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|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1840s 1850s 1860s – 1870s – 1880s 1890s 1900s|
|Years:||1870 1871 1872 – 1873 – 1874 1875 1876|
|1873 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2626|
|British Regnal year||36 Vict. 1 – 37 Vict. 1|
— to —癸酉年十一月十二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1929–1930|
|- Shaka Samvat||1795–1796|
|- Kali Yuga||4974–4975|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||873–874|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 6
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||39 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2416|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1873|
Year 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
- January 1
- January 17 – American Indian Wars: The first Battle of the Stronghold is fought during the Modoc War.
- February 11 – The Spanish Cortes deposes King Amadeus I and proclaims the First Spanish Republic.
- February 12 – Former foreign minister Emilio Castelar becomes prime minister of the new Spanish Republic.
- February 20 – The University of California opens its first medical school in San Francisco, California.
- March 3 – Censorship: The U.S. Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail.
- March 4 – President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant begins his second term.
- March 15 – The Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity is founded at the Massachusetts Agricultural College.
- March 19 – German Modernist Composer Max Reger was born in Brand, Bavaria, Germany.
- March 22 – Emancipation Day for Puerto Rico: Slaves are freed (with a few exceptions).
- March 29 – The Rio Tinto Company is formed in Spain, following the February 17 purchase of the Rio Tinto mine from the Spanish government by a British investment group.
- April 4 – The Kennel Club, the world's first kennel club, is founded in the United Kingdom.
- April 1 – The British steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
- April 15–17 – American Indian Wars: The Second Battle of the Stronghold is fought.
- May – Henry Rose exhibits barbed wire at an Illinois county fair, which is taken up by Joseph Glidden and Jacob Haish, who invent a machine to mass-produce it.
- May 5 – Battle of Eraul: Carlists under General Dorregaray defeat Republicans at Eraul, near Estella during the Third Carlist War.
- May 9
- May 20
- Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive United States patent#139121 for using copper rivets to strengthen the pockets of denim work pants. Levi Strauss & Co. begin manufacturing the famous Levi's brand of jeans, using fabric from the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire.
- In Chipping Norton, England, rioters attempt to free the Ascott Martyrs – sixteen women sentenced to imprisonment for attempting to dissuade strikebreakers.
- May 23
- May 28
- June 4 – American Indian Wars: The Modoc War ends with the capture of Kintpuash ("Captain Jack").
- June 9 – Alexandra Palace in London is destroyed by fire only a fortnight after its opening.
- July 1 – Prince Edward Island joins the Canadian Confederation.
- July 9 – Battle of Alpens (Third Carlist War): Campaigning in Catalonia, a government column under General José Cabrinety is ambushed at Alpens, 15 miles east of Berga, by Carlist forces under General Francisco Savalls. After heavy fighting, with Cabrinety killed, virtually the entire column of 800 men is killed or captured.
- July 21 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger Gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American Old West (US$3,000 from the Rock Island Express).
- August 4 – American Indian Wars: While protecting a railroad survey party in Montana, the Seventh Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, clashes for the first time with the Sioux, near the Tongue River (only 1 man on each side is killed).
- August 12 – A peace treaty is signed between Imperial Russia and the Khanate of Khiva, making the khanate a Russian protectorate.
- September 15 – Agreement for establishment of the International Meteorological Organization (IMO).
- September 16 – German troops leave France upon completion of payment of indemnity for the Franco-Prussian War.
- September 17 – The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, later Ohio State University, opens its doors with 25 students, including 2 women.
- September 18 – The New York stock market crash triggers the Panic of 1873, part of the Long Depression.
- September 25 – Classes begin at Drury University in Springfield, Missouri.
- October – Beginning of the Long Depression
- October 6
- The County Carlow Football Club (Rugby union) is founded in Ireland.
- Battle of Mañeru (Third Carlist War): In continued campaigning in Navarre, Spanish Republican General Domingo Moriones meets a Carlist force under Nicolás Ollo at Mañeru, near Puente de la Reina, in a hard-fought but indecisive action. While both sides claim victory, the Carlists are said to have had the advantage, and a month later Moriones is repulsed in a costly assault further west against Estella
- November 6 – The Halifax Rugby league Club is founded.
- November 7
- Alexander Mackenzie becomes the second Prime Minister of Canada.
- Battle of Montejurra (Third Carlist War): Determined to recapture the key city of Estella in Navarre, Spanish Republican General Domingo Moriones advances on the Carlists under General Joaquín Elío at nearby Montejurra. After very heavy fighting both sides claim victory, but Moriones withdraws and Estella remains in Carlist hands. Don Carlos is present in the front line.
- November 17 – Budapest, Hungary's capital, is formed from Pest, Buda and Óbuda.
- November 18–21 – Irish Home Rule Movement: The Home Government Association reconstitutes itself as the Home Rule League.
- December – Major Walter Clopton Wingfield designs and patents a racquet sport which he calls sphairistike (Greek σφάίρίστική, "skill at playing at ball"), soon known simply as Stické, for the amusement of his guests at a garden party on his estate of Nantclwyd, in Llanelidan, Wales.
- December 15 – Women of Fredonia, New York, march against the retail liquor dealers in town to inaugurate the Woman's Crusade of 1873–74. This leads to the creation of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (December 23) in Hillsboro, Ohio.
- December 16 – The Heineken Brewery is founded in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
- December 21 – Francis Garnier is attacked outside Hanoi by Black Flag mercenaries fighting for the Vietnamese.
- December 22 – Battle of Bocairente (Third Carlist War): Campaigning in Valenica, Spanish Republican General Valeriano Weyler is attacked at Bocairente, northwest of Alcoy, by a greatly superior Carlist force under General José Santés. Weyler was initially driven back, losing some of his guns, but in a brilliant counter-attack he turns defeat into victory and Santés is heavily repulsed and forced to withdraw.
- December 27 – Siege of Bilbao (Third Carlist War; until 2 May 1874): Campaigning in Navarre, Pretender Don Carlos VII and General Joaquín Elío besiege Bilbao, held by General Ignacio del Castillo and 1,200 men. The Carlist force is ten times this number and includes most of the troops from Navarre, Vizcaya and Alava, although a considerable force is left in Guipúzcoa. Despite defeat at nearby Somorrostro, Republic commander Marshal Francisco Serrano, supported by Generals Manuel de la Concha and Arsenio Martínez Campos, brilliantly breaks the siege and Concha then marches on Estella.
Date unknown 
- The Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition discovers Franz-Josef Land.
- The United Kingdom declares war against Ghana's King Kofi KariKari, who is involved in the trading of slaves. The war ends by July and the British establish the Gold Coast Colony.
- League of the Three Emperors is created. It links the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia in an alliance against radical movements.
- Founding of:
- Toronto Argonauts, the oldest professional sports team still playing in North America
- Rangers F.C., Glasgow, Scotland
- Royal Montreal Club in Montreal, Quebec, the first permanent golf club in North America
- St Mary's School, Calne
- Clydebank High School, Clydebank, Scotland
- Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Wakefield, West Yorkshire
- Liebig's Extract of Meat Company begin producing tinned corned beef, sold under the label Fray Bentos from the town in Uruguay where it is processed.
- Coors Brewing Company begins making beer in Golden, Colorado.
- The Swedish arms company Bofors is incorporated.
- DDT is first synthesized.
- In Mexico, the Veracruz to Mexico City railroad is completed.
- Britain puts pressure on Sultan Barghash Sayyid, who closes slave markets in Zanzibar.
- The Woman's Temperance League is organized by Eliza Daniel Stewart.
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composes The Tempest.
- Nine Pekin ducks are imported to Long Island (the first in the United States).
- January 2 – Saint Therese of Lisieux, Catholic saint and mystic (d. 1897)
- January 4 – Blanche Walsh, stage & screen actress (d. 1915)
- January 7 – Adolph Zukor, Austrian-born film studio pioneer (d. 1976)
- January 8
- January 10 – George Orton, Canadian athlete (d. 1958)
- January 12 – Spiridon Louis, Greek runner (d. 1940)
- January 20 – Johannes Vilhelm Jensen, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1950)
- January 28 – Colette, French writer (d. 1954)
- January 30 – Vasily Balabanov, an administrator and Provincial Governor of Imperial Russia (d. 1947)
- February 2 – Maurice Tourneur, French film director (d. 1961)
- February 3
- February 4
- February 13 – Feodor Chaliapin, Russian bass opera singer (d. 1938)
- February 15 – Hans von Euler-Chelpin, German-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1964)
- February 19 – Louis Feuillade, French film director (d. 1925)
- February 25 – Enrico Caruso, Italian tenor (d. 1921)
- March 3 – William Green, American labor leader (d. 1952)
- March 8 – Anna Held, French actress, (d. 1918)
- March 11 – David Horsley, English-born film executive (d. 1933)
- March 13 – Leon Delagrange, French sculptor & pioneer aviator (d. 1910)
- March 19 – Max Reger, German composer (d. 1916)
- April 1 (N.S.)/March 20 (O.S.) – Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer and pianist (d. 1943)
- April 7 – John McGraw, baseball player and manager (d. 1934)
- April 10 – Kyösti Kallio, Prime Minister and President of Finland (d. 1940)
- April 19 – Sydney Barnes, English cricketer (d. 1967)
- April 20 – Gombojab Tsybikov, Russian explorer (d. 1930)
- April 22 – Ellen Glasgow, American writer (d. 1945)
- May – Leon Frank Czolgosz, assassin of U.S. President William McKinley (d. 1901)
- May 4 – Joe De Grasse, Canadian film director (d. 1940)
- May 9 – Anton Cermak, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1933)
- May 17
- May 18 – Lucy Beaumont, English actress (d. 1937)
- May 28 – D.D. Sheehan, Irish politician (d. 1948)
- June 3 – Otto Loewi, German-born pharmacologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1961)
- June 26 – Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1944)
- July 1 – Alice Guy-Blaché, French-American filmmaker (d. 1968)
- July 20 – Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian aviation pioneer (d. 1932)
- August 5 – Joseph Russell Knowland, American politician and newspaperman (d. 1966)
- August 13 – Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven, South African author (d. 1932)
- August 17 – John A. Sampson, American gynecologist (d. 1946)
- August 25 – Blanche Bates, actress (d. 1941)
- August 26 – Lee De Forest, American inventor (d. 1961)
- September 1 – Sir Guy Standing, British actor (d. 1937)
- September 5 – Cornelius Vanderbilt III, American military officer, inventor, engineer (d. 1942)
- September 8 – David O. McKay, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1970)
- September 20
- September 21 – Papa Jack Laine, jazz musician (d. 1966)
- September 26 – Wacław Berent, Polish novelist and translator (d. 1940)
- October 2 – Stephen Warfield Gambrill, U.S. Congressman for Maryland's 5th District (d. 1924)
- October 3 – Emily Post, American etiquette expert (d. 1960)
- October 9 – Charles Rudolph Walgreen, American businessman (d. 1939)
- October 14 – Ray Ewry, American athlete (d. 1937)
- October 18 – Harris Laning, American admiral (d. 1941)
- October 19
- October 26
- November 16 – W. C. Handy, American blues composer (d. 1958)
- November 22 – Johnny Tyldesley, English cricketer (d. 1930)
- December 7 – Willa Siebert Cather, American novelist (d. 1947)
- December 11 – Josip Plemelj, Slovenian mathematician (d. 1967)
- December 17 – Ford Madox Ford, English writer (d. 1939)
- December 20 – Kwan-Ichi Asakawa, Japanese historian(d. 1948)
- December 26 – Thomas Wass, Nottinghamshire bowler (d. 1953)
- December 30 – Al Smith, American politician (d. 1944)
Date unknown 
- January 9 – Napoleon III, last Emperor of the French (b. 1808)
- January 18 – Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, English writer (b. 1803)
- January 23 – Jothi Ramalinga Swamigal, Hindu religious leader (b. 1823)
- January 29 – The Venerable Father Basil Anthony Marie Moreau, founder of the Congregation of Holy Cross (b. 1799)
- February 3 – Isaac Baker Brown, English gynaecologist and surgeon (b. 1811)
- February 7 – Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer (b. 1814)
- February 19 – Vasil Levski, Bulgarian revolutionary (b. 1837)
- March 10 – John Torrey, American botanist (b. 1796)
- March 24 – Mary Ann Cotton, English serial killer (b. 1832)
- March 25 – Wilhelm Marstrand, Danish painter (b. 1810)
- March 31 – Hugh Maxwell, American lawyer and politician (d. 1873)
- April 11 – Edward Canby, American general (b. 1817)
- April 18 – Justus von Liebig, German chemist (b. 1803)
- April 27 – William Charles Macready, English actor (b. 1793)
- May 4 – David Livingstone, Scottish explorer of Africa (b. 1813)
- May 6 – José Antonio Páez, first President of Venezuela (b. 1790)
- May 7 – Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1808)
- May 8 – John Stuart Mill, British philosopher (b. 1806)
- May 15 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza, first ruler of Romania (b. 1820)
- May 20 – George-Étienne Cartier, Canadian statesman (b. 1814)
- May 29 – Edouard de Verneuil, palaeontologist (b. 1805)
- June 1 – Joseph Howe, Canadian politician (b. 1804)
- August 18 – Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (b. 1804)
- September 11 – Augustín Fernández Muñoz, Duke of Riansares, morganatic husband of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
- September 17 – Alexander Berry, Scottish adventurer and Australian pioneer (b. 1781)
- September 22 – Friedrich Frey-Herosé, Swiss Federal Councilor (b. 1801)
- September 23 – Jean Chacornac, French astronomer (b. 1823)
- October 5 – William Todd (1803–1873), American businessman, Canadian senate nominee (b. 1803)
- October 9 – George Ormerod, English historian and antiquarian (b. 1785)
- November 6 – Breton de los Herreros, Spanish playwright (b. 1796)
- December 14
In fiction 
- Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...for 1873 (1879) online edition, detailed worldwide coverage