Escambia County, Alabama
|Escambia County, Alabama|
Escambia County Alabama Courthouse
Location in the state of Alabama
Alabama's location in the U.S.
|Founded||December 10, 1868|
|• Total||953 sq mi (2,468 km2)|
|• Land||945 sq mi (2,448 km2)|
|• Water||8.1 sq mi (21 km2), (0.8%)|
|• Density||41/sq mi (16/km²)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
- There is also an Escambia County, Florida.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and infrastructure
- 6 Communities
- 7 Historic sites
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
Historic American Indian tribes in the area included the Muskogean-speaking Creek, Choctaw, and Alabama, who had inhabited the lands for centuries and had many settlements. The former two tribes were among those in the Southeast whom the European-American settlers called the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted some European-American cultural ways in an attempt to survive alongside the encroachment of settlers moving into the area in the early nineteenth century. Most of these peoples were removed by United States forces in the 1830s to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
The state made land grants to European Americans, who developed the land as large cotton plantations, based on slave labor by African Americans. Some Creek remained in the area. At the time, they were required to renounce their tribal membership and were granted US and state citizenship. They continued to live as a community and to maintain ties. In the twentieth century, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians was recognized as a tribe, established a government under a written constitution, and have certain lands that were taken into trust by the federal government. They have established three gaming resorts to generate revenues for tribal health and welfare.
Escambia County was organized and established after the American Civil War, on December 10, 1868 during the Reconstruction era. The state legislature created it from parts of Baldwin and Conecuh counties, to the west and north, respectively. The area was part of the coastal plain. It was largely agricultural into the twentieth century.
The county is subject to heavy winds and rains due to seasonal hurricanes. In September 1979, the county was declared a disaster area due to damage from Hurricane Frederic. It was declared a disaster area again in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan.
- Conecuh County (north)
- Covington County (east)
- Okaloosa County, Florida (southeast)
- Santa Rosa County, Florida (south)
- Escambia County, Florida (southwest)
- Baldwin County (west)
- Monroe County (northwest)
National protected area
- Conecuh National Forest (part)
Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:
- 62.1% White
- 31.9% Black
- 4.4% Native American
- 0.2% Asian
- 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 1.5% Two or more races
- 1.9% Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
As of the census of 2000, there were 38,440 people, 14,297 households, and 10,093 families residing in the county. The population density was 41 people per square mile (16/km2). There were 16,544 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile (7/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 64.40% White, 30.79% Black or African American, 3.01% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, and 1.13% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 14,297 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.40% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the county the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $28,319, and the median income for a family was $36,086. Males had a median income of $30,632 versus $18,091 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,396. About 15.20% of families and 20.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
The Holman Correctional Facility of the Alabama Department of Corrections (ADOC) is in unincorporated southwestern Escambia County, 9 miles (14 km) north of Atmore. Holman has a male death row and the State of Alabama execution chamber. In addition the ADOC Fountain Correctional Facility is about 7 miles (11 km) north of Atmore.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Escambia County, Alabama
- Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Escambia County, Alabama
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Escambia County Alabama History - accessed August 18, 2009
- Alabama Department of Archives and History - accessed August 18, 2009
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- "Holman Correctional Facility." Alabama Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
- "Annual Report Fiscal Year 2003." Alabama Department of Corrections. 33/84. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
- "Fountain / JO Davis Correctional Facility." Alabama Department of Corrections. Retrieved on July 4, 2011.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- Escambia County Industrial Development Authority
- Coastal Gateway Regional Economic Development Alliance
- Escambia County history
- Escambia County map of roads/towns (map © 2007 Univ. of Alabama).
- The Brewton Standard
- South Alabama Community Website