Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette

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Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette
The church and the cemetery at Alçabéhéty
The church and the cemetery at Alçabéhéty
Coat of arms of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette
Coat of arms
Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is located in France
Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette
Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette
Coordinates: 43°05′46″N 0°54′27″W / 43.0961°N 0.9075°W / 43.0961; -0.9075Coordinates: 43°05′46″N 0°54′27″W / 43.0961°N 0.9075°W / 43.0961; -0.9075
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Arrondissement Oloron-Sainte-Marie
Canton Tardets-Sorholus
Intercommunality Soule-Xiberoa
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2020) Anicet Erreçarret
Area1 34.40 km2 (13.28 sq mi)
Population (2009)2 228
 • Density 6.6/km2 (17/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 64015 / 64470
Elevation 217–1,535 m (712–5,036 ft)
(avg. 344 m or 1,129 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette (Basque: Altzai-Altzabeheti-Zunharreta) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is located in the former province of Soule. It is located some 35 km west by south-west of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and 10 km north of Larrau.

Access[edit]

The commune can be accessed by the small D247 road from the village to Tardets-Sorholus in the north-east. The D149 branches off this road in the commune and goes north to Camou-Cihigue. There is also the D117 road which goes west from the village to Mendive.[1]

Hydrography[edit]

Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, most of the southern border of the commune is formed by the Alphoura river (18 km long) which also flows through the village and continues north-east to join the Saison near Alos-Sibas-Abense. The Alphoura is fed by many tributaries rising in the commune including the Azaléguy and Ardounc. The Escalérako erreka rises in the south and flows west with its many tributaries.[1]

Paul Raymond[2] mentioned the Arangaïxa, a brook that rises at Alçay and flows into the Alphoura.

Localities and hamlets[3][edit]

  • Aguer (Barn)
  • Albinzé (cayolar)
  • Alçabéhéty
  • Alçay
  • Ampo
  • Andoche (cayolar)
  • Arangaitz (Pass)
  • Arhansus (cayolar)
  • Arhex Borde
  • Atheis
  • Azaléguy
  • Azaléguiko Karbia (Cave)
  • Bagadoya
  • Bagazaguita (cayolar)
  • Bagothusta
  • Belhy
  • Berrayde
  • Bethalia
  • Bidalunia
  • Bordagagna
  • Borda Iribarneko
  • Bordapia
  • Burdin Olatzé (cayolar)
  • Burgance
  • Çaro
  • Chaldupia
  • Chuburu
  • Croix Garat (la)
  • Elichabeborda
  • Eltzegagnia (cayolar)
  • Erbinia
  • Espoulapia
  • Esquirassy (district)[4][5]
  • Etcheberri Borda
  • Etcheverry[2]
  • Etchecopar Borda
  • Eyhéraber
  • Ezpalako Larria
  • Goyheneix Borde
  • Gutux Borde
  • Habrague (cayolar)
  • Handia (Borda)
  • Haquits (Mill)
  • Harizmendy
  • Harristolatzia
  • Houretaborda
  • Ibarburia (Pass)
  • Ibarria
  • Illaberria
  • Inharchoury
  • Irriko Borda
  • Kamitchel
  • Kharalda
  • Lapistoy
  • Larramendia
  • Laxunia
  • Laze
  • Lechardoy
  • Lecharria (cayolar)
  • Lekayborda
  • Leziague (fountain)
  • Lomendi
  • Luchiloa
  • Lucu
  • Lutogagne
  • Maraizolatzé
  • Méthola
  • Miranda
  • Néquézaurborda
  • Ourdanberhartia
  • Oxapuria
  • Oxibar (Pass)
  • Pista Uthurria
  • Poyuko Borda
  • Sallaberriko borda
  • Sobieta (Grange)
  • Sunharette
  • Thipinka
  • Ursoy (cayolar)
  • Utzidoy
  • Uztarila (cayolar)
  • Uztubulia

Neighbouring communes and villages[1][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

View of Alçay village
Saint Peter's Church and the cemetery at Alçay
Old Hilarri at Alçabéhéty
The Church at Sunharette

The commune name in Basque is Altzai-Altzabeheti Zünharreta.[6]

According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, the base (h)altz meaning "aulne" was used for the both toponyms Alcay and Alçabéhéty. beheti means "at the bottom".[7]

The name Sunharette comes from the Basque zunharr (Name from Soule meaning "elm" or "poplar") using the romanized locative suffix ette meaning the "place of elm".[7]

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Alçay Aucet Suson 1337 Orpustan
196
Village
Alsay 1385 Raymond
4
Duchesne
Ausset-Suson 1479 Raymond
4
Ohix
Alçay 1520 Orpustan
196
Aucet Suson 1690 Orpustan
196
Auset Suson 1690 Orpustan
196
Alsai 17th century Raymond
4
Chronicles
Alçabéhéty Aucet Juson 1337 Orpustan
196
Village
Ausec-Juson 1385 Raymond
4
Duchesne
Auset Juzon 1385 Orpustan
196
Auzat Juzon 1385 Orpustan
196
Aucet Juzon 1690 Orpustan
196
Alcabehety 1793 Cassini1
Alçabehety 1801 Cassini1 Bulletin des lois
Sunharette Sunarte 1337 Orpustan
196
Village
Sunharrete 1475 Raymond
165
Ohix
Sunharrette 1690 Orpustan
196
Sunarrette 1690 Orpustan
196
Sonharette 1793 Cassini2
Sunharrette 1801 Cassini2 Bulletin des lois
Arangaïxa L'Arangaïxa 1863 Raymond
8
Stream
Arhansus Arhansus 1863 Raymond
10
Wood
Athaguy Athagui 1520 Raymond
16
Soule Farm
Atagui 1520 Raymond
16
Soule
Belhy Belhy 1863 Raymond
27
Mountain
Burunolatxé Le Col de Burunolatxé 1863 Raymond
37
Pass
Couhourre Couhourre 1863 Raymond
53
Wood
Esquirassy Esquirassy 1863 Raymond
62
Mountain
Etcheverry Etcheberri 17th century Raymond
63
Chronicles Fief, under the Viscounts of Soule
Handiague Handiague 1863 Raymond
75
Mountain

Sources:

Origins:

  • Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV[10]
  • Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule[11]
  • Chronicles: Chronicles of Arthez-Lassalle[12]
  • Soule: Custom of Soule[13]

History[edit]

In 1790 Sunharette was the chief town of a canton which was part of the District of Mauleon. The canton included the communes of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette, Alos-Sibas-Abense, Camou-Cihigue, Etchebar, Lacarry-Arhan-Charritte-de-Haut, Lichans-Sunhar, and Ossas-Suhare.

In 1833, the three communes of Alçay, Alçabéhéty, and Sunharette merged to form a single joint commune.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette
Blazon:

Azure, a wolf argent passant at dexter in front of a beehive of Or to sinister and accompanied by 6 bees at dexter chief, 3 bees at sinister chief, one bee at sinister, and 4 bees in base the same.[14]



Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[15]

From To Name Party Position
1983 2001 Arnaud Dascon
2001 2020 Anicet Erreçarret

(Not all data is known)

Inter-communality[edit]

The town is part of seven intercommunal organisations:

  • the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa
  • the association to support Basque culture;
  • the SIVOM of the canton of Tardets;
  • the intercommunal association of the gaves d'Oloron and Mauléon
  • the SIVU for Tourism in Haute-Soule and Barétous;
  • the AEP association for Soule Country
  • the association for remediation of Soule Country

Demography[edit]

Before 1833[edit]

Population split between 3 Communes

1793 1800 1806 1821 1831
Alçay[16] 312 352 318 276 266
Alçabéhéty[8] 161 157 162 164
Sunharette[9] 121 118 112 140
Total 594 627 592 580 266

From 1793 to present[edit]

In 2009 the commune had 228 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
594 627 592 580 266 802 804 754 766
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
710 688 702 665 626 591 582 553 584
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
571 553 520 507 477 503 512 487 407
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 -
354 298 262 283 273 246 233 228 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette

Economy[edit]

Activity is mainly focused on agriculture (livestock and pasture). The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone of Ossau-iraty.

According to the 2006 classification of INSEE, showing the median household incomes for all communes with more than 50 households (30,687 communes out of the 36,681 communes identified)[17] Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is ranked 20,901th with an average income of €14,927 per year.

Culture and heritage[edit]

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has two sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Seven Ibarnaba Tumuli in the Esquirassy districtLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[4]
  • The Ten Ibarletta Tumuli in the Esquirassy districtLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[5]
Other sites of interest
  • The Gaztelu zahar (Basque meaning "fortified place") of Maide korralea meaning "the enclosure of Maide" is attributed to Maidé, mythological beings incorporating some of the traits of Jentils and Laminak.

Religious Heritage[edit]

  • The Romanesque Parish Church of Saint-Pierre (Middle Ages)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[18] The church contains a Processional Cross (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which is registered as an historical object.[19]

Environmental heritage[edit]

  • The Belhygagne peaks (also called the peak of Vultures) and Gaztelia are the highest points in the commune at, respectively, 1,072 and 1,345 metres high.[3]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Google Maps
  2. ^ a b c Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
  3. ^ a b Géoportail, IGN (French)
  4. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084309 Seven Ibarnaba Tumuli (French)
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084308 Ten Ibarletta Tumuli (French)
  6. ^ Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, Dictionary of placenames - Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2009, Archives and Culture, ISBN 978-2-35077-151-9 (French)
  7. ^ a b c Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 (French)
  8. ^ a b Alçabéhéty on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database (French)
  9. ^ a b Sunharette on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database (French)
  10. ^ Duchesne Collection, volumes 99 to 114, containing the papers of Oihenart, former Imperial Librarian - Bibliothèque nationale de France
  11. ^ Manuscripts from the 15th century in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  12. ^ Titles of the Arthez-Lassalle family at Tardets (French)
  13. ^ Custom of Soule in 1520, printed at Pau in 1760 (French)
  14. ^ Guy Ascarat
  15. ^ List of Mayors of France
  16. ^ Alçay page on the Cassini Project of EHESS website
  17. ^ Statistical Summary by commune, department, and employment sector, INSEE website, consulted on 9 September 2009 (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000703 Parish Church of Saint-Pierre (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000026 Processional Cross (French)