List of military occupations
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign. The intended temporary nature of occupation, when no claim for permanent sovereignty is made by the occupying entity, distinguishes occupation from annexation.
In most wars, some territory is placed under the military government of a hostile army. Most belligerent military occupations end with the cessation of hostilities. In some cases, the occupied territory is returned and in other cases, the land remains under the control of the occupying power, and may be characterized as being under the jurisdiction of the "civil affairs administration of a military government."
For the purpose of selectivity, only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 are included in this article.
1907 to World War I
World War I
- Occupation of Belgium, Luxembourg, and Northeastern France by German Empire, 1914–1918 during World War I
- Austria-Hungarian occupation of Lublin, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, and Northeastern Italy, 1914–1918.
- Russian occupation of Eastern Galicia, 1914–1915
- Bulgarian occupation of Albania, 1915–1917
- Occupation of parts of the Russian Empire by German Empire in World War I
- Occupation of large parts of Turkish Empire by the Allies during World War I
- Occupation of German colonies by the Allies during World War I
- United States occupation of Veracruz, 1914
- United States occupation of Haiti, 1915–1934
- United States occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916–1924
- United States occupation of Cuba, 1917–1922
- Occupation of various parts of Turkey (1919–1922), by Greece, France, Italy and the United Kingdom
- Occupation of the Ruhr (1923–1924) by France and Belgium.
- Occupation of Manchuria (1931–1945) by Japan from Japanese invasion of Manchuria until the end of World War II.
- Occupation of Ethiopia (1935–1941) by Italy during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War until the East African Campaign (World War II)
- Occupation of eastern China (1937–1945) by Japan during the Sino-Japanese War.
- Occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) by Germany, 1938 Sudeten Land, 1939–1945 all of Czechoslovakia.
- Occupation of Carpatho-Ukraine (1939–1944) by Hungary.
- Occupation of Albania (April 4–12, 1939) by Italy, it ended when the Albanian parliament voted to unite with Italy.
World War II
- Occupation of European countries by Germany during World War II, 1939–1945
- Military-led administrations in occupied territories
- Occupation of Poland
- Occupation of Denmark
- Occupation of Norway
- Occupation of Belgium
- Occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers
- Occupation of Belarus
- Occupation of the Netherlands
- Occupation of Luxembourg
- Occupation of northern France
- Occupation of the Channel Islands
- Axis occupation of Yugoslavia
- Italian occupation of Albania
- Axis occupation of Greece
- Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
- Occupation of parts of the Soviet Union
- Occupation of parts of Italy (after Italy surrendered in 1943)
- Occupation of Hungary (after change of Government)
- Occupation of parts of southeastern France by Italy 1940–1943
- Occupation of the Faroe Islands on April 12, 1940 by the United Kingdom for the duration of World War II
- Occupation of Iceland on May 10, 1940 by the United Kingdom, and then subsequently by the United States from July 7, 1941 for the duration of World War II
- Occupation of the Italian colony of Eritrea by the Allies in 1941 until status changed to British protectorate
- Occupation of parts of the Soviet Union and Finland during the Continuation War 1941–1944
- Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran by the Allies in 1941
- Occupation of Libya, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and parts of Italy by the Allies
- Occupation of many parts of Asia and the Pacific by Japan during World War II
- Occupation of southeastern China
- Occupation of Shanghai
- Occupation of Hong Kong
- Occupation of Vietnam
- Occupation of Cambodia
- Occupation of Thailand
- Occupation of Malaya
- Occupation of British Borneo
- Occupation of Singapore
- Occupation of the Philippines
- Occupation of Indonesia
- Occupation of Burma
- Occupation of parts of New Guinea
- Occupation of many parts of Europe and Asia by the Soviet Union during and after World War II
- Eastern Bloc
- Occupation of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by the Soviet Union, 1940–1941; 1944-1991[a][b]
- Occupation of eastern Poland in 1939 by the Soviet Union
- Occupation of parts of Finland during the Winter War, 1939–1940 by the Soviet Union
- Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, 1940-1941
- Soviet occupation of Romania 1944 followed by the Allied Commission and the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
- Soviet occupation of Bulgaria 1944 followed by the Allied Commission and the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
- Soviet occupation of Hungary 1945 followed by the Allied Commission and the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
- Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia
- Soviet occupation of East Germany
- Occupation of Poland
- Soviet occupation of Afghanistan
- Soviet occupation of Northern Iran
- Soviet occupation of Korea
- Allied-occupied Germany by Allied Control Council, 1945-1990[c]
- Occupation of Austria at the end of World War II in Europe
After World War II
- Occupation of Japan, by the Allies, 1945–1951
- Occupation of Korea, by America and the Soviet Union, 1945–1948
- Occupation of Taiwan, by the Republic of China, 1945–present
- Occupation of parts of Vietnam by the United Kingdom, 1945-1946
- Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt (1947–October 1956, and March 1957–June 1967)
- Invasion of Tibet by People's Republic of China (October 1950)
- Occupation of parts of North and South Korea during the Korean War, 1950–1953
- Occupation of Suez by France, Britain and Israel, 1956
- Occupation of the Dominican Republic by the United States and the Organization of American States, 1965-1966
- Occupation of South Vietnam, parts of Cambodia and Laos during the Vietnam War by North Vietnam 1959-1976
- Occupation of the Sinai Peninsula by Israel, 1967-1982
- Occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact in 1968
- Occupation of East Pakistan by India in 1971
- Occupation of East Timor by Indonesia, 1975-1999
- Occupation of Aouzou Strip in Chad by Libya, 1976–1987
- Occupation of various parts of Lebanon by Syria, 1976–2005
- Occupation of parts of Uganda by Tanzania during the Uganda–Tanzania War, 1978–1979
- Occupation of various parts of Lebanon by Israel, 1978–2000
- Occupation of Cambodia by Vietnam, 1979–1989
- Occupation of parts of Vietnam by China during the Sino-Vietnamese War of 1979
- Occupation of the Falkland Islands by Argentina during the Falklands War 1982
- Occupation of Northern Sri Lanka by India in 1987-1990
- Occupation of Maldives by India in 1988
- Occupation of Panama by the United States 1989-1990
- Occupation of Kuwait by Iraq during the Gulf War, 1990–1991
- Occupation of parts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegowina by the Yugoslav Army and Serb paramilitary forces during the Yugoslav Wars 1991-1995
- Occupation of Haiti by the United States, following Operation Uphold Democracy 1994-1995
- Occupation of parts of Eritrea and Ethiopia during the Eritrean–Ethiopian War 1998–2002
- Occupation of Lesotho by South Africa during the South African intervention in Lesotho, (September 1998–May 1999)
- Occupation of parts of Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) by Uganda, Ruanda, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan during and after the Second Congo War of 1998–2002
- Occupation of Kargil by Pakistan in 1999
- Occupation of Iraq by the NATO 2003-2004 (see United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546)
- Occupation of parts of Somalia by Ethiopia. December 2006-January 2009 (Ethiopian intervention in Somalia)
- Occupation of Gori, Poti and other areas in Georgia by Russia during and after the Russo-Georgian War in 2008.
- Occupation of Perevi, a town in Georgia, by Russia after the Russo-Georgian War in 2008-2010.
- Occupation of Isla Calero of Costa Rica by Nicaragua (October, 2010 – January, 2011)
|Territory occupied||Since||Occupied state||Occupying state||Status|
|Abkhazia||2008||Georgia||Russia||Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)|
|Artsvashen||1994||Armenia||Azerbaijan||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District|
|Barxudarlı||1994||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province|
|Crimea||2014||Ukraine||Russia||Annexed in 2014 during Crimean crisis|
|East Jerusalem||1967||Palestine||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law|
|Gaza Strip||1967||Palestine||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel[d]|
|Golan Heights||1967||Syria||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law|
|Karki||1992||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province|
(and surrounding territories)
|1994||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Northern Cyprus||1974||Cyprus||Turkey||Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with limited international recognition|
|Paracel Islands||1974||People's Republic of China||Seized after the Battle of the Paracel Islands; claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam|
|South Ossetia||2008||Georgia||Russia||Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)|
|Transnistria||1992||Moldova||Russia||Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|West Bank||1967||Palestine||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration and the Palestinian National Authority|
|West Papua||1963||Indonesia||Annexed after the disputed Act of Free Choice; annexation was recognized internationally; however, this caused Papua conflict; indigenous Papuans and some sources consider West Papua to be occupied|
|Western Sahara||1975||Morocco||Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Yuxarı Əskipara||1994||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province|
Secessionist states and territorial disputes
- For a list of states that have seceded unilaterally see List of states with limited recognition
- For a list of cases where territory is disputed between countries, see List of territorial disputes
- Peacekeeping - military deployments for peace-keeping purposes
- CSDP missions – foreign non-belligerent military missions of the European Union
Footnotes and references
- On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.
- From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.
- Berlin remained under formal military occupation until September 12, 1990 when the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany was signed
- In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
- A Roberts. Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967 - Am. J. Int'l L., 1990, p. 47.
- Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-12130-3, ISBN 978-0-691-12130-7, p. xvi
- Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv. Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
- During civil wars, the districts occupied by rebels are considered to be foreign.Military Government and Martial Law LLMC, p. 21. 
- David M. Edelstein. Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
- Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Vol. 4
- Under the terms of two decrees by Hitler (October 8 and October 12, 1939), large areas of western Poland were annexed by Germany. Much of the rest of Poland was organized into the Generalgouvernement (General Government) of Poland, under German administration, while eastern Poland was annexed by the Soviet Union. The annexations were not recognized by any other State.
- Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. BRILL. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
- Fried, Daniel (June 14, 2007). "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship". Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard (U.K. Parliament) 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. "The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation."
- Charney, Jonathan I.; Prescott, J. R. V. (2000). "Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan". American Journal of International Law 94 (3): 453–477. JSTOR 2555319. "After occupying Taiwan in 1945 as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in 1949, abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan."
- On this Day: 23 December: 1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez, BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
- The occupation of Sinai (1956)
- Congo, Democratic Republic of the CIA Factbook
- Joe De Capua Ethiopia marks yearlong occupation in Somalia, Voice of America, 24 December 2007
- "West Papua: Report details genocide by Austalian-backed occupiers". Green Left Weekly. 29 October 2013.