List of military occupations

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Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.[1][2][3][4] The intended temporary nature of occupation, when no claim for permanent sovereignty is made by the occupying entity, distinguishes occupation from annexation.[2][5]

In most wars, some territory is placed under the military government of a hostile army. Most belligerent military occupations end with the cessation of hostilities. In some cases, the occupied territory is returned and in other cases, the land remains under the control of the occupying power, and may be characterized as being under the jurisdiction of the "civil affairs administration of a military government."

For the purpose of selectivity, only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 are included in this article.


1907 to World War I[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Albania 1912 1913  Albania  Serbia
Nicaragua 1912 1933  Nicaragua  USA

World War I[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Belgium 1914 1918  Belgium  German Empire
Luxembourg 1914 1918  Luxembourg  German Empire
Northeastern France 1914 1918  France  German Empire
Lublin 1914 1918  Russian Empire  Austria-Hungary
Serbia 1914 1918  Serbia  Austria-Hungary
Montenegro 1914 1918[6]  Montenegro  Austria-Hungary
Albania 1914 1918[6]  Albania  Austria-Hungary
Northeastern Italy 1914 1918  Italy  Austria-Hungary
Eastern Galicia 1914 1918  Austria-Hungary  Russian Empire
Albania 1915 1917  Albania  Bulgaria
Parts of the Russian Empire 1914 1919  Russian Empire  German Empire
German South-West Africa (Namibia) 1915 1994  South Africa

Contemporaneous occupations[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Veracruz 1914 1914  Veracruz  USA
Haiti 1915 1934  Haiti  USA
Dominican Republic 1916 1924  Dominican Republic  USA
Cuba 1917 1922  Cuba  USA

Interbellum (1918–1939)[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Parts of Turkey 1919 1922[7]  Turkey  Greece,  France,  Italy, and  UK
Ruhr 1923 1924  Germany  France and  Belgium
Manchuria 1931 1945  Republic of China  Empire of Japan
Ethiopia 1935 1941  Ethiopia  Kingdom of Italy
Czechoslovakia 1938 1945  Czechoslovakia  Nazi Germany
Carpatho-Ukraine 1939 1944  Czechoslovakia

( Carpatho-Ukraine)[a]

 Hungary
Albania April 7, 1939 April 12, 1939  Albania[b]  Kingdom of Italy

World War II[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Poland 1939 1945[8]  Poland  Nazi Germany
Denmark 1940 1945  Denmark  Nazi Germany
Norway 1940 1945  Norway  Nazi Germany
Belgium 1940 1945  Belgium  Nazi Germany
Greece 1941 1944  Greece Axis powers
Belarus 1941 1944  Belarus  Nazi Germany
Netherlands 1940 1945  Netherlands  Nazi Germany
Luxembourg 1940 1945  Luxembourg  Nazi Germany
Northern France 1940 1944  France  Nazi Germany
Channel Islands 1940 1944  UK  Nazi Germany
Yugoslavia 1941 1945  Yugoslavia  Nazi Germany
Albania 1939 1945  Albania  Kingdom of Italy
Lithuania 1941 1944  Lithuania  Nazi Germany
Latvia 1941 1944  Latvia  Nazi Germany
Estonia 1941 1944  Estonia  Nazi Germany
Italy 1943 1945  Kingdom of Italy  Nazi Germany
Hungary 1944 1945  Hungary  Nazi Germany
Southeastern France 1940 1943  France  Kingdom of Italy
Faroe Islands 1940 1945  Denmark  UK
Iceland 1940 1945  Denmark- Iceland[c]  UK and  USA[d]
Parts of the Soviet Union 1941 1944  Soviet Union  Finland
Iran 1941 1946  Iran Allies
Libya 1943 1951  Libya Allies
Parts of China 1937 1945  Republic of China  Japan
Shanghai 1937 1945  Republic of China  Japan
Hong Kong 1941 1945  UK  Japan
Vietnam 1940 1945  France  Japan
Cambodia 1941 1945  France  Japan
Malaya 1941 1945  UK  Japan
British Borneo 1941 1945  UK  Japan
Singapore 1942 1945  UK  Japan
Philippines 1942 1945  Commonwealth of the Philippines  Japan
Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) 1942 1945  Netherlands  Japan
Burma (Myanmar) 1942 1945  UK  Japan
New Guinea 1942 1945  Australia[e]  Japan
Estonia 1940

1944

1941

1991

 Estonia[f][g]  Soviet Union
Latvia 1940

1944

1941

1991

 Latvia[h][i]  Soviet Union
Lithuania 1940

1944

1941

1991

 Lithuania[j][k]  Soviet Union
Eastern Poland 1939 1941  Poland[l]  Soviet Union
Finland 1939 1940  Finland  Soviet Union
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940 1941  Romania  Soviet Union
Romania 1944 1958  Romania  Soviet Union
Bulgaria 1944 1947  Bulgaria  Soviet Union
Hungary 1945 1991  Hungary  Soviet Union
Czechoslovakia 1945 1945  Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union
East Germany 1945 1949  East Germany  Soviet Union
Northern Iran 1945 1946  Iran  Soviet Union
Korea 1945 1948  Korea  Soviet Union
Allied-occupied Germany 1945 1949

1990[m]

 Germany Allied Control Council
Austria 1945 1955  Austria Allied Control Council

After World War II[edit]

Territory occupied From To Occupied state Occupying state
Japan 1945 1951  Japan Allies
Korea 1945 1948  Korea  USA and  Russia
Taiwan 1945 1952[11]  Japan  Republic of China
Parts of Vietnam 1945 1946  Vietnam  UK
Gaza Strip 1947

March 1957

October 1956

June 1967

Gaza Strip  Egypt
Sinai 1956 1956[12][13]  Egypt  France,  Israel, and  UK
Dominican Republic 1965 1966  Dominican Republic  USA and The Organization of American States
Sinai 1967 1982  Egypt  Israel
Czechoslovakia 1968 1968  Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact
East Pakistan 1971 1971  Pakistan  India
Laos 1971 1975  Laos  North Vietnam
East Timor 1975 1999  East Timor  Indonesia
Aouzou Strip 1976 1987  Chad  Libya
Parts of Lebanon 1976 2005  Lebanon  Syria
Southern Lebanon 1978 2000  Lebanon  Israel
Parts of Uganda 1978 1978  Uganda  Tanzania
Cambodia 1979 1989  Cambodia  Vietnam
Parts of Vietnam 1979 1979  Vietnam  China
Falkland Islands 1982 1982  UK  Argentina
Northern Sri Lanka 1987 1990  Sri Lanka  India
Maldives 1988 1988  Maldives  India
Panama 1989 1990  Panama  USA
Kuwait 1990 1991  Kuwait  Iraq
Haiti 1994 1995  Haiti  USA
Lesotho September 1998 May 1999  Lesotho  South Africa and Southern African Development Community
Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2002[14]  Democratic Republic of the Congo  Uganda,  Rwanda,  Zimbabwe,  Angola,  Namibia,  Chad, and  Sudan
Kargil District 1999 1999  India  Pakistan
Iraq 2003 2004  Iraq  NATO
Parts of Somalia December 2006 January 2009[15]  Somalia  Ethiopia
Gori and Poti 2008 2008  Georgia  Russia
Perevi 2008 2010  Georgia  Russia
Isla Calero October 2010 January 2011  Costa Rica  Nicaragua

Current[edit]

Territory occupied Since Occupied state Occupying state Status
Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
Artsvashen 1994  Armenia  Azerbaijan Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District
Barxudarlı 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province
Crimea 2014  Ukraine  Russia Annexed in 2014 during Crimean crisis
East Jerusalem 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
Gaza Strip 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel[n]
Golan Heights 1967  Syria  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law
Karki 1992  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province
Nagorno-Karabakh
(and surrounding territories)
1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Northern Cyprus 1974  Cyprus  Turkey Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with limited international recognition
South Ossetia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition
West Bank 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration and the Palestinian National Authority
Western Sahara 1975  Morocco Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Yuxarı Əskipara 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province

Secessionist states and territorial disputes[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia that declared independence on March 15, 1939. It was an unrecognized state.
  2. ^ It ended when the Albanian parliament voted to unite with Italy.
  3. ^ On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
  4. ^ On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
  5. ^ League of Nations mandate administered by Australia.
  6. ^ On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[9]
  7. ^ From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[10]
  8. ^ On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[9]
  9. ^ From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[10]
  10. ^ On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[9]
  11. ^ From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[10]
  12. ^ On August 16, 1945 the Communist-dominated Polish government signed a treaty with the USSR to formally cede these territories.
  13. ^ Berlin remained under formal military occupation until September 12, 1990 when the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany was signed
  14. ^ In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
References
  1. ^ A Roberts. Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967 - Am. J. Int'l L., 1990, p. 47.
  2. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-12130-3, ISBN 978-0-691-12130-7, p. xvi
  3. ^ Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv. Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  4. ^ During civil wars, the districts occupied by rebels are considered to be foreign.Military Government and Martial Law LLMC, p. 21. [1]
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein. Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  6. ^ a b Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Vol. 4
  7. ^ http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treaty_of_Lausanne
  8. ^ Under the terms of two decrees by Hitler (October 8 and October 12, 1939), large areas of western Poland were annexed by Germany. Much of the rest of Poland was organized into the Generalgouvernement (General Government) of Poland, under German administration, while eastern Poland was annexed by the Soviet Union. The annexations were not recognized by any other State.
  9. ^ a b c Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. BRILL. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. 
  10. ^ a b c Fried, Daniel (June 14, 2007). "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship". Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  11. ^ "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard (U.K. Parliament) 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation. 
  12. ^ On this Day: 23 December: 1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez, BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
  13. ^ The occupation of Sinai (1956)
  14. ^ Congo, Democratic Republic of the CIA Factbook
  15. ^ Joe De Capua Ethiopia marks yearlong occupation in Somalia, Voice of America, 24 December 2007