List of military occupations

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Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.[1][2][3][4] The intended temporary nature of occupation, when no claim for permanent sovereignty is made by the occupying entity, distinguishes occupation from annexation.[2][5]

In most wars, some territory is placed under the military government of a hostile army. Most belligerent military occupations end with the cessation of hostilities. In some cases, the occupied territory is returned and in other cases, the land remains under the control of the occupying power, and may be characterized as being under the jurisdiction of the "civil affairs administration of a military government."

For the purpose of selectivity, only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 are included in this article.

1907 to World War I

World War I[edit]

Contemporaneous occupations[edit]

Interbellum (1918–1939)[edit]

World War II[edit]

After World War II[edit]

Current[edit]

Territory occupied Since Occupied state Occupying state Status
Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian war; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition
Artsvashen 1994  Armenia  Azerbaijan Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District
Barxudarlı 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province
Crimea 2014  Ukraine  Russia Annexed in 2014 during Crimean crisis
East Jerusalem 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
Gaza Strip 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel[d]
Golan Heights 1967  Syria  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law
Karki 1992  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province
Nagorno-Karabakh
(and surrounding territories)
1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Northern Cyprus 1974  Cyprus  Turkey Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with limited international recognition
South Ossetia 2008  Georgia  Russia Seized during the Russo-Georgian war; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition
West Bank 1967  Palestine  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration and the Palestinian National Authority
Western Sahara 1975  Morocco Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Yuxarı Əskipara 1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province

Secessionist states and territorial disputes[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[9]
  2. ^ From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[10]
  3. ^ Berlin remained under formal military occupation until September 12, 1990 when the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany was signed
  4. ^ In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
References
  1. ^ A Roberts. Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967 - Am. J. Int'l L., 1990, p. 47.
  2. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-12130-3, ISBN 978-0-691-12130-7, p. xvi
  3. ^ Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv. Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  4. ^ During civil wars, the districts occupied by rebels are considered to be foreign.Military Government and Martial Law LLMC, p. 21. [1]
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein. Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  6. ^ a b Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Vol. 4
  7. ^ http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treaty_of_Lausanne
  8. ^ Under the terms of two decrees by Hitler (October 8 and October 12, 1939), large areas of western Poland were annexed by Germany. Much of the rest of Poland was organized into the Generalgouvernement (General Government) of Poland, under German administration, while eastern Poland was annexed by the Soviet Union. The annexations were not recognized by any other State.
  9. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. BRILL. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. 
  10. ^ Fried, Daniel (June 14, 2007). "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship". Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  11. ^ "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard (U.K. Parliament) 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. "The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation." 
  12. ^ Charney, Jonathan I.; Prescott, J. R. V. (2000). "Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan". American Journal of International Law 94 (3): 453–477. JSTOR 2555319. "After occupying Taiwan in 1945 as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in 1949, abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan." 
  13. ^ On this Day: 23 December: 1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez, BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
  14. ^ The occupation of Sinai (1956)
  15. ^ Congo, Democratic Republic of the CIA Factbook
  16. ^ Joe De Capua Ethiopia marks yearlong occupation in Somalia, Voice of America, 24 December 2007