Zoe Lofgren

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Zoe Lofgren
Zoe Lofgren photo.jpg
Lofgren in 2006
Chair of the House Administration Committee
Assumed office
January 3, 2019
Preceded byGregg Harper
Chair of the House Ethics Committee
In office
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byGene Green (acting)
Succeeded byJo Bonner
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from California
Assumed office
January 3, 1995
Preceded byDon Edwards
Constituency16th district (1995–2013)
19th district (2013–present)
Personal details
Born
Susan Ellen Lofgren

(1947-12-21) December 21, 1947 (age 74)
San Mateo, California, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse
John Collins
(m. 1978)
EducationStanford University (BA)
Santa Clara University (JD)
WebsiteHouse website

Susan Ellen "Zoe" Lofgren (/ˈz ˈlɒfɡrɪn/ ZO LOFF-grin;[1][2] born December 21, 1947) is an American lawyer and politician serving as a U.S. representative from California. A member of the Democratic Party, Lofgren is in her 13th term in Congress, having been first elected in 1994. Lofgren has long served on the House Judiciary Committee, and has chaired the House Administration Committee since the beginning of the 116th Congress.

Lofgren was the 16th district's first female U.S. representative, before part of the district was redistricted into the 19th congressional district. The district covers much of Santa Clara County, including Gilroy, Morgan Hill, and most of San Jose. Representing a district covering much of Silicon Valley, Lofgren has been noted for her activity in tech-related policy areas such as net neutrality and digital surveillance.[3]

Early life, education and career[edit]

Lofgren was born in San Mateo, California, the daughter of Mary Violet, a school cafeteria employee, and Milton R. Lofgren, a beer truck driver.[4][5][6] Her grandfather was Swedish.[7] Lofgren attended Gunn High School (1966) in Palo Alto,[8] and while in high school, Lofgren was a member of the Junior State of America, a student-run political debate, activism, and student governance organization.[9] She earned her B.A. degree at Stanford University (1970) and a Juris Doctor degree at Santa Clara University School of Law (1975).[2]

After graduating from Stanford, Lofgren worked as a House Judiciary Committee staffer for Congressman Don Edwards when the committee prepared articles of impeachment against President Richard Nixon.[10]

In 1978, Lofgren married John Marshall Collins.[8] Returning to San Jose, she worked in Don Edwards's district office while earning her J.D. degree. After two years as partner at a San Jose immigration law firm, she was elected to the board of San Jose City College. In 1981, she was elected to the Santa Clara County Board of Supervisors, representing downtown San Jose and nearby communities, where she served for 13 years.[11]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Elections[edit]

In 1994, Lofgren entered a six-way Democratic primary in what was then the 16th district, when Edwards retired after 32 years in Congress. The district, then as now, is a Democratic stronghold, and it was understood that whoever won the Democratic primary would be only the second person to represent this district since its creation in 1963 (it was numbered as the 9th district from 1963 to 1975, as the 10th from 1975 to 1993, the 16th from 1993 to 2013, and has been the 19th since 2013). A decided underdog, she managed to defeat the favorite, former San Jose mayor Tom McEnery, by just over 1,100 votes. She breezed to victory in November, and has since been reelected with no substantive opposition.

During the 2004, 2006 and 2008 elections, Lofgren's campaign paid approximately $350,000 to two businesses her husband operates: Collins and Day and John Marshall Collins P.C. over a six-year period to support campaign efforts.[12]

Tenure[edit]

Lofgren during the
109th Congress

Lofgren is the chair of the 46-member California Democratic Congressional Delegation. She serves on the Judiciary Committee and is the chair of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. In 2007, she co-sponsored[13] the Violent Radicalization and Homegrown Terrorism Prevention Act, which the ACLU characterized as "legislating against thought."[14] In April 2011, she became the first member of Congress to call for federal investigation into the Secure Communities deportation program.[15]

Beginning in 2009, Lofgren served as Chair of the House Ethics Committee. In doing so, she presided over a rare sanction of censure, against long-time member Charles B. Rangel.[16]

In the Stop Online Piracy Act House Judiciary Committee hearings, she defended the current state of the internet in opposition of the bill. She has also opposed the data retention requirements in the H.R. 1981 (the Protecting Children from Internet Pornographers Act of 2011).[17]

In February 2013, Lofgren became one of the sponsors of the Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act to expedite open access to taxpayer-funded research.[18]

In May 2016, Lofgren was publicly reprimanded during a House Judiciary Committee hearing after calling witness Gail Heriot of the United States Commission on Civil Rights an "ignorant bigot" because Ms. Heriot's written testimony before the hearing had suggested that calling oneself a female does not cause one to be a female.[19] Following the oral warning from acting committee chairman Steve King (R, Iowa), Lofgren responded, "I cannot allow that kind of bigotry to go into the record unchallenged".[20]

In January 2020, Lofgren was selected as one of seven impeachment managers who presented the impeachment case against President Donald Trump during his first trial before the United States Senate.[21]

As of October 2021, Lofgren had voted in line with Joe Biden's stated position 100% of the time.[22]

Lofgren speaking to the California Democratic Party State Convention in June 2019.

Committee assignments[edit]

Caucuses[edit]

Political positions[edit]

Abortion[edit]

Lofgren is pro-choice[30] and has a 100% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America, an organization that advocates for abortion rights and tracks congressional records on the topic.[31] In 2013, she was chosen as the lead House Democrat to argue against the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act, which would have banned abortions after the mother was 20 weeks pregnant. Lofgren said, "Passage of the bill is wrong. It's the wrong policy for the freedom of American women."[30] She opposed the overturning of Roe v. Wade, calling it "a bleak day" and vowing to keep abortion safe and accessible in California.[32]

Tech policy[edit]

Lofgren, whose district covers much of Silicon Valley, has been noted for her activity in tech industry regulation and privacy policy.[3] In 2012, she was one of two Democrats in Congress to oppose the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) then-ongoing antitrust probe of Google.[33] Lofgren criticized the European Commission's decision to fine Google $2.7 billion in 2017 over alleged anti-competitive behavior, arguing that the fine was "unfair to the U.S. companies participating in European markets".

In 2013, in the wake of the prosecution and subsequent suicide of Internet activist Aaron Swartz (who used a script to download scholarly research articles in excess of what JSTOR terms of service allowed), Lofgren introduced a bill, Aaron's Law (H.R. 2454, S. 1196[34]) to exclude terms of service violations from the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and from the wire fraud statute.[35] By May 2014, Aaron's Law had stalled in committee. Brian Knappenberger, author of a documentary on Swartz, alleges this occurred due to Oracle Corporation's financial interest in maintaining the status quo.[36]

In 2021, Lofgren opposed a series of bipartisan proposals aiming to "break up" Big Tech companies through antitrust enforcement.[37] Alongside a group of other members of the California congressional delegation, she criticized the "antitrust package" due to concerns about its impact on the U.S. tech industry.[38] Following allegations that Lofgren's opposition to antitrust measures were potentially influenced by her daughter's employment as a corporate counsel for Google, Lofgren was defended by colleagues Ro Khanna and Anna Eshoo, who called these criticisms "ad hominem attacks".[39]

Energy policy[edit]

Lofgren has routinely voted for bills that would expand renewable energy investments. She believes that a clean energy infrastructure is required to curb the effects of climate change.[40][41][42] In 2018, Lofgren co-sponsored the Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act.[43] In February 2019, she co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution (H.Res. 109).[44]

Health care[edit]

Lofgren is a member of the Medicare for All Caucus and co-sponsored the Medicare for All legislation introduced by Representative John Conyers in 2017. However, she rescinded her sponsorship of a similar bill introduced by Representative Pramila Jayapal in 2019, arguing that the bill's two-year timeline was not feasible.[29] Lofgren continues to support a public option for health insurance,[45] and 2021 co-sponsored Jayapal's bill to lower the Medicare eligibility age from 65 to 60.[46]

Net neutrality[edit]

Lofgren is a supporter of net neutrality policies to prevent internet service providers (ISPs) from engaging in data discrimination.[3] In 2018, she signed a discharge petition to force a vote on net neutrality protections in Congress.[47]

Electoral history[edit]

California's 16th congressional district[edit]

California's 16th congressional district Democratic Primary election, June 7, 1994[48]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren 16,168 45.3
Democratic Tom McEnery 15,037 42.2
Democratic Dick Lane 1,537 4.3
Democratic Cynthia Williamson 1,414 4.0
Democratic Tom Harney 780 2.2
Democratic Edward R. Dykes 721 2.0
Total votes 35,657 100.0
Turnout  
California's 16th congressional district election, 1994[49]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren 74,935 65.0
Republican Lyle J. Smith 40,409 35.0
No party Fred Luke Barraza (write-in) 8 0.0
Total votes 115,352 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 1996[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 94,020 65.7
Republican Chuck Wojslaw 43,197 30.2
Libertarian David Bonino 4,124 2.8
Natural Law Abaan Abu-Shumays 1,866 1.3
Total votes 143,207 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 1998[51]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 85,503 72.82
Republican Horace Eugene Thayn 27,494 23.42
Natural Law John H. Black 4,417 3.76
Total votes 117,414 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2000[52]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 115,118 72.1
Republican Horace "Gene" Thayn 37,213 23.3
Libertarian Dennis Michael Umphress 4,742 3.0
Natural Law Edward J. Klein 2,673 1.6
Total votes 159,746 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2002[53]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 72,370 67.1
Republican Douglas Adams McNea 32,182 29.8
Libertarian Dennis Michael Umphress 3,434 3.1
Total votes 104,556 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2004[54]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 129,222 70.9
Republican Douglas Adams McNea 47,992 26.4
Libertarian Markus Welch 5,067 2.7
Total votes 182,281 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2006[55]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 98,929 72.8
Republican Charel Winston 37,130 27.2
Total votes 136,059 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2008[56]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 146,481 71.3
Republican Charel Winston 49,399 24.1
Libertarian Steven Wells 9,447 4.6
Total votes 205,327 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
California's 16th congressional district election, 2010[57]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 105,841 67.9
Republican Daniel Sahagun 37,913 24.3
Libertarian Edward M. Gonzalez 12,304 7.8
Total votes 156,058 100.0
Democratic hold

California's 19th congressional district[edit]

California's 19th congressional district election, 2012[58]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 60,726 65.2
Republican Robert Murray 21,421 23.0
Republican Phat Nguyen 7,192 7.7
No party preference Jay Cabrera 3,829 4.1
Total votes 93,168 100.0
General election
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 162,300 73.2
Republican Robert Murray 59,313 26.8
Total votes 221,613 100.0
Democratic hold
California's 19th congressional district election, 2014[59][60]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 63,845 76.0
Democratic Robert Murray 20,132 24.0
Total votes 83,977 100.0
General election
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 85,888 67.2
Democratic Robert Murray 41,900 32.8
Total votes 127,788 100.0
Democratic hold
California's 19th congressional district election, 2016[61][62]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 107,773 76.1
Republican G. Burt Lancaster 33,889 23.9
Total votes 194,251 100.0
General election
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 181,802 73.9
Republican G. Burt Lancaster 64,061 26.1
Total votes 245,863 100.0
Democratic hold
California's 19th congressional district election, 2018[63][64]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 97,096 99.0
Republican Justin James Aguilera (write-in) 792 0.8
Republican Karl Ryan (write-in) 160 0.2
American Independent Robert Ornelas (write-in) 7 0.0
Total votes 98,055 100.0
General election
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 162,496 73.8
Republican Justin James Aguilera 57,823 26.2
Total votes 220,319 100.0
Democratic hold
California's 19th congressional district election, 2020[65][66]
Primary election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 104,456 62.7
Republican Justin James Aguilera 20,469 12.3
Republican Ignacio Cruz 19,109 11.5
Democratic Ivan Torres 18,916 11.4
No party preference Jason Mallory 3,516 2.1
Total votes 166,466 100.0
General election
Democratic Zoe Lofgren (incumbent) 224,385 71.7
Republican Justin James Aguilera 88,642 28.3
Total votes 313,027 100.0
Democratic hold

Personal life[edit]

In 1978, Lofgren married John Marshall Collins, an attorney.[8][67] The couple met at an election party.[68] Lofgren's daughter, Sheila Collins, is a corporate counsel at Google.[69][70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Guide to Frequently Mispronounced Congressional Names". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  2. ^ a b Lynne E. Ford (May 12, 2010). Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. ISBN 9781438110325. Archived from the original on June 23, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "Rep. Zoe Lofgren to talk privacy and policy at Disrupt 2020". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
  4. ^ "San Jose Congresswoman Zoe Lofegren appointed House impeachment manager". KGO ABC7 San Francisco. January 15, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020. Ms. Lofgren is a Bay Area native. She was born in San Mateo{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Shear, Michael D. (January 15, 2020). "Zoe Lofgren: Impeachment Manager Is a Veteran of Two Impeachment Inquiries". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  6. ^ Who's Who West, 1998-1999. August 1997. ISBN 9780837909288.
  7. ^ "Rep. Zoe Lofgren on President Obama's Call for Immigration Reform". January 29, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c Official Congressional Directory, 2005–2006, 109th Congress, Convened ... Congress, Joint Committee on Printing. 2005. ISBN 9780160724671. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
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  10. ^ "Rep. Zoe Lofgren has been through two impeachments. She doesn't want a third". Los Angeles Times. June 11, 2019. Archived from the original on July 12, 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  11. ^ "Zoe Lofgren - County Archives - County of Santa Clara". sccgov.org. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  12. ^ Coile, Zachary (June 19, 2007). "Watchdog lists 64 in the House paying kin out campaign funds / It's legal, but some wonder whether it's good government". SFGATE. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  13. ^ "Cosponsors: H.R.1955 — 110th Congress (2007-2008)". October 24, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  14. ^ "ACLU Skeptical of Senate Report on "Homegrown" Terrorism". May 8, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  15. ^ Romney, Lee (April 22, 2011). "Congresswoman calls for investigation of enforcement program that screens for illegal immigrants in jails". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  16. ^ Kane, Paul; Farentholt, David A. (December 2, 2010). "House censures Rep. Charles Rangel in 333–79 vote". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  17. ^ Gross, Grant (July 28, 2011). "House Panel Votes to Require ISPs to Keep Customer Records". PC World. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  18. ^ "Reps. Zoe Lofgren, Mike Doyle and Kevin Yoder Introduce Bill Expanding Access to Federally Funded Research". Archived from the original on October 25, 2013.
  19. ^ Testimony of Gail Heriot to the Task Force on Executive Overreach Archived August 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, May 26, 2016
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  21. ^ Wilkie, Christina (January 15, 2020). "Pelosi taps Schiff, Nadler and 5 others as Trump impeachment managers". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Bycoffe, Anna Wiederkehr and Aaron (October 22, 2021). "Does Your Member Of Congress Vote With Or Against Biden?". Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  23. ^ "Members". Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
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  25. ^ "Membership". Congressional Arts Caucus. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  26. ^ "Members". Afterschool Alliance. Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
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  28. ^ "Congressional Freethought Caucus expands rapidly". Freedom from Religion Foundation. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  29. ^ a b Marans, Daniel (February 27, 2019). "Democrats Who No Longer Support 'Medicare For All' Bill Have Lots Of Excuses". HuffPost. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  30. ^ a b Gibson, Ginger (June 28, 2013). "Lofgren to lead Dems vs. abortion bill". Politico. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  31. ^ "Congressional Record on Choice - Zoe Lofgren". NARAL Pro-Choice America. 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  32. ^ Lofgren, Zoe (June 24, 2022). "Today is a bleak day. The partisan Supreme Court's decision is the first ever to take a constitutional right away. While abortion will remain safe & accessible in California at least until next year, we must act to keep it that way. My statement 👇". Twitter. Retrieved June 27, 2022.
  33. ^ "Google should not be accused of "unfair" acts: lawmakers". Reuters. November 19, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
  34. ^ H.R. 2454 at Congress.gov; H.R. 2454 Archived July 15, 2018, at the Wayback Machine at GovTrack; H.R. 2454 Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine at OpenCongress. S. 1196 at Congress.gov; S. 1196 Archived July 15, 2018, at the Wayback Machine at GovTrack; S. 1196 Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine at OpenCongress.
  35. ^ Musil, Steven (November 30, 2011). "New 'Aaron's Law' aims to alter controversial computer fraud law". Internet & Media News. CNET. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
  36. ^ Dekel, Jonathan (May 1, 2014). "Swartz doc director: Oracle and Larry Ellison killed Aaron's Law". Postmedia.
  37. ^ Grim, Ryan (July 14, 2021). "Closed-Door Progressive Caucus Antitrust Meeting Turns Fiery Amid Industry Influence Allegations". The Intercept. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
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  40. ^ King, Katie (September 25, 2020). "South Bay legislators split on clean energy legislation". San Jose Spotlight. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
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External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 16th congressional district

1995–2013
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chair of the House Ethics Committee
2009–2011
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 19th congressional district

2013–present
Incumbent
Preceded by Chair of the House Administration Committee
2019–present
Preceded by Chair of the Joint Printing Committee
2019–2021
Succeeded by
Chair of the Joint Library Committee
2021–present
Incumbent
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by United States representatives by seniority
30th
Succeeded by