Great Wagon Road

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1751 Fry-Jefferson map depicting 'The Great Waggon Road to Philadelphia'

The Great Wagon Road was a colonial American improved trail transiting the Great Appalachian Valley from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, and from there to Georgia.

Introduction[edit]

The Great Wagon Road was the heavily traveled main route for settlement of the Southern United States, particularly the "backcountry". Although a wide variety of settlers traveled southward on the road, two dominant cultures emerged. The German Palatines and Scotch-Irish American immigrants arrived in huge numbers because of unendurable conditions in Europe. The Germans (also known as Pennsylvania Dutch) tended to find rich farmland and work it zealously to become stable and prosperous. The other group (known also as Presbyterian or Ulster Scots) tended to be restless, clannish, and fiercely independent; they formed what became known as the Appalachian Culture. Partly because of the language difference, the two groups tended to keep to themselves.[1][2][3]

Beginning at the port of Philadelphia, where many immigrants entered the colonies, the Great Wagon Road passed through the towns of Lancaster and York in southeastern Pennsylvania.

Turning southwest, the road crossed the Potomac River and entered the Shenandoah Valley at Winchester, Virginia, continuing south in the valley via the Great Warriors' Trail (also called the Indian Road, as on this map), which was established by centuries of Indian travel. The Treaty of Lancaster of 1744 had established colonists' rights to settle along the Indian Road. The Shenandoah portion of the road is also known as the Valley Pike.

Historic marker for the Carolina Road, Franklin County, Virginia

South of the Shenandoah Valley, the road reached the Roanoke River at the town of Big Lick (today, Roanoke). South of Roanoke, the Great Wagon Road was also called the Carolina Road. At Roanoke, a road forked southwest, leading into the upper New River Valley and on to the Holston River in the upper Tennessee Valley. From there, the Wilderness Road led into Kentucky.

From Big Lick/Roanoke, after 1748, the Great Wagon Road passed through the Maggoty Gap (also called Maggodee) to the east side of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Continuing south through the Piedmont region, it passed through the present-day North Carolina towns of Winston-Salem, Salisbury, and Charlotte and sites of earlier Indian settlements on the historic Indian Trading Path. The Great Wagon Road ultimately reached Augusta, Georgia on the Savannah River.

Despite its current name, the southern part of this road was by no means passable by wagons until later Colonial times. The 1751 Fry-Jefferson map on this page notes the term 'Waggon' only north of Winchester. In 1753, wagon travelers reported that "the good road ended at Augusta" (now Staunton, Virginia), although they did keep going all the way to Winston-Salem.

Great Wagon Road Segments; Philadelphia to Shallow Ford of Yadkin River, North Carolina (Circa 1754)[edit]

   Note:  The segments are approximations; actual paths varied constantly with fallen trees, floods, etc.  All distances are approximate.

Begin at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:

Location Present-Day Road Segment Number Present-Day . Road Segment Name Distance Covered (Miles) Distance Covered (km) Remarks
Philadelphia, Market Street, at Delaware River
State Road 3 (PA-3) Market St By about 1740, milestones were placed along the side of the Great Wagon Road to Lancaster (known as the "King's Road", or occasionally the "Conestoga Road"), each with a chiseled number, indicating the distance in miles from the Quaker meeting house at Second Street and High Street (now Market Street) in Philadelphia. (Example: "20 M to P")[4]
Schuylkill River Ferry (now a bridge)
PA-3 Market St 0.7 The Strasburg Road (built 1790) branched here, (continuing along PA-3, PA-162, PA-372, PA-741) through West Chester, Parkesburg, Gap, and Strasburg, Pennsylvania, from where a track continued through Willow Street village to the Susquehanna River at the mouth of the Conestoga River. This road followed roughly the ancient Great Minquas Path, also known occasionally as the Conestoga Path.[5]
PA-3005 Lancaster Ave 2 Detour around Drexel University (founded 1891). This is where the 1795 Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike began.
Crossing of Girard Ave, Philadelphia
US-30 Lancaster Ave 2.4
Montgomery County Line; at US-1 (City Ave) The Lincoln Highway (1916) from Trenton, New Jersey (US-1) joined the Lancaster Turnpike (1790) here.[6]
US-30 Lincoln Hwy 10 This section (Old Lancaster Road) was relocated in many places in 1830 by construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad "Main Line".
Delaware County Line; at County Line Rd
US-30 Lincoln Hwy 9
Chester County Line; at Sugartown Rd
US-30 Lancaster Ave 11
Crossing of US-202
US-30 Business Route Lincoln Hwy 7
Downingtown (formerly Milltown), Pennsylvania; Brandywine Creek Ford (now a bridge) The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike (built 1795) branched here, continuing along US-30Business until rejoining US-30 twelve miles west of here. US-30 now follows its path until meeting PA-462 at Lancaster. The turnpike continued along PA-462 to end at the Susquehanna River in Columbia, Pennsylvania.[4] After 1913, the turnpike was renamed as a section of "The Lincoln Highway".[6]
US-322 Manor Ave 3 In 1803, the Horseshoe Pike (now US-322) was built from here to Ephrata and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.[7]
PA-4015 Edges Mill Rd 1.7
PA-340 Kings Road 12 The King's Road was built from Philadelphia to Lancaster in 1733.[8] It became a section of the Great Wagon Road.
PA-340 Old Philadelphia Pike 10 PA-340 departs from the original Harrisburg Road at White Horse, Pennsylvania. Called Old Peter's Road (for Peter Bezaillon, who had a trading post at the end of the road), this packhorse road turned northwest through Springville, Groffdale, and Center Square, then over a future quarry to ford the Conestoga River, continuing south of Lancaster Airport to Mount Joy, then along Donegal Springs Road and Stackstown Road to the Susquehanna River at Bainbridge (formerly Conoy), Pennsylvania.[9][5] Much of it is obliterated now by cultivated fields and residential developments.
Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Conestoga River Ford (now a bridge); Fork of the Great Wagon Road Lancaster is where blacksmiths fabricated the famous heavy Conestoga wagons and supplied horses that were locally bred especially to pull them in lieu of oxen, commonly with a team of six animals.[10][11] In 1734, a segment of the original Great Wagon Road, PA-230 (Old Harrisburg Pike), was built from the center of Lancaster through Mount Joy to Pine Ford (now a bridge) across Swatara Creek at Middletown, and past the Harris ferry (now Harrisburg) to Chambers Mill at Fishing Creek (now Fort Hunter, Pennsylvania).[8][12] Also, in 1736 there was built a well-used wagon road (now US-222 & US-422) from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to Harris ferry.[13] Much later, in 1806, a group of Conestoga wagon craftsmen moved from Lancaster to the Harrisburg area where they set up business; the settlement was named Mechanicsburg in 1820 because of all their shops there.
PA-462 King St + Columbia Ave + Lancaster Ave + Chestnut St 14
Columbia, Pennsylvania; Susquehanna River Ferry (now a bridge) The road from Philadelphia to here was paved with stones in 1795 and the railroad from Philadelphia to here was completed in 1834.[4][14]
Wrightsville, Pennsylvania (formerly Wright's Ferry) ....... York County Line
PA-462 Lincoln Hwy + Market St 13
York, Pennsylvania; Codorus Creek Ford (now a bridge)
PA-462 Market St 4
US-30 1.4
Fork of the Great Wagon Road; PA-116 at US-30 Another early wagon route, the "Monocacy Road" (built 1739), went from here to Hanover, Pennsylvania (PA-116), then Taneytown and Frederick, Maryland (MD-194), then to Boonsboro (US-40A), and continued across the Antietam Creek ford (now a bridge on MD-34), then through Sharpsburg, Maryland to the Potomac River. It appeared to use Samuel Taylor's ferry (1734) and later Thomas Swearingen's ferry (1755) across the Potomac River at "Packhorse Ford" where Shepherdstown, West Virginia was established in 1762. From there, it continued on to Winchester, Virginia.[15] It was about 110 miles from York to Winchester, using this road. After Harpers ferry began operating in 1761, the road through Boonsboro was no longer needed; wagon traffic followed the path of US-340 from Frederick to Harpers Ferry and continued directly onward from there to Winchester, Virginia. It was about 105 miles from York to Winchester via Harpers Ferry. From Frederick, there was also another route to the south, generally followed by US-15. This was called "The Carolina Road" or occasionally "The High Road" through Virginia and it crossed the Potomac River via Noland's ferry at "Point of Rocks". From Clarksville, Virginia, it entered North Carolina about 15 miles west of the "Fall Line Road" and 80 miles east of the Great Wagon Road. From that entry point, it was possible to travel west through Hillsborough and Greensboro, to Salem or Salisbury, North Carolina and rejoin the Great Wagon Road.
US-30 20
South Branch of Great Conewago Creek, Ford (now a bridge)
US-30 1.6
Fork of the Great Wagon Road; Swift Run Road at US-30 Another early wagon route, the Nichol's Gap Road (built 1747) went from here through the future Gettysburg, Fairfield, Iron Springs, and Gum Springs, Pennsylvania, over Monterey Pass (Blue Ridge Summit), then down "Old Rte 16 St" to Hagerstown, Maryland. It then used a ferry across the Potomac River to reach Winchester, Virginia.[16][17] It was about 105 miles from York, Pennsylvania to Winchester, Virginia, using this road.
Swift Run Rd + Shrivers Corner Rd 6 This route, built in 1747, was shown on the 1751 map by Fry and Jefferson.[18] It was about 110 miles from York, Pennsylvania to Winchester, Virginia, using this road. In 1811, it was replaced by the Gettysburg and Chambersburg Turnpike.[17]
Goldenville Rd 4.4
Hilltown Rd 5.3
Lincoln Hwy 2.2 In 1811, the Gettysburg and Chambersburg Turnpike was built through here, moving the Great Wagon Road to present-day US-30.[17] It was renamed as a section of the Lincoln Highway in 1916.[19]
US-30 Lincoln Hwy 2.3
South Mountain Gap (Black's Gap or Cashtown Gap); Franklin County Line In 1744, the Treaty of Lancaster, an agreement with the five Iroquois nations, legalized settlement in the great valley west of here.[20]
US-30 Lincoln Hwy 11
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Fork of the Great Wagon Road This is the junction with the Harrisburg-Carlisle-Shippensburg-Chambersburg (US-11) branch of the Great Wagon Road that had been built to the Potomac River in 1744.[21] The French and Indian War (Seven Years' War) disrupted traffic on the Great Wagon Road from 1756 to 1763. The population of Franklin County, Pennsylvania (the Chambersburg area) in 1756 was 3,000; by 1760 it was down to 300.[22]
US-11 South Main St + Antietam Way 6
Greencastle, Pennsylvania
US-11 Antietam Way + Molly Pitcher Hwy 5.6
Maryland State Line; Washington County
US-11 Pennsylvania Ave + Burhans Blvd 6 It appears that the Great Wagon Road actually followed the path of the present-day railroad from its Burhans Blvd crossing to the ford at Conococheague Creek and onward to the Potomac ferry landing on the upstream side of that creek (or to the Potomac ford just above the ferry landing).[18]
Hagerstown, Maryland
US-11 Virginia Ave + Potomac St 7
Williamsport, Maryland; Potomac River; Watkins Ferry (now a bridge) Evan Watkins' ferry was established by law in 1744. At times it was possible to ford Conococheague Creek at the present-day railroad bridge and then to ford the Potomac River just above the mouth of the creek. After 1795, Watkins Ferry became Peter Light's ferry; in 1854 it became Robert Lemen's ferry, which was an improvement because of its attachment to a cable strung across the river. (Before that, they would tow the boat upstream to a release point from which they hoped the current would carry the boat to the right spot on the opposite bank.) [23] Williamsport, Maryland was named after General Otho Williams, who laid out the town in 1787. Earlier, a settler named John Williams operated a different Potomac River ferry (1731) at the mouth of Obequan Creek, seven miles downstream from here.[24] (The Obequan settlement area was at the headwaters of the creek, at Bartonsville, about six miles south of Winchester, Virginia.)[25]
West Virginia State Line; Berkeley County
US-11 Williamsport Pike + Queen St 14
Martinsburg, West Virginia
US-11 King St + Winchester Ave 13
Virginia State Line; Frederick County
US-11 Martinsburg Pike + Cameron St 10
Winchester, Virginia (orig. Frederick Town, Estab.1738) Winchester, Virginia was considered the gateway to the Shenandoah valley, leading to the Carolina Piedmont, Tennessee, and Kentucky. In the period after the French and Indian War until the Revolutionary War, this Great Wagon Road was said to have been the most heavily traveled road in all of America. Its eventual decline can be traced to the construction of railroads in the second half of the nineteenth century.[26]
US-11 Cameron St + Gerard St + Valley Ave + Valley Pike 14
Cedar Creek Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Old Valley Pike 1
Shenandoah County Line (Estab.1772)
US-11 Old Valley Pike + Massanuten St 3
Strasburg, Virginia (Estab.1749)
US-11 King St + Old Valley Pike 17 There are fords at Tumbling Run, Toms Brook, Jordan Run, Pughs Run, and Narrow Passage Creek. The "Narrow Passage" ridge is just 1 mile north of Edinburg.
Edinburg, Virginia (Estab.1852); Stony Creek Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Old Valley Pike 7
Mill Creek Ford (now a bridge at Mt. Jackson, Virginia)
US-11 Old Valley Pike 1
Shenandoah River Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Old Valley Pike 10
Rockingham County Line (Estab.1778); at Whereman's Run
US-11 Lee Hwy 3
Fork in Road; Brocks Gap Road (now VA-259) to West Virginia
US-11 Lee Hwy + Main St 11
Harrisonburg, Virginia (Estab.1780)
US-11 Main St + Lee Hwy 10
Augusta County Line; at VA-690 (Estab.1738)
US-11 Main St + Lee Hwy + US-11BUS + Augusta St 14
Staunton, Virginia (Orig. Augusta) (Estab.1747) Fork in road: Left to Waynesboro (US-250), right to Carolina (US-11).
US-11 0.8 Lewis Creek ford (now a culvert).
VA-613 + VA697 Old Greenville Rd 14 Fork at VA-694 (Waynesboro-Middlebrook road); ford at Folly Mills Creek.
Greenville, Virginia (Estab. 1794); South River Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Lee Hwy 6
Rockbridge County Line (Estab. 1777); Marl Creek Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Lee Hwy 22 Ford Moores Creek, Marlbrook Creek, Mill Creek;
Maury River Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Lee Hwy 1
Lexington, Virginia (Estab. 1777)
US-11 Lee Hwy 13
Natural Bridge, Virginia Over Cedar Creek.
US-11 Lee Hwy 4
Botetourt County Line (Estab. 1770); at VA-610 (Chambers Rd)
US-11 Lee Hwy 7
Buchanan, Virginia (Estab. 1832); James River Ford (now a bridge)
US-11 Lee Hwy 17
Fork in the Great Wagon Road; at VA-654 (Read Mountain Rd) & VA-605 (Sanderson Rd); also here, Tinker Creek Ford (now a bridge) & Cloverdale, Virginia The road to Tennessee continued west along US-11 for 3 miles, then along VA-117 (Peters Creek Rd) for 5.5 miles, then west 2.5 miles along the Lynchburg-Salem Turnpike to rejoin US-11 westward at Salem, Virginia. The road to North Carolina turned south here, following VA-605. Also, there is another fork; VA-654 continues over the hill in a shortcut to join US-460, a branch of the old "Warwick Road" to Lynchburg and Richmond, Virginia.[27]
VA-654 + VA-605 Read Mountain Rd + Sanderson Rd 1.5 A section of this road is now a railroad track.
Roanoke County Line (Estab. 1838);
VA-601 Hollins Rd + Railroad tracks 3 Detour around railroad via Plantation Rd.
Tinker Creek Ford (now a railroad bridge)
VA-115 + US-460 Hollins Rd + Orange Ave 2 A section of this road is now a railroad track.
Old Buffalo Salt Lick (now a park and a railroad switch yard)
Fork in the Great Wagon Road; crossroad at US-11A (Orange Ave or Salem-Lynchburg Turnpike) and VA-116 (Williamson Rd) Intersection Williamson Rd leads south to the Carolinas; Orange Ave leads west via US-11 past the New River to Tennessee, or to Kentucky and the Ohio River via the Cumberland Gap and Wilderness Road, which was widened enough for wagons in 1796. (Orange Avenue also leads east via US-460 to Lynchburg, Virginia.)[27]
Williamson Rd 0.8
Roanoke, Virginia (Estab. 1834 as "Big Lick") In 1753, the original 15 Moravian men on their way to start a settlement at Wachovia (present-day Winston-Salem), North Carolina, were apparently misinformed and took a wrong turn here. With great effort, they forced their way with a large Conestoga type of wagon through the Windy Gap packhorse road over the Blue Ridge mountains (now VA-116). After their descent into Franklin County on the east side of the ridge and following VA-684, they rejoined the Great Wagon Road at Boone's Mill, Virginia.[28][29]
Franklin Rd 1.4 [27]
Roanoke River Ford (now a bridge) Franklin Rd (US-220Bus) continues onward, becoming Electric Rd (VA-419), which forks south after 1 mile to Starkey Rd (VA-604) leading to Merriman Rd (VA-613). VA-613 leaves the Great Valley, crossing into Franklin County through Maggoty Gap in the Blue Ridge mountains; this route provided wagon access to North and South Carolina and Georgia.
US-220Business Franklin Rd 2 [27]
US-220 Freeway Intersection
VA-419 Electric Rd 1 [27]
VA-604 Starkey Rd 2 [27]
VA-613 Merriman Rd 2.5 [27]
Simmonds Gap (Formerly Maggoty Gap); Franklin County Line [27]
VA-613 Naff Rd 4.5
US-220 Freeway Intersection
US-220 Goode Hwy 1
Boone's Mill, Virginia (Estab. 1786) After 1838, the Great Wagon Road moved to the Franklin-Fincastle turnpike, which continued straight here and passed through Rocky Mount, Virginia.[30][31]
VA-739 Bethlehem Rd 5 Passing over Little Creek culvert. The original Moravian Settlers of Wachovia camped here on Bethlehem Road at Little Creek on November 4, 1753.[32]
VA-643 Bethlehem Rd 2.5
VA-641 Calloway Rd 0.2 Detour around a cultivated field. (Calloway Post Office is 3.5 miles west of here.)
VA-643 Hickman/Hopkins Rd 2.2
Blackwater River Ford (now a one-lane bridge)
VA-643 Coles Creek Rd 2.8 Passing over Coles Creek culvert.
VA-821 Calico Rock Rd 1.6
Crossing of VA-640 (6 Mile Post Rd)
VA-980 Pepper Rd 0.1 Staying on northeast side of creek.
Dirt Track 0.7 Around cultivated fields. (May be passable now only on foot or bike.) A detour is located 3 miles west of here; south on VA-756 (Old Forge Rd).
Pigg Creek Ford This ford is directly at the north end of VA-802.
VA-802 Old Carolina Rd 0.8 (Another path of the "Old Carolina Rd" appears to run along the ridge just 0.3 mile southeast of this path.)
VA-756 Old Forge Rd 0.1
VA-864 Old Ferrum Rd 7 The original Moravian Settlers of Wachovia camped here beside Story Creek one mile northeast of Ferrum on November 5, 1753.[33]
VA-623 Union Rd + Ingramville Rd 0.5 Passing over Story Creek culvert.
Ferrum, Virginia (Estab. 1889) Railroad crossing here. The Great Wagon Road south of here was obliterated by railroad construction in 1892.
VA-767 Prillamin Switch Rd 6 Passing over Little Town Creek & Town Creek culverts.
VA-606 Town Creek Dr 2.5 Passing over Town Creek Fork bridge. Later travelers could avoid some of the swamps along Town Creek by following ridges west of the valley; VA-771 (Will Hill Rd) and VA-770 (Old Henry Rd).
Henry, Virginia (Estab. 1790); Town Creek Ford (now a bridge); Henry County Line (Estab. 1777) The original Moravian Settlers of Wachovia camped here November 6, 1753.[34]
VA-606 Henry Fork Rd + Original Henry Rd 4 Passing over Town Creek and Grassy Creek swampy area.
VA-606 Philpott Dr + Oak Level Rd 4 Long gradual ascent, then one mile along the ridge.
VA-669 Colonial Hill Rd 0.6 Steep descent, crossing Little Reed Creek at bottom.
US-220 Virginia Ave 1 The original Wachovia settlers described this section as "beautiful lowlands" with many grapes, which they enjoyed. They camped on November 7, 1753 at the mouth of Reed Creek on the bank of Smith River. The landscape as seen by them has since been extensively altered; the Philpott dam upstream has reduced the river to a relative trickle and the construction of a railroad and major highway interchange further modified the topography. For these reasons it is difficult to interpret their diary notes. It seems clear, however, that although the next day was extremely strenuous, they traveled through Collinsville, Virginia, and ended up at the mouth of Daniels Creek on the bank of Smith River, across from present-day Fieldale, Virginia.[35]
Smith River Ford; Fieldale, Virginia (Estab. 1917) The original Wachovia settlers camped on the east bank of the Smith River ford here on November 8th, 9th, and 10th, 1753, waiting for the floodwater to recede. The next day, after fording the river, they took a very difficult route straight ahead through a swamp and up a rough hillside to rejoin the Great Wagon Road.[36]
Fork in The Great Wagon Road at Smith River Later traffic across this ford appeared to take a right turn onto the Great Wagon Road which looped north briefly around the rough hills. It also appears that wagon traffic in better weather used a ford almost at the mouth of Blackberry Creek (at the end of VA-698) instead of at Fieldale. The 1751 Frye-Jefferson map shows the Blackberry Creek location.[18]
VA-609 Dillons Fork Rd 2.5 A man named John Hickey had a peddler's license and ran a store and "ordinary" here at Rangely, Virginia in 1753. It was the last place to buy salt until beyond Winston-Salem, North Carolina.[37]
VA-683 The Great Rd + Meadowood Trail 4.5 In 1753, the original Wachovia settlers continued south along VA-683 (fording over Jordan Creek and Bassett Branch) to Preston Rd. Other travelers reportedly turned west onto VA-627 (Hodges Farm Rd) for 2 miles and then south on VA-687 (Preston Rd) to avoid creeks and swamps.[37]
VA-687 Preston Rd 5.5
US-58 Philpott Hwy 0.3
Horse Pasture, Virginia; Crossing of US-58 (Philpott Hwy) The original Wachovia settlers camped here on November 11, 1753.[38]
VA-694 Wagon Trail Rd 3.5
VA-692 Horsepasture-Price Rd 0.2
VA-692 Wagon Trail Rd 3.3 Passing over Horse Pasture Creek ford (now a culvert).
VA-695 George Taylor Rd 1.4
North Mayo River Ford (now a bridge)
VA-695 George Taylor Rd 3.6
South Mayo River Ford (now a bridge) The original Wachovia settlers camped here on November 12, 1753.[39]
VA-695 George Taylor Rd 1.2
Crooked Creek Ford (now a bridge)
VA-695 George Taylor Rd 0.4
North Carolina State Line (Estab. 1728); Stokes County Line (Estab. 1789)
NC-1630 Amostown Rd 0.6 In 1753, the original Wachovia settlers lost their way in this area and traveled slightly west of the Great Wagon Road.[40]
NC-1625 Amostown Rd 5.2
Sandy Ridge, North Carolina
NC-704 NC Hwy 704E 5.3
NC-772 NC Hwy 772 2
Dodgetown Community, North Carolina; Fork in The Great Wagon Road Some later wagons branched southwest here to ford the Dan River, initially following Dodgetown Road past Dillard Road, then down Glidewell Lane to a ford and then over Bumpy Hollow Road and Stewart Road to US-89 at Meadows, North Carolina. Wagons later followed Dodgetown Road and NC-1648 (Davis Chapel Church Road), crossing another ford (now a bridge) to reach Meadows, Danbury, or Walnut Cove, North Carolina.
NC-772 NC Hwy 772 3
Dillard Community, North Carolina
NC-772 NC Hwy 772 4.3
Hickory Fork Rd 1.9
Willard Rd 1.5 4-wheel drive now recommended from Willard Rd to Walnut Cove. Otherwise continue on Hickory Fork Rd south to US-311, then west to Walnut Cove.
Dan River Ford Impassable during flooding. The original Moravian settlers of Wachovia camped here November 13th, 14th, and 15th, in 1753, waiting for the floodwater to recede.[41] The land on the west side of the Dan River has been altered significantly for agriculture, but from the Moravian diary map it appears that wagons rolled through in the vicinity of NC-1718 (Saura Farm Road) and made their way up the hill (now Oldtown Road) to the Townfork settlement (now Walnut Cove and Germanton).[42]
NC-1718 Dirt track + Old Saura Rd 1
NC-1717 Tuttle Rd 1
US-311 US-311 + Oldtown Rd 2.4 Culvert with a small creek under US-311.
Walnut Cove, North Carolina (Estab. 1883) Some wagons may have forded Townfork Creek here and then followed NC-65 to rejoin the other wagon road path at Germanton, North Carolina.
Brook Cove Rd 5 Fording at Mills, Ash Camp, Voss, Watts, and Martin creeks. This is the area of the historic Townfork Creek Settlement.[42]
NC-8 NC-8 1
Ford at Townfork Creek (now a bridge)
NC-8 NC-8 0.6
Germanton, North Carolina (Estab. 1790); Forsyth County Line (Estab. 1849); Buffalo Creek Ford (now a bridge)
NC-8 NC-8 0.6
Fork in the Great Wagon Road Some later wagon traffic continued straight here on NC-65, through Rural Hall, North Carolina, to rejoin the old road at Bethania, North Carolina.
NC-8 Germanton Rd 2.3
Stanleyville Dr 5
University Parkway 0.1 Detour around houses.
Fork in the Great Wagon Road The Moravians cut a new road on November 17, 1753 from here to Bethabara, North Carolina. It is roughly followed by NC-4000 (University Drive) + NC-1672 (Hanes Mill Rd) + Bethany Station Rd to its end at Bethabara Rd (3 miles total).[43]
Ziglar Rd 2.3
Bethania - Rural Hall Rd 2.2
Bethania, North Carolina (Estab. 1759); Fork in the Great Wagon Road The Moravians cut a new road (NC-67 + NC-1688) to here from Bethabara in 1759 (bypassing Ziglar Rd and Bethania - Rural Hall Rd).
Main St 0.2
Bethania Rd 1.4
Crossing of NC-67 (Reynolda Rd)
Transou Rd 2
Pfafftown, North Carolina (Estab. 1786)
NC-1525 Yadkinville Rd 2.5
Vienna, North Carolina (Estab. 1794)
NC-1308 Lewisville-Vienna Rd Rd 3
Lewisville, North Carolina (Estab. c.1850); Fork of the Great Wagon Road The Moravians cut a wagon road from Salem to here in 1763 (present-day 1st Street + Country Club Dr. + Shallowford Rd). This opened an alternate path for the Great Wagon Road from Germanton through Bethabara and Salem to here.
NC-1001 Shallowford Rd 6.6
Shallow Ford (Yadkin River); Yadkin County Line (Estab. 1850) This is where the Great Wagon Road ended in 1748 when Morgan Bryan finished his trip and settled nearby on the east side of the river. Several years later he moved to the west side, near Farmington.


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