Escambia County, Alabama

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Escambia County, Alabama
Escambia County Alabama Courthouse.jpg
Escambia County Alabama Courthouse
Map of Alabama highlighting Escambia County
Location in the state of Alabama
Map of the United States highlighting Alabama
Alabama's location in the U.S.
Founded December 10, 1868
Seat Brewton
Largest city Atmore
Area
 • Total 953 sq mi (2,468 km2)
 • Land 945 sq mi (2,448 km2)
 • Water 8.1 sq mi (21 km2), (0.8%)
Population
 • (2010) 38,319
 • Density 41/sq mi (16/km²)
Congressional district 1st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.co.escambia.al.us
There is also an Escambia County, Florida.

Escambia County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama bordering the Gulf Coast. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,319.[1] Its county seat is Brewton.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The name "Escambia" may have been derived from the Creek name Shambia, meaning "clearwater",[3] or the Choctaw word for "cane-brake" or "reed-brake".[4]

History[edit]

Historic American Indian tribes in the area included the Muskogean-speaking Creek, Choctaw, and Alabama, who had inhabited the lands for centuries and had many settlements. The former two tribes were among those in the Southeast whom the European-American settlers called the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted some European-American cultural ways in an attempt to survive alongside the encroachment of settlers moving into the area in the early nineteenth century. Most of these peoples were removed by United States forces in the 1830s to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

The state made land grants to European Americans, who developed the land as large cotton plantations, based on slave labor by African Americans. Some Creek remained in the area. At the time, they were required to renounce their tribal membership and were granted US and state citizenship. They continued to live as a community and to maintain ties. In the twentieth century, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians was recognized as a tribe, established a government under a written constitution, and have certain lands that were taken into trust by the federal government. They have established three gaming resorts to generate revenues for tribal health and welfare.

Escambia County was organized and established after the American Civil War, on December 10, 1868 during the Reconstruction era. The state legislature created it from parts of Baldwin and Conecuh counties, to the west and north, respectively. The area was part of the coastal plain. It was largely agricultural into the twentieth century.

The county is subject to heavy winds and rains due to seasonal hurricanes. In September 1979, the county was declared a disaster area due to damage from Hurricane Frederic. It was declared a disaster area again in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 953 square miles (2,470 km2), of which 945 square miles (2,450 km2) is land and 8.1 square miles (21 km2) (0.8%) is water.[5]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 4,041
1880 5,719 41.5%
1890 8,666 51.5%
1900 11,320 30.6%
1910 18,889 66.9%
1920 22,464 18.9%
1930 27,963 24.5%
1940 30,671 9.7%
1950 31,443 2.5%
1960 33,511 6.6%
1970 34,912 4.2%
1980 38,440 10.1%
1990 35,518 −7.6%
2000 38,440 8.2%
2010 38,319 −0.3%
Est. 2013 37,983 −0.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2013[1]

2010[edit]

Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:

2000[edit]

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 38,440 people, 14,297 households, and 10,093 families residing in the county. The population density was 41 people per square mile (16/km2). There were 16,544 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile (7/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 64.40% White, 30.79% Black or African American, 3.01% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, and 1.13% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 14,297 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.40% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $28,319, and the median income for a family was $36,086. Males had a median income of $30,632 versus $18,091 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,396. About 15.20% of families and 20.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Holman Correctional Facility of the Alabama Department of Corrections (ADOC) is in unincorporated southwestern Escambia County, 9 miles (14 km) north of Atmore.[11][12] Holman has a male death row and the State of Alabama execution chamber.[12] In addition the ADOC Fountain Correctional Facility is about 7 miles (11 km) north of Atmore.[13]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Indian reservation[edit]

Historic sites[edit]

Escambia County has two sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Brewton Historic Commercial District and the Commercial Hotel-Hart Hotel.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Escambia County Alabama History - accessed August 18, 2009
  4. ^ Alabama Department of Archives and History - accessed August 18, 2009
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  11. ^ "Holman Correctional Facility." Alabama Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
  12. ^ a b "Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003." Alabama Department of Corrections. 33/84. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
  13. ^ "Fountain / JO Davis Correctional Facility." Alabama Department of Corrections. Retrieved on July 4, 2011.
  14. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°07′36″N 87°09′44″W / 31.12667°N 87.16222°W / 31.12667; -87.16222