 20th century collections of myths and folk-tales, such as those collected by José Miguel Barandiaran, which comprise by far the largest body of material relating to non-Christian beliefs and practices
  • the modern study of place-names in the Basque Country

Mythological creatures and characters[edit]

The Urtzi controversy[edit]

Urtzi may have been a Basque mythological figure—a sky god—but may have been merely a word for the sky. There is evidence that can be read as either supporting or contradicting the existence of such a deity. To date neither theory has been able to convince fully.[3]

Influencing other religions[edit]

The Iberian Peninsula's Indo-European speaking cultures like the Lusitanians and Celtiberians seem to have a significant Basque substrate in their mythologies. This includes the concept of the Enchanted Mouras, which may be based on the Mairu,[4] and the god Endovelicus, whose name may come from proto-Basque words.[5]

Myths of the historical period[edit]

After Christianization, the Basques kept producing and importing myths.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Basque Mythology at the present time" (PDF). KOBIE (Serie Antropología Cultural). Bilbao. Bizkaiko Foru Aldundia-Diputación Foral de Bizkaia. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  2. ^ Kasper, M. Baskische Geschichte (1997) Primus ISBN 3-89678-039-5
  3. ^ Trask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997
  4. ^ Anuntxi Arana: Mari, mairu eta beste - 1996 - Bulletin du musée basque n°146.
  5. ^ Encarnação, José d’. 2015. Divindades indígenas sob o domínio romano em Portugal. Second edition. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra.


  • Ortíz-Osés, A. Antropología simbólica vasca Anthropos, 1985. El matriarcalismo vasco Universidad de Deusto, 1988. El inconsciente colectivo vasco, 1982.
  • Jose Migel Barandiaran Mitologia Vasca Txertoa, 1996
  • Hartsuaga, J.I. Euskal Mitologia Konparatua, Kriseilu, 1987.
  • La Paglia, Antonio. Beyond Greece and Rome: Faith and Worship in Ancient Europe, Black Mountain Press, 2004.
  • Everson, M. Tenacity in religion, myth, and folklore: the Neolithic Goddess of Old Europe preserved in a non-Indo-European setting, Journal of Indo-European Studies 17, 277 (1989). [1]
  • Satrústegi, J (1996). "Haitzuloetako euskal mitologia". Euskal Mitologia. 68: 165–174.
  • Arriaga, J. (1984). "Euskal mitologia". Gero.
  • Baroja, Caro (1995). "Lamiak, sorginak eta jainkosak". Gaiak (Euskal mitologia).
  • Toti Martínez de Lezea "Leyendas de Euskal Herria". Erein 2004